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Full text of "Forest protection in Canada, 1912-1914"

JUN 2 6 193S 



Commission of Conservation 



Constituted under " The Conservation Act," 8-9 Edward Vll, Chap. 27, 1909, and 
amending Acts. 9-JO I^d^vard I'll, Cltaf. 42, 1010, and 3-^ George V, 

Chap. 1^, 191S. 



Chairman: 

Sir Clifford Sifton, K.C.M.G. 

Members: 

Hox. AuBiN E. Arsenault, Summerside, P.E.I. 

Dr. Howard Murray, Dalhousie Universit}', Halifax, N.S. 

Dk. Cecil C. Jones. Chancellor, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, 

N.B. 
Mr. William B. Snowball, Chatham, N.B. 
Hon. Henri S. Beland, M.D., M.P., St. Joseph-de-Beauce, Que. 
Dr. Frank D. .Apams, Dean, Faculty of Applied Science, McGill University, 

Montreal, Que. 
Mgr. Charles P. Croquette, St. Hyacinthe. Que., Professor, Seminary of 

St. Hyacinthe and Member of Faculty, Laval University. 
Mr. Edward Gohier, St. Laurent, Que. 
Dr. James W. Robertson. C.^LG., Ottawa, Ont. 
Hon. Senator William Cameron Edwards, Ottawa, Ont. 
Sir Edmund B. Osler, ^LP., Toronto. Ont. 
Mr. Charles A. McCool, Pembroke, Ont. 

Mr. John F. McKay, Business Manager. "The Globe," Toronto, Ont. 
Dr. Bernhard E. Fernow, Dean. Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto 

Toronto, Ont. 
Dr. George Bryce, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. 
Dr. William J. Rutherford, Member of Faculty, University of Saskatche 

wan, Saskatoon, Sask. 
Dr. Henry M. Tory, President, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. 
Mr. John Hendry, Vancouver, B.C. 

Members, ex-officio: 

Hox. Martin Burrell. Minister of Agriculture. Ottawa. 

Hon. William J. Roche, Minister of the Interior, Ottawa. 

Hon. p. E. Blondin. Minister of Mines, Ottawa. 

Hon. John A. Mathieson, K.C, Premier, President and Attorney-General, 

Prince Edward Island. 
Hon. Orlando T. Daniels, Attorney-General, Nova Scotia. 
Hon. George J. Clarke. Premier and Minister of Lands and Mines, New 

Brunswick. 
Hon. Jules Allard, Minister of Lands and Forests, Que1)ec. 
Hon. G. H. Ferguson, Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, Ontario. 
Hon. .\. B. Hudson, Attorney-General, Manitoba. 

Hon. James A. Calder, Minister of Railways and Highways, Saskatchewan. 
Hon. Arthur L. Sifton, Premier, Minister of Railways and Telephones, 

Alberta. 
Hon. William R. Ross. Minister of Lands, British Columbia. 

Assistant to Chairman and Deputy Head: 

Mr. James White. 



Commission of Conservation 
Canada 

COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 



FOREST PROTECTION 

IN CANADA 

1913-1914 



Compiled under the direction of 
CLYDE LEAVITT. M.Sc.F. 

Chief Forester^ Commission of Conservation 

and 

Chief Fire Inspector^ Board of Railway Cotnmissioners 

Associated with 

C. D. HOWE, Ph.D., and J. H. WHITE, B.A., B.Sc.F. 



1915 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM BRIGGS 

TORONTO 



Committee on Forests 



Senator W. C. Edwards, Chairvian 

Dr. Frank D. Adams 

Dr. B. E. Fernovv 

Mr. John Hendry 

Hon. William J. Roche 

Mr. W. B. Snowball 



ERINDALE 


COLLEGE 


LIBRARY 



To Fidi^d-Marshal, His Royal Highness Prince Arthur Wiwam 
"^Patrick Albert, Duke oe Connaught and of Stratheari^, ,. 
' KG., K.T., K.P., &c., &c., Governor General oe Canada 

May lO^^PtEASE Your Royal Highness: ..^.-t-o 

■T!ie toderigned has the honour to lay before Your Rpyd 
riirfirifes^ the attached report on ''Forest Protection in Canada, ^913: 
19U^'' which was compiled by Clyde Leavitt, Chief Forester ^of, the. 
Commission of Conservation, and Chief Fire Inspector, Board of 
Railway Commissioners, associated with C. D. Howe, Ph.D., and 
J. H. White, B-.^.>'B.SC;F;-' 
\>; '■■■''■' i--v - ■■ '■ ■ ■ ~ Respectfully submitted 

CLIFFORD SIFTON 

' • ' " Chairmcin. ■ . /,>-<, 

Ottawa, November 10, 1915: 



Ottawa, Canada 

November 9, 1915 
Sir: 

I beg to submit the attached report of Mr. Clyde Leavitt, the 
Chief Forester of the Commission of Conservation. Mr. Leavitt, in 
submitting his report, said : 

" I have the honour to submit the accompanying report, which 
contains information collected under the direction of the Committee 
on Forests during the years 1913 and 1914. That portion of the report 
which relates to the railway fire situation in Canada was prepared 
principally in my capacity as Chief Fire Inspector for the Board of 
Railway Commissioners." 

Respectfully submitted 

JAMES WHITE 
Assistant to Chairman and Deputy Head 



SiK CwPFORD SirroN, K.C.M.G. 
Chairman 

Commission of Conservation, Ottawa 



▼I 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Par'!' I. The Railway Fire Situation, by Clyde Leavitt 1 

General Order No. 107, B.R.C 4 

Changes made by General Order No. 107 9 

Jurisdiction of Board 10 

Railway Lines Subject to Board 10 

Railway Lines Subject to Board by Provinces 12 

Steam Railways Not Subject to Bo.a.rd 14 

Organization 15 

Co-operation with British Columbia Forest Branch.. 16 

Dominion Forestry Branch 16 

Dominion Parks Branch 17 

Fire Guard Inspection, Alberta 17 

Fire Guard Inspection, Saskatchewan 18 

Ontario 18 

Quebec 18 

New Brunswick 19 

Nova Scotia 19 

Railway Fire Patrols 19 

Canadian Northern railway Patrols 21 

Requirements of Board 21 

Canadian Pacific railway (Western lines) 25 

Grand Trunk Pacific railway 29 

Great Northern railway (British Columbia) 31 

Kettle Valley railway (British Columbia) 32 

Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway (Vancouver Island, 

B.C.) 32 

Victoria and Sidney railway (Vancouver Island, B.C.) 33 
Edmonton, Dunvegan and British Columbia railway 

(Alberta) 33 

Canadian Pacific railway (Eastern lines) 34 

Grand Trunk railway 35 

Canadian Northern Ontario railway 35 

Canadian Northern Quebec railway 35 

Temiscouata railway 35 

Velocipede vs. Power Speeder Patrols 35 

Summary of Fire Reports 38 

Statistics of Fire Reports 340 

Instructions to Railway Employees 44 

Inspection of Fire Protective Appliances 44 

vii 



CONTENTS— Continued 

PAGE 

Locomotive Fuel 44 

Right-of-way Clearing 45 

Clearing Outside Rights-of-way 46 

Fire Guard Construction, 1913 50 

Instructions of Board 51 

Synopsis of Variations from 1912 54 

Stubble Fire Guarding — Instructions of Board 55 

Fire Guarding, Season of 1914 58 

Fire Guard Requirements of Board 58 

Variations in Requirements in 1914 63 

Results have Proven Satisfactory 64 

Summary of Fire Guard Construction 66 

Fire Protection in Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick 
ALONG THE Lines of the Canadian Pacific railway, 

season of 1914, by B. M. Winegar 67 

New Brunswick Fairly Satisfactory 67 

Quebec has Difficult Conditions 67 

Ontario Conditions Very Unsatisfactory 68 

Canadian Pacific railway Fire Protection 68 

Letter to General Superintendents 69 

Circular No. 8 to Officers and Employees 70 

Part II. Reports of the Committee on Forests of the Commission of 

Conservation, by Clyde Leavitt 72 

Report of Committee for 1913 72 

- Railway Fire Protection Work 72 

Fire Guards in Prairie Provinces 73 

Railways not Subject to Board of Railway Com- 
missioners 74 

Investigation of Forest Resources 75 

Inventory of Forest Resources Commenced 75 

Study of Forest Reproduction 76 

Dominion Forest Reserve Extension 77 

Protection of Forested Watersheds 77 

Additions to Dominion Forest Reserves 78 

Trent Watershed Survey 79 

Watershed of Trent Canal 79 

Forest Staff Under Civil Service Commission 80 

Forestry on Dominion Timber Berths 80 

Brush Disposal as Fire Preventive 81 

Lack of Technical Supervision 82 

Recommendations of Committee on Forests, 1913 82 

Report of Committee on Forests for 1914 84 

Inventory of Forest Resources 84 

The Work in British Columbia 85 

Progress in Saskatchewan 85 

Estimate for Manitoba and Alberta 86 

^^ Reproduction Study in British Columbia 86 

Repeated Fires Destroy Valuable Species 87 



CONTENTS — Continued 

PAGE 

Railway Fire Protection 87 

Co-operation in Fire Protection 88 

Lines Brought Under Railway Board 88 

Reduction oe Railway Fire Hazard 89 

Burning otf Slash Required 89 

Co-operation Secltres Good Results 89 

Dominion Forest Reserves 90 

Civil Service Reeorm 9| 

Forestry on Dominion Lands ^1 

Forest Reserves in Ontario 92 

Protection oe Watersheds 93 

Trent Watershed 93 

Value as Demonstration 94 

Wider Use of Western Coal 95 

Co-operative Fire Protection 95 

Game Preservation 96 

Scientific Investigations 96 

Resolutions of Committee on Forests, 1914 97 

Part IIL Forest Fires and the Brush Disposal Problem 100 

Introduction by Clyde Leavitt 100 

Disposal of Logging Slash in British Columbia, by R. E. 

Benedict 1^^ 

Forest Regions of British Columbia 102 

Douglas Fir Coast Region 103 

Northern Coast Region , 104 

Interior Wet Belt Region 106 

Yellow Pine Region 107 

Rocky Mountain and Plateau Region 108 

Fraser Basin Region 110 

Northern Interior Region Ill 

Summary of Timber Areas HI 

Most Important Forest Problem 112 

Government Forest Policy 114 

Timber Sales and Railway Permits 114 

Slash Disposal on Timber Leases and Licenses 115 

Letter of Forest Branch to Operators 115 

Removal of Slash to Reduce Fire Hazard 117 

Reports on Fire Dangers 117 

Fire in Industrial Operations 118 

Inspections by District Foresters 120 

Cranbrook District, by J. D. Gilmour 121 

Vernon District, by L. R. Andrews 123 

Kamloops District, by P. Z. Caverhill 125 

TeTE Jaune District, by C. MacFayden 127 

Supplementary, by H. B. Murray 129 

Brush Disposal in the Railway Belt of British Columbia, 

by D. Roy Cameron 129 

Alberta, by W. N. Millar 132 

Saskatchewan, by G. A. Gutches 135 

ix 



CONTENTS Conlimied 

PAGE 

Manitoba, by F. K. Herchmer 137 

Brush Disposal ix Eastern Provinces 138 

Ontario 138 

Quebec 139 

Cost of Top-lopping, by Ellwood Wilson and D. W. Lusk. . 140 

Statistical Tables 143 

XoTES on Situation in the United States : Some Sugges- 
tions ON Brush Disposal, by Elers Koch 147 

Situation in National Forests in Minnesota, Michigan, 

South Dakota, Colorado and Wyoming 152 

State Work in Brush Disposal, Minnesota, by W. T. Cox 157 

National Forests in Washington and Oregon 159 

State Work in Brush Disposal — Washington 160 

The Northern Peninsula of Michigan 162 

Top-lopping in the Adirondacks 162 

The Entomological Aspect of Slash Disposal, by Ralph 

Hopping 163 

Part IV. The Effect of Repeated Forest Fires upon the Reproduction 
of Commercial Species in Peterborough County, 

Ontario, by C. D. Howe, Ph.D 166 

Object of the Work and Conclusions in Brief 166 

Introduction- 168 

Basis of Classification 169 

Many Smaller Fires 170 

Physiographic Conditions 171 

General Description of Territory 171 

Rapid Erosion of Soil 172 

Forest Conditions 173 

Areas Severely Burned Once 174 

Statistical Tables 176 

Areas Severely Burned Twice 179 

Statistical Tables 180 

Areas Severely Burned Three Times 183 

Statistical Tables 184 

Areas Severely Burned Many Times 186 

Statistical Tables 188 

Summary of Forest Conditions 190 

Statistical Tables 190 

Growth Studies 192 

Financial Losses by Forest Fires 197 

Future Production of Pine 198 

Great Loss of Stumpage Values 199 

Fire Protection 201 

Forest Protection Can be Secured 201 

Value of Protection not Appreciated 202 

Suggested Means of Protection 203 

Results of Protection 203 

Fire Prevention and Education 204 

Permanent Benefits to be Derived 204 



CONTENTS — Continued 

PAGE 

Recommendations 205 

Agricultural Possibilities 205 

Market Gardens and Swamps 206 

Reaching the Markets 207 

Forest Policy Should be Devised 207 

Plans for Control of Area 208 

Re-Planting of Pine Necessary 209 

Forest Experimental Station 210 

Part V. The Reproduction of Commercial Species in the Southern 
Coastal Forests of British Columbia, by C. D. 

Howe, Ph.D 212 

Object of the Work and Conclusions 212 

Nature of the Investigations 213 

Mature Forests 214 

Young Forests 217 

Douglas Fir Predominant 218 

Hemlock Predominant 219 

Cedars are Short-lived 220 

Effect of Various Agencies upon Forest Reproduction.. 221 

Logging Without Burning 221 

Logging With Burning 222 

Under- Vegetation 226 

Recommendations 228 

Part VL Forestry on Dominion Lands, by J. H. White, M.A., B.Sc.F... 231 

Introduction 231 

Dominion Forests 232 

Dominion Lands 232 

Forest Regions 233 

Lumbering Industry 234 

Forest Conditions on Dominion Lands in Manitoba 236 

Timber Berths 236 

Forest Reserves 236 

Riding Mountain Reserve 237 

Other Reserves 238 

Suggested Management 239 

Forest Conditions on Dominion Lands in Saskatchewan. 239 

Timber Berths 240 

Forest Reserves 240 

Forest Conditions on Dominion Lands in Alberta 241 

Timber Berths 241 

Rocky Mountains Forest Reserve 242 

Lesser Slave Lake Reserve 245 

^ Forest Conditions on Dominion Lands in British 

Columbia 246 

The Railway Belt 246 



CONTENTS — Continued 

PACit 

Forest Protection on Dominion Lands 250 

Within Forest Reserves 250 

Outside Reserves : Manitoba, Saskatchewan and 

Alberta 250 

Railway Belt of British Columbia 253 

Provisions for Slash Disposal 253 

Actual Costs oe Brush Disposal 255 

Administration of Dominion Forests 256 

Timber Branch 256 

Forestry Branch 257 

Parks Branch 259 

Disposal of Dominion Timber 259 

Early License Regulations 259 

Present License Regulations 261 

Efficiency of License Regulations 262 

Permits ( Outside Reserves) 266 

Disposal Within Reserves 268 

Disposal Within Parks 270 

Summary 270 

Appendix — 

Regulations Governing the Granting of Yearly Licenses and 
Permits to Cut Timber on Dominion Lands 275 



xll 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Heavy Stand of Douglas Fir, Hemlock and Cedar Frontispiece 

EACING PAGE 
o 

Effect of Repeated Forest Fires 

Fire Hazard on Railway Right-of-way 

Heavy Forest Growth Immediately Adjacent to Newly-Constructed ^^ 

Railway - , 

Another Portion of the Same Line 

Tank Car Constructed by the Grand Trunk Railway ^» 

The Same Car Being Tested ^° 

Railway Fire Patrolman with Velocipede ^° 

Railway Fire Patrolman with Power Speeder ^o 

Kettle Valley Railway Right-of-way 46 

Brush Piling Along Tote Road •_ • ■ • 

Tie Slash in Connection with Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Con- 

54 

struction _ 

Railway Right-of-way After the Cutting of Grass ^4 

Fire Hazard in Algonquin Park, Ontario ^4 

Fire Hazard Along Provincial Government Wagon Road 64 

Heavy Logging Slash, Douglas Fni Coast Type JOO 

Inflammable Logging Debris in Northern Coast Type jOO 

Brush Piled on Timber Sale ^ 

Tie Piles and Slash Resulting from Tie-cutting Operations 114 

Logging Slash Before Burning • |J° 

A Portion of the Same Tract after Broadcast Slash Burning 118 

Slash Burning by Settlers Under Permit 126 

The Burning of Piles of Brush Resulting from Wagon Road Con- 
struction 

Heavy Lumbering Slash Before Piling and Burning 136 

Piling and Burning Slash on Logging Area 136 

A Progressive Lumbering Operation 152 

Selection Cutting of Lodgepole Pine 1^2 

General ^iew of an Area Burned Three Times 176 

Root Collars of Poplars Repeatedly Burned are Swollen and Tuberous. 176 

General View of Area Burned Many Times 184 

Burned Many Times 1^'* 

Section of a Tree to Show How the Dates of Fires are Ascertained. . 198 

Fire-scarred Poplars 202 

Stumps Showing Size of Former Forest Growth 202 

Reproduction of White Pine and Poplar on Area Burned Once 208 

General View of an Area Burned Twice 208 

A Ground Fire Burning the Slash 212 

The Probable Condition of the Area After Twelve Years 212 

A Stand of Douglas Fir About 100 Years Old • • 218 

xiii 



ILLUSTRATIONS— C^n^inwgflf 

facing page 

This Area has been Burned Twice 218 

This Area Had 2,000 Young Trees Per Acre 224 

Burned Several Times 224 

Slash Left on the Ground After Logging 228 

Young Fir Trees on an Area Logged and Burned Off 228 

Mature Spruce-Aspen Type 232 

The Sandy Areas of the North are Occupied by the Jackpine Type 22>1 

Cordwood Permit Operations in Northern Saskatchewan 238 

An Adjoining Operation 238 

Typical Slash after a Lumbering Operation 246 

Area Lumbered Twelve Years Ago 246 

-Mature Stand of Lodgepole Pine and Engelmann Spruce 262 

Interior of the Same 262 

Spruce Reproduction Under Poplar 270 

Fifteen Years Later 270 



MAPS AND DIAGRAMS 



facing page 

Applied Forestry 72 

Forest Region Map of Southern British Columbia 102 

Forest Fires in Burleigh and Methuen Townships, Peterborough 

County, Ontario (Map) 166 

Numerical Proportion of Reproduction of Various Species on the Aver- 
age Acre in Order of the Number of Times Burned 191 

Forecasted Yield of Poplar per Acre, 30 Years from the Present 
Date, According to the Number of Times Burned 197 



PART I 
The Railway Fire Situation 

BY 
Cl,YDE LSAVITT 

Chief Fire Inspector, Board of Railway Commissioners, and 
Chief Forester, Commission of Conservation 

THE Board of Railway Commissioners has jurisdiction over about 
85 per cent of the railway mileage of the Dominion. 

The outstanding feature of the railway fire situation in 1913 was 
the extension to eastern Canada of the fire protective organization of 
the Board of Railway Commissioners. Co-operative arrangements 
were entered into whereby certain officials of the forest fire 
protective organizations of Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick were 
appointed officers of the Fire Inspection Department of the Board. 
This co-operation was continued and extended during 1914. Co-opera- 
tion in Nova Scotia has been delayed, pending the appointment of a pro- 
vincial Forester, for which, however, provision has been made by law. 
Co-operation in the west, with the Dominion Forestry and Parks 
Branches and the British Columbia Forest Branch, was continued and 
extended during both years, in accordance with the policy and pro- 
cedure developed in 1912. 

In general, the organization has fully demonstrated that it has 
passed the experimental stage, and has justified its existence by a more 
adequate handling of the patrol, right-of-way clearing and fire-guarding 
features of the Board's requirements than had previously been prac- 
ticable. The results secured have amply justified the efforts made, 
and show that the practically complete solution of the railway fire 
problem may be expected with the steady increase in efficiency of the 
inspection stafif, made available under the co-operative arrangements 
in effect between the Board and the fire protective organizations of 
the Dominion and Provincial Governments, coupled with the natural 
increase in the efficiency " '" the fire protection work of the railways. 

It has been shown conclusively that in a broad way the efficiency 
of the fire protective measures of most of the railway companies is 



2 C O M .M I S S I O N OF CONSERVATION 

in direct ratio to the efficiency and sufficiency of the inspection staff 
made available for the field work of the Fire Inspection Department 
of the Board. The necessity for so close a supervision, through a 
large inspectorial organization, will no doubt disappear to a consider- 
able extent in future years, in the case of those railways whose officials 
and employees are genuinely impressed with the fact that the efficient 
prevention of fire is the highest type of business policy, and where a 
special organization is developed for the handling of fire protection 
work. Special organization for this work is almost imperative, if 
efficient results are to be secured, in the case of any except the smaller 
railway lines. 

Fire protection has, in the past, been something apart from the regu- 
lar routine of railway operation, and it, naturally, requires time and a 
distinct effort to secure complete compliance with the various instruc- 
tions issued by managing officials of railway companies, under the 
requirements of the Board. In too many cases, the mere issuance of 
a circular of instructions, relative to fire protection, to railway 
employees may not be followed by the complete observance of these 
instructions, including the exercise of sufficient care in the use of fire 
in right-of-way clearing, and the extinguishing of fires having an acci- 
dental origin. Some provision for the following up of these instruc- 
tions is needed, especially in the beginning; and in the case of a large 
organization, the development of a speciah department, or at least the 
assignment of one or more special inspectors, is highly desirable. In 
the absence of such voluntary provision by the railway company, it 
is obvious that a relatively large inspection staff must be provided 
by the Dominion or Provincial Government agency concerned, until 
such time as full compliance with the various requirements can be 
reliably secured otherwise. 

There is great encouragement in the fact that, as a measure of good 
business policy, some of the railways are beginning to develop special 
organizations for the handling of fire protection work. The Canadian 
Northern and Canadian Pacific railways are the pioneers in this direc- 
tion. In 1913 the Canadian Northern organized a department of fire 
protection, in charge of an expert, and the results are clearly evident 
in the greatly increased efficiency of the fire protection work along 
their lines. In the same year the Forestry branch of the Canadian 
Pacific railway appointed three special fire inspectors for its Western 
lines, and three men were similarly assigned on Eastern lines in 1914. 
Thus far the functions of these men have been purely of an inspec- 
torial character, working in close co-operation with the respective 
operating departments. Since these two companies have fully demon- 



THE RAILWAY F I R E S I T U A T I O N 3 

strated the valued of special organization in handling fire protection 
work, the adoption of similar measures by other railway companies 
may confidently be" expected in the _ future, , \ - 

• While, on 'the whole, Canada undoubtedly has a strong lead over 
the United States, so far as ef^cient railway fire protection hy the rail- 
ways themselves is concerned, some of the American railway lines 
have voluntarily, from motives of economy, taken vigorous action in 
securing ef^cient fire protection by railway employees. As a result 
of serious fire losses, resulting in large damage claims, a special depart- 
ment was organized in 1912 by the Boston and Maine railroad, and 
stringent instructions to all officials and employees were put into effect. 
As a result, the department of fire claims of that railway reports that 
settlements of fire claims in 1912 aggregated about $30,000, or nearly 
$200,000 less than during the previous year. In 1913, which was a rela- 
tively bad fire year in that section, payments for fire claims totalled 
nearly $70,000, or less than one-third the payments in 1911, before the 
appointment of the commissioner of fire claims. The aggregate for 1913 
included $10,318 for a fire not set by locomotives, but which got beyond 
the control of the railway employees when burning slash, etc., which 
was not cleared away after the lumber was cut on property adjoining 
the right-of-way. It also includes $5,230 for claims originating prior 
to March 1, 1912, when the fire claims department was organized. 
These figures are highly suggestive of what fire loss means to the com- 
pany, and demonstrate what may be accomplished through a systematic 
scheme of fire prevention. 

Another example is the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railway, 
which, in 1911 and 1912, undertook a special campaign for improve- 
ment in matters of fire protection. In 1910, the company had claims 
for 1,509 fire losses, aggregating $100,605. In 1911, there were 574 
fires, with claims amounting to $51,000. In the fiscal year 1912, the 
number of fires had been reduced to 135, and the expenditure for pay- 
ment of claims to only $6,000. 

-, , ^ , Following the issuance of Order No. 16,570, under 
General Order , ^ . ° o-. ir^o i • • . . . 

No. 107 '^^'-^ °^ ^^y ^^' 1912, objections to certam provisions 

of the order were made by the Canadian Pacific, Cana- 
dian Northern, and Grand Trunk Pacific railways. They claimed 
that some of the provisions in question were impracticable and would 
impose an unreasonable burden of expense upon the companies ; also, 
that certain others were beyond the jurisdiction of the Board, as 
conferred by the Railway Act. 

The Board considered, very carefully the various objections, and 
finally decided that, while some of the points were not well taken, some. 



4 COMMISSION OF COXSERVATIOX 

modification might be made as to others ; thus removing even the sem- 
blance of a basis for a charge of arbitrariness, without impairing the 
efficiency of the order, while, at the same time, doing away with the 
necessity for final consideration by the Supreme Court of the complaint 
by the railways respecting lack of jurisdiction on the part of the Board. 
The result was the issuance of General Order No. 107, as follows. 

THE BOARD OF RAILWAY COMMISSIONERS FOR CANADA 
General Order No. 107 

Friday the Jfth day of July, A.D. 1913 

H. L. Drayton, K.C. 

Chief Commissioner 
D'Arcy Scott 

Asst. Chief Commissioner 
James Mills 

Commissioner 
A. S. GOODEVE 

Commissioner 

In the Matter of the Order of the Board No. 16,570, dated May 
22nd, 1912; and the application by the Canadian Pacific, the 
Grand Trunk, the Canadian Northern, and the Grand Trunk 
Pacific Railway Companies to amend said Order. 

Upon the hearing of the application at the sittings of the Board, 
held in the city of Ottawa, July 3, 1913, the Railway Companies inter- 
ested, the Commission of Conservation, and the Government of the 
Province of British Columbia being represented by Counsel at the 
hearing, and what was alleged ; and upon the report and recommenda- 
tion of the Chief Operating Officer and the Chief Fire Inspector of 
the Board — 

It is Ordered as follows : 

1. Order No. 16,570, dated ]May 22, 1912, is hereby rescinded. 

2. Until further order, every railway subject to the legislative 
authority of the Parliament of Canada under construction or being 
operated by steam, shall, unless exempted by a special order of the 
Board, cause every locomotive engine used on the said railway, or por- 
tion of railway, being constructed or operated by it, to be fitted and 
kept fitted with netting mesh as hereinafter set forth, namely : 

(a) On every engine equipped with an extension smoke box, the 
mesh shall not be larger than 2^x2^/2 per inch of No. 10 Birmingham 
wire gauge, and shall be placed in the smoke box so as to extend 
completely over the aperture through which 'the smoke ascends, the 
openings of the said mesh not to exceed a quarter of an inch and one- 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 5 

sixty-fourth (that is, seventeen sixty-fourths) of an inch to the 
square. 

(&) On every engine equipped with a diamond stack, the mesh 
shall not be more than 3x3 per inch of No. 10 Birmingham wire 
gauge, and shall be placed at the flare of the diamond of the stack, so 
as to cover the same completely, the openings of said mesh not to 
exceed three-sixteenths and one sixty-fourth (that is, thirteen sixty- 
fourths) of an inch to the square. 

3. Every such railway company shall cause: 

(a) The openings of the ash pans on every locomotive engine used 
on the railway, or portion of railway, operated or being constructed 
by it, to be covered, when practicable, with heavy sheet iron dampers ;- 
and, if not practicable, with screen netting dampers 2^ x 2^ per 
inch of No. 10 Birmingham wire gauge, such dampers to be fastened 
either by a heavy spring or by a split cotter and pins, or by such other 
method as may be approved by the Board. 

(b) Overflow pipes from lifting injectors, or from water pipes 
from injector-delivery pipe, or from boiler, to be put into the front 
and back part of the ash pans and used from the first day of April 
to the first day of November, or during such portion of this period 
as the Board may prescribe, for wetting ash pans. 

4. Every such railway company shall provide inspectors at terminal 
or divisional points where its locomotive engines are housed and re- 
paired; and cause them, in addition to the duties to which they may 
be assigned by the officials of the railway companies in charge of such 
terminal or divisional points, — 

(a) To examine at least once a week, 

(1) The nettings; 

(2) Dead plates; 

(3) Ash pans; 

(4) Dampers; 

(5) Slides; and 

(6) Any other fire-protective appliance or appliances used 

on any and all engines running into the said ter- 
minal or divisional points. 

(b) To keep a record of every inspection in a book to be fur- 
nished by the railway company for the purpose, showing: 

(1) The numbers of the engines inspected; 

(2) The date and hour of day of such inspection; 

(3) The condition of the said fire-protective appliances and 

arrangements, and 

(4) A record of repairs made in any of the above-mentioned 

fire-protective appliances. 
The said book to be open for inspection by any authorized officer 
of the Board. 

(c) In case any of the said fire-protective appliances in any loco- 
motive are found to be defective, said locomotive shall be removed 
from service and shall not (during said prescribed period) be re- 
turned to service, unless and until such defects are remedied. 



6 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

{d) Every such railway company shall also make an independent 
examination of the fire-protective appliances on all the locomotives of 
such company, at least once each month, and the conditions of such 
fire-protective appliances shall be reported direct to the Chief Mech- 
anical Officer of the railway company, or other chief officer, held 
responsible for the condition of the motive power of the said company. 

5. No employee of any such railway company shall — 

(a) Do, or in any way cause, damage to the netting on the engine 
smoke-stack or to the netting in the front end of such engine; 

(b) Open the back dampers of such engine while running ahead, 
or the front dampers while running tender first, except when there 
is snow on the ground, and it is necessary to take such action in order 
to have engine steam properly; 

(c) Or otherwise do or cause damage or injury to any of the fire- 
protective appliances on the said engines. 

6. No such railway company shall permit fire, live coals, or ashes 
to be deposited upon its tracks or right-of-way, unless they are extin- 
guished immediately thereafter, except in pits provided for the pur- 
pose. 

7. No such railway company shall burn lignite coal on its locomo- 
tive engines as fuel for transportation purposes, unless otherwise 
ordered by the Board — lignite coal consisting of and including all 
varieties of coal between peat and bituminous, with a carbon-hydrogen 
ratio of 11 "2 or less, such ratio being based on analysis of air-dried 
coal. 

8. Every such railway company shall establish and maintain fire- 
guards along the route of its railway as the Chief Fire Inspector may 
prescribe. The nature, extent, establishment and maintenance of such 
fire-guards shall be determined as follows : 

(a) The Chief Fire Inspector shall each year prepare and submit 
to every such railway company a statement of the measures necessary 
for establishing and maintaining the routes of such railways in a 
condition safe from fire, so far as may be practicable. 

(&) Said measures may provide for the cutting and disposal by 
fire, or otherwise, of all or any growth of an inflammable character, 
and the burning or other disposal of debris and litter, on a strip of 
sufficient width on one or both sides of the track; the ploughing 
or digging of land in strips of sufficient width on one or both sides 
of the track; and such other work as may, under the existing local 
conditions and at reasonable expense, tend to reduce to a minimum 
the occurrence and spread of fire. 

(c) Said statements of the Chief Fire Inspector shall be so arranged 
as to deal with and prescribe measures for each separate portion of 
such railway upon and adjacent to which the fire risk calls for specific 
treatment. The intention shall be to adjust the protective measures 
to the local conditions, and to make the expense proportionate to the 
fire risk and possible damage. 

(d) Said statements of the Chief Fire Inspector shall prescribe 
dates on or within which the foregoing protective measures shall be 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 7 

commenced and completed, and the fire-guards maintained in a clean 
and safe condition. 

{e) No such railway company shall permit its employees, agents, 
or contractors to enter upon land under cultivation, to construct fire- 
guards, without the consent of the owner or occupant of such land. 

(/) Wherever the owner or occupant of such land objects to the 
construction of fire-guards, on the ground that the said construction 
would involve unreasonable loss or damage to property, the Company 
shall at once refer the matter to the Board, giving full particulars 
thereof, and shall, in the meantime, refrain from proceeding with the 
work. 

{g) No agent, employee, or contractor of any such railway com- 
pany shall permit gates to be left open or to cut or leave fences down 
whereby stock or crops may be injured or to do any other unnecessary 
damage to property, in the construction of fire-guards. 

9. In carrying out the provisions of Section 297 of the Railway 
Act, which enacts that " the Company shall at all times maintain and 
keep its right-of-way free from dead or dry grass, weeds, and other 
unnecessary combustible matter," no such railway company or its 
agents, employees or contractors shall, between the first day of April 
and the first day of November, burn, or cause to be burned, any ties, 
cuttings, debris, or litter upon or near its right-of-way, except under 
such supervision as will prevent such fires from spreading beyond the 
strip being cleared. The Chief Fire Inspector or other authorized 
officer of the Board may require that no such burning be done along 
specified portions of the line of any such railway, except with the 
written permission or under the direction of the Chief Fire Inspector 
or other authorized officer of the Board. 

10. The railway company shall provide and maintain a force of 
fire rangers fit and sufficient for efficient patrol and fire-fighting duty 
during the period from the first day of April to the first day of 
November of each year; and the methods of such force shall be sub- 
ject to the supervision and direction of the Chief Fire Inspector or 
other authorized officer of the Board. 

11. The Chief Fire Inspector shall, each year, prepare and submit 
to each and every railway company a statement of the measures such 
railway companies shall take for the establishment and maintenance 
of said specially organized force. Said statements among other mat- 
ters may provide for — 

(a) The number of men to be employed on the said force, their 
location and general duties, and the methods and frequency of the 
patrol. 

(h) The acquisition and location of necessary equipment for trans- 
porting the said force from place to place, and the acquisition and 
distributing of suitable fire-fighting tools; and 

(c) Any other measures which are considered by him to be essen- 
tial for the immediate control of fire and may be adopted at reason- 
able expense. 

12. Whenever and while all the locomotive engines used upon any 
such railway, or any portion of it, burn nothing but oil as fuel, dur- 



8 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

ing the aforesaid prescribed period, under such conditions as the Board 
may approve, the Board will relieve the said railway of such portion 
of these regulations as may seem to it safe and expedient. 

13. Every such railway company shall instruct and require its sec- 
tionmen and other employees, agents and contractors to take measures 
to report and extinguish fires on or near the right-of-way as follows : — 

(a) Conductors, engineers, or trainmen, who discover or receive 
notice of the existence and location of a fire burning upon or near 
the right-of-way, or of a fire which threatens land adjacent to the 
right-of-way, shall report the same by wire to the Superintendent, and 
shall also report it to the agent or persons in charge at the next point 
at which there shall be communication by telegraph or telephone, and 
to the first section employees passed. Notice of such fire shall also 
be given immediately by a system of warning whistles. 

(b) It shall be the duty of the superintendent or agent or person 
so informed to notify immediately the nearest forest officer and the 
nearest section employees of the railway, of the existence and loca- 
tion of such fire. 

(c) When fire is discovered, presumably started by the railway, 
such sectionmen or other employees of the railway as are available, 
shall either independently or at the request of any authorized forest 
officer proceed to the fire immediately and take action to extinguish 
it; provided such sectionmen or other employees are not at the time 
engaged in labours immediately necessary to the safety of trains. 

(d) In case the sectionmen or other employees available are not 
a sufficient force to extinguish the fire promptly, the railway company 
shall, either independently or at the request of any authorized forest 
officer, employ such other labourers as may be necessary to extinguish 
the fire; and as soon as a sufficient number of men, other than the 
sectionmen and regular employees, are obtained, the sectionmen and 
other regular employees shall be allowed to resume their regular 
duties. 

(e) The provisions of this section shall apply to all fires occurring 
within 300 feet of the railway track, unless proof shall be furnished 
that such fires were not caused by the railway. 

14. Every such railway company shall give particular instructions 
to its employees in relation to the foregoing regulations and shall 
cause such instructions to be posted at all stations, terminals and sec- 
tion houses along its lines of railway. In case said instructions are 
not also carried in employees' time tables during said prescribed period, 
or in "operating" and "maintenance of way" rule books, they shall, 
previous to April 1 of each year, be re-issued to all employees con- 
cerned, in the form of special instructions. The Chief Fire Inspector 
may waive the above requirements in whole or in part, as to lines or 
portions of lines where, in his judgment, the fire danger is not material. 

15. Every such railway company allowing or permitting the viola- 
tion of, or in any respect contravening or failing to obey any of the 
foregoing regulations, shall, in addition to any other liability which 
the said company may have incurred, be subject to a penalty of one 
hundred dollars for everv such oflfence. 




Effect of Repeated Fires 
Merchantable timber and young growth entirely destroyed and no seed trees left to establish 
a new forest. The fertile upper layer of soil has been burned, and the mineral eroded, expos- 
ing the bare rocks. Millions of acres of such barren desert exist in many parts of Canada. 




Fire Hazard on Railway Right-of-way 
At the right, inflammable debris upon the right-of-way of the National Transcontinental Ry. 
in Quebec, resulting in great fire hazard. Similar conditions exist along hundreds of miles 
of this line in New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario. At the left, clearing for station grounds. 



THE RAIIvWAY FIRE SITUATION 9 

16. If any employee or other person included in the said regula- 
tions, fails or neglects to obey the same, or any of them, he shall, in 
addition to any other liabiHty which he may have incurred, be subject 
to a penalty of twenty-five dollars for every such offence. 

17. The Board may, upon the application of any railway company 
or other party interested, vary or rescind any order or direction of 
the Chief Fire Inspector made pursuant to the provisions of this 
Order. 

(Sgd.) H. L. DRAYTON 
Chief Commissioner, 
Board of Railway Commissioners for Canada 

Board of Railway Commissioners for Canada 

Examined and certified as a true copy under 
Section 23 of " The Railway Act." 

A. D. Cartwright 

Secretary of Board of Railzvay Commissioners for Canada 

Ottawa, July 8th, 1913 

Since Order No. 16,570 was quoted at length in 
Changes made , ,, .^ -r-, . . ^ j m ioi-> -^ 

by General the report on Forest Protection m Canada, lyiz, it 

Order No. 107 jg not reprinted here. 

The changes from Order No. 16,570 are briefly as follows : 

It will be noted that in several respects the order is materially 
strengthened, while in no case is its efficiency impaired. 

In Regulation 4 (&) the change is wholly a matter of form. In 
Regulation 4 (d) the requirement is so changed as to specify the results 
to be accomplished in the matter of locomotive inspections by railway 
companies, without specifying the manner in which the results shall be 
brought about. 

In General Order No. 107 the provisions contained in Regulation 5 
of Order No. 16,570 are omitted, since, under the Railway Act, officers 
of the Board already have authority to inspect fire-protective appli- 
ances on locomotives; and the provision for the removal of defec- 
tive engines from service is not needed, in view of the provision 
in Regulation 4 (c), that locomotives defective as to fire-protection 
appliances shall not be used until such defects are remedied. 

Regulation 6 (b) of Order No. 16,570 is amended in Regulation 
5 (&) of General Order No. 107 to permit the opening of back dampers 
of engines when running ahead, or the front damper while running 
tender first, in case there is snow on the ground and it is necessary to 
take such action in order to have engine steam properly. 

Regulation 7 of Order No. 16,570 is amended in Regulation 6 of 
the new order, so that yard limits are also included in the prohibition 
against the depositing of fire, live coals and ashes upon tracks or rights- 



10 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

of-way, unless same are extinguished immediately thereafter. The 
only exception is in case pits are provided for this purpose. 

Regulation 14 of Order Xo. 16,570 is so amended in Regulation 13 
of General Order No. 107 as to require the railway companies to 
instruct their employees relative to reporting and extinguishing fire, 
instead of making the order apply directly to the employees, as 
previously. 

A very important change is contained in Regulation 13 (^) of the 
new order, which makes it clear that the intent of the Board is to 
place the burden of proof upon the railway companies to extinguish 
fires occurring within 300 feet of the track, unless proof shall be fur- 
nished that such fires were not caused by the railway. The corre- 
sponding provision of Regulation 14 (e) of Order No. 16,570 was 
easily liable to misconstruction, the understanding being in some cases 
that the throwing of the burden of proof upon the railway companies 
was intended by the Board to extend to financial responsibility in 
connection with damage claims, instead of being limited to the 
extinguishing of fires. As the regulation now stands, it clearly has 
no bearing upon the question of damage claims. 

The revision contained in Regulation 14 of General Order No. 107 
provides for the posting of instructions to employees at terminals and 
section houses, in addition to stations, as required in the previous order. 
Provision is also made for the reissuance of such instructions to 
employees each year, under conditions stated. In addition, provision 
is made for elasticity in the enforcement of this regulation, by giving 
the Chief Fire Inspector full discretionary authority in the matter. 

Regulation 17 of General Order No. 107 makes clear that any rail- 
way or other party interested may appeal to the Board from any order 
or direction of the Chief Fire Inspector. This privilege had of course 
existed previously, without specific inclusion in Order No. 16,570. 

Following is a list of steam railways in operation or 
thr^oard" °^ ""'^e^' construction, subject to the jurisdiction of the 
Board of Railway Commissioners for Canada. 
Algoma Central and Hudson Bay. 
Algoma Eastern. 
Atlantic, Quebec and Western. 
Bay of Quinte (C.N.R. system). 
Boston and ]\Iaine (Massawippi Valley). 
British Yukon (White Pass and Yukon). 
Brockville, Westport and Northwestern (C.N.R. system). 
Calgary and Fernie (under construction). 
Canadian Northern. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 11 

Canadian Northern Ontario (C.N.R, system). 
Canadian Northern Quebec (C.N.R. system). 
Canadian Pacific. 

Central Ontario (C.N.R. system). 

Central Railway Company of Canada (under construction). 
Central Vermont (G.T.R. system). 

Cumberland Railway and Coal Co. (Dominion Coal Company). 
Dominion Atlantic (C.P.R. system). 

Edmonton, Dunvegan and British Columbia (under construction). 
Elgin and Havelock, 

Esquimalt and Nanaimo (C.P.R. system), 
Essex Terminal. 

Glengarry and Stormont (C.P.R. system). 
Grand Trunk. 
Grand Trunk Pacific. 
Great Northern. 

HaHfax and Southwestern (C.N.R. system). 

Interprovincial and James Bay (C.P.R. system, under construction). 
Irondale, Bancroft and Ottawa (C.N.R. system). 
James Bay and Eastern (C.N.R. system, under construction). 
Kettle Valley (C.P.R. system, under construction). 
Klondike Mines. 
Kootenay and Alberta. 
Lake Erie and Northern (C.P.R. system). 
Maine Central. 

Marmora Railway and Mining Co. (C.N.R. system). 
Michigan Central (Canada Southern). 
Moncton and Buctouche. 

New Brunswick Coal and Railway (C.P.R. system). 
'Ottawa and New York (N.Y.C. & H.R.R. system). 
Pere Marquette. 

Quebec and Lake St. John (C.N.R. system). 
Quebec, Montreal and Southern (Rutland). 
Quebec Oriental. 
Rutland and Noyan (Rutland). 
Salisbury and Albert. 
Schomberg and Aurora. 

St. Lawrence and Adirondack (N.Y.C. & H.R.R. system). 
St. Martins. 
"Temiscouata. 
Thousand Islands. 
Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo (C.P.R. and M.C.R.R.). 



12 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Victoria and Sidney (G.N.R. system). 

Victoria Terminal Railway and Ferry Company (G.N.R. system). 

Wabash. 

Western Canada Power Co. 

Western Dominion (under construction). 

Railways Subject to Board by Provinces 

In the following list, the above railways are subdivided according 
to provinces. When a particular railway is situated in more thaa 
one province, the name is repeated : 

Yukon Territory — 

British Yukon (White Pass and Yukon). 
Klondike Mines. 

British Columbia — 

British Yukon (White Pass and Yukon). 

Calgary and Fernie (under construction). 

Canadian Pacific. 

Esquimau and Nanaimo (C.P.R. system). 

Grand Trunk Pacific. 

Great Northern. 

Kettle Valley (C.P.R. system, under construction). 

Victoria and Sidney (G.N.R. system). 

Victoria Terminal Railway and Ferry Company (G.N.R. system).. 

W^estern Canada Power Company, Limited. ' 

Alberta — 

Calgary and Fernie (under construction). 

Canadian Northern. 

Canadian Pacific. 

Edmonton, Dunvegan and British Columbia (under construction).. 

Grand Trunk Pacific. 

Kootenay and Alberta. 

Western Dominion (under construction). 

Saskatchewan — 

Canadian Northern. 
Canadian Pacific. 
Grand Trunk Pacific. 

Manitoba — 

Canadian Northern. 

Canadian Pacific. 

Grand Trunk Pacific. 

Great Northern (of the United States). 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 13 

Ontario — 

Algoma Central and Hudson Bay. 

Algoma Eastern, 

Bay of Quinte (C.N.R. system). 

Brockville, Westport and Northwestern (C.N.R. system). 

Canadian Northern. 

Canadian Northern Ontario (C.N.R. system). 

Canadian Pacific. 

Central Ontario (C.N.R. system). 

Central Railway Company of Canada (under construction). 

Essex Terminal. 

Grand Trunk. 

Grand Trunk Pacific. 

Irondale, Bancroft and Ottawa (C.N.R. system). 

Lake Erie and Northern (C.P.R. system). 

Marmora Railway and Mining Co. (C.N.R. system). 

Michigan Central (Canada Southern). 

Ottawa and New York (N.Y.C. & H.R.R. system). 

Pere Marquette. 

Schomberg and Aurora. 

Thousand Islands. 

Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo (C.P.R. and M.C.R.R. systems). 

Wabash. 

Quebec — 

Atlantic, Quebec and Western. 
Boston and Maine (Massawippi Valley). 
Canadian Northern Quebec (C.N.R. system). 
Canadian Pacific. 

Central Railway Company of Canada (under construction). 
Central Vermont (G.T.R. system). 
Grand Trunk. 

Interprovincial and James Bay (C.P.R. system, under construc- 
tion). 
James Bay and Eastern (C.N.R. system, under construction). 
Maine Central (Hereford). 
Quebec and Lake St. John (C.N.R. system). 
Quebec, Montreal and Southern (including Napierville Junction). 
Quebec Oriental. 
Rutland and Noyan (Rutland). 

St. Lawrence and Adirondack (N.Y.C. & H.R.R. system). 
Temiscouata. 



14 . COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

New Brunswick — 

Canadian Pacific (including New Brunswick Coal and Railway) ► 

Elgin and Havelock. 

Moncton and Buctouche. 

Salisbury and Albert. 

St. Martins. 

Temiscouata. 

Nova Scotia — 

Cumberland Railway and Coal Co. (Dominion Coal Co.). 
Dominion Atlantic (C.P.R. system). 
Halifax and Southwestern (C.N.R. system). 

Steam Railways Not Subject to Board 

British Columbia — 

Canadian Northern Pacific (C.N.R. system, under construction).* 

Eastern British Columbia. 

Morrissey, Fernie and Michel. 

Pacific Great Eastern (under construction). 

Vancouver Copper Co. (Lenora Mount Sicker). 

Wellington Colliery Co. 

Alberta — 

Alberta Great Waterways (under construction). 
Canada Central (under construction). 
Canadian Northern Western (C.N.R. system).* 

Saskatchezvan — 

Canadian Northern Saskatchewan (C.N.R. system).* 

Ontario — 

Lake Huron and Northern Ontario (formerly Bruce Mines and 

Algoma). 
Maganatawan River. 

National Transcontinental (under construction). 
Timiskaming and Northern Ontario (Ontario Government line). 

Quebec — 

Canada and Gulf Terminal. 

Ha Ha Bay. 

Intercolonial (Canadian Government lines). 

Lotbiniere and Megantic. 

*Under the Canadian Northern Railway Guarantee Act, these lines will 
become subject to the Board, upon proclamation by the Governor in Coun- 
cil, following their completion and opening for operation. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION IS 

Quebec. — Continued. 

National Transcontinental (under construction). 
Philipsburg Railway and Quarry Company. 
Quebec Central (C.P.R. system). 
Quebec and Saguenay (under construction). 
Salmon River and Northern. 

New Brunswick — 

Caraquet and Gulf Shore. 

Fredericton and Grand Lake Coal and Railway Company (C.P.R 
system). 

Intercolonial (Canadian Government lines). 

International Railway of New Brunswick (Canadian Govern- 
ment lines). 

Kent Northern (including St. Louis and Richibucto). 

National Transcontinental (under construction). 

New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island (Canadian Govern- 
ment lines). 

Northern New Brunswick and Seaboard. 

North Shore. 

Southampton (C.P.R. system). 

St. John Valley (Canadian Government lines). 

York and Carleton. 

N'ova Scotia — 
Cape Breton. 

Intercolonial (Canadian Government lines). 
Inverness Railway and Coal Company (C.N.R. system). 
Maritime Railway, Coal and Power Company. 
Sydney and Louisburg (Dominion Coal Co.). 

Prince Bdward Island — 

Prince Edward Island (Canadian Government lines). 

Organization 

As noted above, the co-operation begun in 1912 with the fire-pro- 
tective organizations of the Dominion and Provincial governments has 
been continued and extended. In this way has been handled practi- 
cally all of the detailed field inspection in connection with right-of-way 
clearing, establishment and maintenance of patrols, reporting and 
extinguishing of fire by railway employees, and the construction of 
fire-guards. In each case, the plan of co-operation includes the pay- 
ment of salary and expenses of the inspecting officer by the co-operating: 



16 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

agency, so that, aside from the head office at Ottawa, the work of thr 
Fire Inspection Department has been handled without cost to the 
Board. 

The following shows the organization in eiTect in 1914. The 
organization in 1913 diflfered only in minor details, being in general 
not quite so complete. 

Co-operation The inspection work handled by the British Columbia 
Columbia*^ Forest Branch embraces all lines in British Columbia 

Forest Branch except those within the railway belt. 

H. R. MacMillan, Chief Forester, appointed provincial iire inspec- 
tor, to exercise general supervision over the Board's fire inspection 
work in the province outside the railway belt. R. E. Benedict, H. R. 
Christie and W. C. Gladwin, assistant provincial fire inspectors. 

Cranbrook District — J. D. Gilmour, divisional fire inspector; G. B. 
Watson, R. J. Long and J. C. Hart, assistant divisional fire inspectors. 

Nelson District — G. H. Prince, divisional fire inspector; J. T. 
Price, A. M. Black, H. S. Nelson and C. A. Mix, assistant divisional 
fire inspectors. 

\'ernon District — L. R. Andrews, divisional fire inspector; M. V. 
Allen and H. H. Thomas, assistant divisional fire inspectors. 

Vancouver District — G. D. McKay, divisional fire inspector; A. T. 
Kennedy and W. H. Smith, assistant divisional fire inspectors. 

Island District — H. K. Robinson, divisional fire inspector; W. F. 
Loveland and J. E. Stilwell, assistant divisional fire inspectors. 

Prince Rupert District — H. S. Irwin, divisional fire inspector. 

Hazelton District — R. E. Allen, divisional fire inspector; George 
Dover, Thomas Brewer and James Latham, assistant divisional fire 
inspectors. 

Fort George District — H. G. Marvin, divisional fire inspector; F. 
VC. Heath and R. M. Pellatt, assistant divisional fire inspectors. 

Tete Jaune District — C. MacFayden, divisional fire inspector. 

The divisional fire inspectors above enumerated were under appoint- 
ment by the British Columbia Forest Branch as district foresters, and 
the assistant divisional fire inspectors, as district rangers. 

Divisional fire inspector-at-large — George A. Kerr. 

^ . . The inspection work handled by the Dominion Fcr- 

Donumon ^ , . / ^ . . . . 

Forestry estry Branch, Department of the Interior, is as tol- 

Branch lows— 

D. Roy Cameron, district inspector of forest reserves, Kamloops, 
B.C., appointed fire inspector for the railway belt, exclusive of Domin- 
ion parks. This includes the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway 





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fir. 




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^ 


m. 








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wmi^ 


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i..- 



Heavy Forest Growth Lm.mediateev Adjacent to Newly-constructed Railway 

Note logs and small debris, from right-of-way clearing, piled at edge of timber. A small 

grass fire on the right-of-way might, by igniting this material, cause great damage to 

green timber before men could reach the scene and control the fire. Ontario. 




Another Portion of the Same IvIne 

Note how the right-of-way has been cleared of inflammable matter. All debris has been 

piled and burned under careful supervision at a safe time. Danger of fire greatly 

reduced. The control of right-of-way burning is an important duty of the 

Fire Inspector of the Railway Commission. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 17 

through British Columbia, west of Leanchoil, and branches within the 
railway belt; also Kettle Valley railway lines within the railway belt. 
Mr. Cameron was assisted by three divisional fire inspectors, W. R. 
Peacock, R. D. McDonald and James Selkirk. 

W. N. Millar, district inspector of forest reserves, Calgary, Alberta, 
appointed fire inspector for Dominion forest reserves in Alberta. This 
includes those portions of the Canadian Pacific, Canadian Northern 
and Grand Trunk Pacific lines within the forest reserves on the east 
slope of the Rockies. Mr. Millar was assisted by Messrs. S. H. Clark 
and R. M. Brown, divisional fire inspectors. 

E. H. Finlayson, inspector of fire ranging, Winnipeg, Man., 
appointed fire inspector; to handle inspection work in the forested 
portions of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and in Alberta outside 
Dominion forest reserves and parks. This includes portions of the 
Canadian Pacific, Canadian Northern and Grand Trunk Pacific rail- 
ways. Mr. Finlayson was assisted by T. McNaughton, divisional fire 
inspector. 

R. C. Miller, assistant gold commissioner, Whitehorse, Y. T., was 
appointed district fire inspector. Through co-operative arrangement, 
Mr. Miller covered the White Pass and Yukon lines in Yukon and 
British Columbia as well as the Klondike Mines railway, in Yukon. 

The inspection work handled by the Dominion Parks 
Parks Branch Branch, Department of the Interior, embraces lines 
within Dominion parks in Alberta and the railway 
belt of British Columbia. 

P. C. B. Hervey, chief superintendent Dominion parks, Edmonton, 
Alberta, appointed fire inspector for Dominion parks. 

E. N. Russell, superintendent of Yoho and Glacier parks. Field, 
B.C., appointed divisional fire inspector for Yoho and Glacier parks. 

S. J. Clarke, superintendent, Rocky Mountains park, Banff, Alberta, 
appointed fire inspector for Rocky Mountains park; H. E. Sibbald, 
assistant fire inspector. 

N. C. Sparks, superintendent, Jasper Park, Jasper, Alberta, 
appointed fire inspector for Jasper park. 

Railways covered by the above organization are those portions of 
the Canadian Pacific, Canadian Northern, and Grand Trunk Pacific, 
which are included within the various park boundaries. 

Fire-guard Inspection, Alberta — Benj. Lawton, chief game and fire 
guardian. Department of Agriculture, Edmonton, appointed provincial 
fire-guard inspector. Mr, Lawton was assisted by Messrs. Donald 
McEachern, James I. Brewster and Chas. H. Pinnell, fire-guard 
inspectors. Railways covered are the Canadian Pacific, Canadian 
2— c.c. 



18 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Northern and Grand Trunk Pacific, within the prairie sections of 
Alberta. 

Fire-guard Inspection, Saskatchewan — R. J. McLean, fire commis- 
sioner, Regina, appointed provincial fire-guard inspector. Railways 
covered are the Canadian Pacific, Canadian Northern and Grand- 
Trunk Pacific, within the prairie portions of the province. 

Ontario — The inspection work handled by the Department of Lands 
and Forests of the Province of Ontario is as follows: 

E. J. Zavitz, provincial forester, Toronto, appointed provincial fire 
inspector, to exercise general supervision over the Board's fire inspec- 
tion work in the province. 

Max Rabbitts, district fire inspector : Canadian Pacific railway be- 
tween Port Arthur and Ingolf, and Grand Trunk Pacific railway 
between Fort William and the Manitoba boundary. 

Jas. Windle, district fire inspector: Canadian Pacific railway be- 
tween Sudbury and Sault Ste. Marie and between Sudbury and Cold- 
water junction, and the Canadian Northern Ontario railway between 
Sudbury and Washago. 

R. A. Allen, district fire inspector: Canadian Pacific railway 
between Sudbury and Nipigon. 

C. Liddon Bliss, district fire inspector : Canadian Pacific railway be- 
tween Port Arthur and Nipigon, Canadian Northern Ontario railway 
between Port Arthur and Nipigon, and the Canadian Northern railway 
between Port Arthur and Rainy River and North Lake. 

L. P. Didier, district fire inspector: Canadian Pacific railway be- 
tween Sudbury and Pembroke, and Grand Trunk railway between 
North Bay and Atherley junction, and between Depot Harbour and 
Pembroke. 

Quebec — The inspection work handled by the Forest Protection 
Branch, Department of Lands and Forests, of the Province of Quebec, 
is as follows : 

W. C. J. Hall, chief of the Forest Protection Branch, Quebec, 
appointed provincial fire inspector, to exercise general supervision over 
the Board's fire inspection work in the province. 

N. McCuaig, district fire inspector: Canadian Pacific railway be- 
tween Ottawa, Maniwaki and Waltham, and between Mattawa and 
Kipawa. 

Art. Bedard, district fire inspector: Canadian Pacific lines in Que- 
bec north of the St. Lawrence river, between Quebec and Ottawa, and 
branches; Canadian Northern Quebec railway between Quebec and 
Grenville, and branches. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 19 

Henry Sorgius, district fire inspector : Canadian Pacific, Piles and 
Shawinigan branches and Canadian Northern Quebec railway from 
Shawinigan to Riviere-a-Pierre ; Quebec and Lake St. John from 
Riviere-a-Pierre to Kiskisink, and La Tuque branch. 

Nath. Lebel, district fire inspector: Temiscouata railway in Pro- 
vince of Quebec. 

Jos. Legace, district fire inspector: Atlantic, Quebec and Western 
and Quebec Oriental railways, in Gaspe peninsula. 

F. N. Roche, district fire inspector: Canadian Pacific lines in 
the province south of the St. Lawrence river; Grand Trunk, Boston 
and Maine, Central Vermont, and Maine Central railways. 

Isaie Dubuc, district fire inspector. Mr, Dubuc covers same terri- 
tory as Mr. Roche given above, with the following additional lines: 
St. Lawrence and Adirondack; Quebec, Montreal and Southern, 
Napierville Junction, and Rutland and Noyan. 

W. A. Bignell, district fire inspector: Canadian Pacific railway 
between Quebec and Ottawa, including branches north of the St. Law- 
rence and Ottawa rivers; Canadian Northern Quebec railway, includ- 
ing branches north of the St. Lawrence river. 

Arthur H. Graham, district fire inspector : Canadian Pacific railway 
between Montreal and Ottawa (north shore), including branches, and 
the Canadian Northern Quebec railway, between Montreal and Ottawa, 
including branches. 

New Brunstvick — The inspection work handled by the Crown 
Lands Department of the Province of New Brunswick is as follows :- 

A, E. O'Leary, chief fire and game guardian, Richibucto, appointed 
provincial fire inspector. The territory covered includes the Canadian 
Pacific, St. Martins, Elgin and Havelock, New Brunswick Coal and 
Railway, Salisbury and Albert, and Temiscouata railways. 

John McGibbon, assistant provincial fire inspector. Mr. McGib- 
bon assisted Mr. O'Leary in handling the fire inspection work on the 
above named lines. 

Nova Scotia — Co-operation for the handling of inspection work in 
Nova Scotia was promised by the Provincial Government, but the 
putting of the plan into efifect has been delayed, pending the appoint- 
ment of a provincial Forester, for which appointment provision has 
been made by Act of the Provincial Parliament. 

The plan adopted in 1912 has been continued, of re- 
Fire Patrols quiring the estabHshment and maintenance of special 

fire patrols in forest sections where the fire hazard is 
considered high. The special patrols consisted, for the most part, of 
men with railway velocipedes, although, in some cases where the traffic 



20 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

was not too heavy to prevent, the patrols consisted of men with power 
speeders. In the case of grades too heavy for the use of velocipedes 
or power speeders, foot patrols were prescribed. 

In sections where the fire danger was considered medium, special 
patrols were required by members of the section crews, as a part of 
their regular work. The matter of reporting and extinguishing fire 
on lines or portions of lines where the fire hazard is considered light, 
was satisfactorily taken care of by the issuance of instructions by the 
railway companies, to their regular employees, under Regulation 14 
of General Order No. 107, Such instructions were issued by nearly 
all the railway lines subject to the Board's jurisdiction. 

In every case the question of the patrols to be required was fully 
taken up in advance with representatives of the railways concerned, 
so that, as a rule, the patrol letters as issued represent substantial 
agreement between the railways, the Board and the Dominion or Pro- 
vincial fire-prctective organization having primary responsibility for 
the protection from fire of the lands adjacent to the railway rights-of- 
way. In this way, the element of arbitrariness in the handhng of the 
work has been practically removed. The consistent following out of 
this policy has, in view of the admirable spirit of co-operation exhibited 
by most of the railway officials concerned, resulted in the almost com- 
plete elimination of friction in the administration of this feature of the 
Board's requirements. 

Although minor modifications were made in both 1913 and 1914, 
the requirements as to lines in the four western provinces were, as a 
rule, closely similar to those prescribed in 1912. The organization . 
of this work did not extend to the east in that year. 

Letters prescribing patrols or other special measures to be taken 
in connection with railway fire protection were issued to the following 
railway companies in both 1913 and 1914: Canadian Pacific western 
lines, Canadian Pacific eastern lines, Canadian Northern, Canadian 
Northern Ontario, Canadian Northern Quebec, Grand Trunk Pacific, 
Grand Trunk, Great Northern, Victoria and Sidney, Esquimalt and 
Nanaimo, Kettle Valley, Edmonton, Dunvegan and British Columbia, 
and Temiscouata. As to other lines, the issuance of special instructions 
to regular employees, under Regulation 14 of General Order No. 107, 
was considered sufficient. The Quebec and Lake St. John railway came 
under the Board's jurisdiction in July, 1914, by virtue of the Canadian 
Northern Railway Guarantee Act. During the balance of the fire 
season of that year, the patrol requirements previously prescribed 
by the Quebec Public Utilities Commission were continued, under the 
authoritv of the Board. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 21 

From the beginning, the poHcy has been consistently followed of 
relieving the railway companies from the necessity of maintaining spe- 
cial patrols, so far as weather conditions rendered such action practi- 
cable. The extent to which this policy could be carried out naturally 
depended also, to some degree, upon the extent to which the railway 
companies had specially organized their fire protection work, so as 
to ensure the prompt resumption of patrols when the weather became 
dry. The handling of this patrol work constitutes an important feature 
of the activities of the local officers of the Board. As a rule, these 
officers maintained a close degree of co-operation with the local railway 
officials, thus securing a maximum of efficiency in fire protection at 
a minimum of cost to the companies. 

In order to show fully the degree of railway fire protection secured 
under the patrol requirements of the Board, the letter covering Cana- 
dian Northern lines in 1914 is quoted at length, with a summary of 
the measures required on other lines. The formal letter in each case 
contained substantially the same general provisions as those included 
in the Canadian Northern letter. The 1913 requirements are not 
quoted, since they differ only in minor details from the patrols pre- 
scribed in 1914. 

CANADIAN NORTHERN RAILWAY PATROLS 

March 14, 1914. 

The Canadian Northern Railway, _ . 

Mr. M. H. MacLeod, General Manager, -J = 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Dear Sir: — 

You are hereby notified that, in accordance with the provisions 
of General Order No 107 of the Board of Railway Commissioners, 
you are required to establish upon such portions of the Canadian 
Northern railway and of the lines under its control as are hereinafter 
described, a force of fire rangers fit and sufficient for efficient patrol 
and fire-fighting duty during the period from April 1st, 1914, to 
November 1st, 1914, except in so far as you may be relieved in writ- 
ing from such patrol by the Chief Fire Inspector or other authorized 
officer of the Board. 

The details of the patrols required are as follows, it being under- 
stood that unless otherwise specified, the patrol shall be continuous 
between the hours of seven in the morning and six in the evening of 
each day, including Sundays, with a minimum patrol of one round trip 
per day. 

Central, Division 

Port Arthur, Atikokan, and North Lake Subdivisions— Between 
Port Arthur and Rainy River, Ont., 285.8 miles, and between Twin 



22 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

City junction and North Lake, 56.4 miles, patrol shall be by the section 
men, track walkers, and watchmen; minimum of one round trip per 
day. 

Rainy River Subdiz'isiuii — Between International boundary and 
South junction, Man., 18.6 miles, one man with velocipede; this man 
shall also provide a patrol of two round trips per day over the gravel 
pit spur, approximately 1.5 miles in length. 

Between South junction and Carrick, 19.7 miles, one man with 
velocipede ; special attention shall be paid the grades near Badger. 

Between Carrick and ]\Iarchand, 22.6 miles, one man with veloci- 
pede. 

Ridgei'ille Subdivision — Between Sundown and South junction, 
24.7 miles, one man with velocipede. 

Oak Point Subdivision — Between St. James and Gypsumville, 156.7 
miles, the patrol and fire-fighting work shall be a part of the regular 
duties of the section men, track walkers and watchmen. 

Western Division 

SiK'ati River Subdivision — Between Ethelbert and Minitonas, 57.5 
miles, three men with velocipedes, distributed as follows : Between 
Ethelbert and Pine River, 18.9 miles ; between Pine River and Cowan, 
18.1 miles; between Cowan and Minitonas, 20.5 miles. 

Erzi'ood Subdivision — Between Bowsman and Hudson Bay junc- 
tion, Sask., 91.6 miles, four men with velocipedes; with approximately 
equal mileages. 

Prince Albert Subdivision — Between Hudson Bay junction and 
mileage 265 (between Osgoode and Tisdale), 65.3 miles, three men 
with velocipedes, with approximately equal mileages. 

Hudson Bay Subdivision — Between Hudson Bay and The Pas, 87.5 
miles, four men with velocipedes, with approximately equal mileages. 
At the option of the Company, there may be substituted for the above 
two men with power speeders, one between Hudson Bay junction and 
Cantyre. 43 miles, and one between Cantyre and The Pas, 44.5 miles. 

Duck Lake Subdivision — Between Macdowall and the water tank 
at mileage 217, 11.6 miles, within The Pines forest reserve, one man 
with velocipede; minimum patrol of two round trips per day. 

Shellbrook and Crooked Lake Subdivisions — Between Prince Al- 
bert and Big River, four men with velocipedes, to be distributed as 
follows: Between Prince Albert and Holbein, 20.4 miles; between 
Holbein and McOwan, 22.7 miles; between ]\IcOwan and Eldred, 22.3 
miles; between Eldred and Big River,_ 19.6 miles. Special attention 
is required with regard to logging engines. 

Athabaska Subdivision — Between Edmonton and Athabaska Land- 
ing, Alta., approximately 95 miles, patrol shall be maintained by the 
section men. track walkers and watchmen. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 23 

Lines Under Construction 

Between St. Albert and the Pembina river, the patrol and fire- 
iighting work shall be a part of the regular duties of the section men, 
track walkers and watchmen. 

Between Pembina river and McLeod river, approximately 64 
miles, three men with velocipedes, with approximately equal mileages. 

Between McLeod river and the Jasper Park boundary, at con- 
struction mileage 190 (this point is coincident with the G. T. P. station 
at Dyke), approximately 61 miles, three men with velocipedes, with 
approximately equal mileages. 

Between the Jasper Park boundary at construction mileage 190, and 
Moose creek, at construction mileage 204.6, 14.6 miles, one man 
with velocipede. 

Between Moose creek and Jasper, approximately 30 miles, one 
man with power speeder, or two men with velocipedes, with approxi- 
mately equal mileages. 

Between Jasper and Yellowhead, 17 miles, one man with velocipede. 

Inspection 

For the efficient inspection of and general supervision over the 
work of the Company under General Order No, 107, with special 
reference to the patrols above specified, the following field officers 
have been appointed by the Board, with jurisdiction as indicated. 

E. J. Zavitz, Provincial Fire Inspector, address, Lands Depart- 
ment, Toronto, Ontario : Central Division lines in Ontario. 

P. C. Barnard Hervey, Fire Inspector for Dominion Parks, address, 
Parks Branch, Edmonton, Alta. : Lines within Jasper Park, which 
extends from a point approximately three miles west of Prairie Creek 
crossing to Yellowhead. 

E. H. Finlayson, Fire Inspector, address, Forestry Branch, Customs 
Building, Winnipeg, Man. : All lines in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, 
and all in Alberta, with the exception of lines within Jasper Park, 
above indicated as being under the jurisdiction of P. C. Barnard 
Hervey, Mr. Finlayson will be assisted by Thomas McNaughton, 
Divisional Fire Inspector. 

A number of other officials of the Dominion and Provincial Gov- 
ernments have been appointed officers of the Board and will assist 
the above-named superior field officers in carrying on this work. The 
superior field officer in each case will notify the superintendent of 
your company of the name, title and jurisdiction of the subordinate 
field officer or officers responsible for the inspection of fire work in 
his district. 

General, Provisions 

So far as practicable, the work of patrol has been combined with 
the other regular duties of your employees, but, where this action has 
not been specifically indicated, the patrol force is to be a specially organ- 
ized and specially supervised body of men, who shall perform, to the 



24 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

exclusion of other duties, the patrol and other tire-protective work 
indicated in the regulations of the Board and specified herein. 

In every case where special or section patrols are required special 
instructions must be issued and special supervision must be provided 
by the company. 

As a matter of record, velocipede and power speeder patrolmen 
passing telegraph stations shall be reported the same as passing trains, 
and such records shall be freely open to the inspection of any author- 
ized officer of the Board. Where there are no regular registering 
points for trains, registering points shall be established and each patrol- 
man shall be required to register in a small book placed at some con- 
venient point at or near each end of his beat. 

Each foot patrolman shall be equipped with one shovel and one 
canvas bucket. Each velocipede patrolman shall be equipped with two 
shovels, two canvas buckets and one axe. In addition to the above, 
and to the regular section equipment, there shall be stored at the tool- 
house for each section in each patrol district the following emergency 
fire-fighting equipment: one axe, three mattocks, and four buckets of 
not less than twelve quarts capacity each. Equipment for the trans- 
portation of patrolmen shall also be furnished by the company as 
indicated. 

The object sought to be obtained by the regulations of the Board 
and by the instructions issued under them, is the prevention of railway 
fires. It is desired to avoid, so far as possible, the imposition of 
unnecessary expense upon railway companies, and it is fully realized 
that the danger of fire will necessarily vary between wide limits during 
the long season prescribed by the regulations. There is no doubt that 
a very efficient system of fire patrol can be established at a minimum 
of expense if proper provision is made for increasing or decreasing 
the force as conditions may require or permit. To this end, an aver- 
age patrol force has been prescribed, with which to begin work, and 
the various fire inspectors appointed by the Board have authority to 
waive the requirements wholly or in part, from time to time, as may 
be practicable, it being understood that the company will immediately 
restore such patrol upon request of the Board's representative. 

In order to make the system properly effective, it is essential also 
that your general superintendents be authorized and directed to fur- 
nish additional men for patrol work from time to time, as requested 
by the superior field officer of the Board having jurisdiction. 

It is essential also that the necessity be impressed upon your 
employees of complying in the utmost good faith with the provisions 
of Regulation 13 of General Order 107. In particular, sectionmen 
should be instructed that they must give the same attention to fire 
that they do to the safety of the track. On this basis, it is believed that 
further damage by railway fires can be very greatly reduced in the 
future, at a minimum of cost to the company. 

Yours very truly 

CLYDE LEAVITT 

Chief Fire Inspector, B.R.C. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 25 

canadian pacific railway (western lines) 
Manitoba Division 

On the Fort William, Ignace and Kenora subdivisions, between 
Fort William and Whitemotith, 365.5 miles ; on the Arborg subdivision,. 
between Teulon and Arborg, Zd.J miles; and on the Lac du Bonnet 
subdivision, between Molson and Lac du Bonnet, 2L5 miles, patrol 
by sectionmen; minimum of one round trip per day, including Sun- 
days. On the Lac du Bonnet subdivision, particular care shall be 
exercised after the passing of each train in the day time. On portions 
of the above lines where no trains are operated on Sundays, special 
Sunday patrol will not be required. 

Ai,be;rta Division 

Laggan Subdivision — Seven men with velocipedes, to be distributed 
as follows : Between Bow River bridge at mileage 53.2 and Canmore,. 
14.1 miles; between Canmore and Bankhead, 12.2 miles; between 
Bankhead and mileage S9, 9.7 miles; between mileage 89 and Castle,. 
9.7 miles ; between Castle and mileage 108, 9.8 miles ; between mileage 
108 and Laggan, 8.6 miles; between Laggan and Stephen, 5.9 miles. 
Minim.um patrol, so far as possible, of two round trips per day, one 
in the forenoon and one in the afternoon. Between Stephen and Field, 
14 miles, one man, to work on foot or ride on pushers, as may be 
most practicable ; this patrol to be supplemented by tunnel watchmen 
and section crews. 

Crowsnest Subdivision — Between Burmis and Hillcrest, 5.4 miles^ 
one foot patrolman, who may also be watchman or track walker. Be- 
tween Frank and Sentinel, 9.4 miles, one man with velocipede. 
Between Sentinel and Crov/snest, 5.3 miles, one foot patrolman, who- 
may also be track walker. 

Cranbrook Subdivision — Between Crowsnest and Loop tunnet 
at mileage 5.1, 5.1 miles, one foot patrolman. Between mileage 5.1 
and Cranbrook, 93.9 miles, six men with velocipedes, distributed as 
follows: Between Loop tunnel at mileage 5.1 and Wardrop, 15.4 
miles; between Wardrop and Fernie, 15.4 miles; between Fernie and 
Courier, 12.5 miles; between Courier and Jaffray, 18.5 miles; between. 
Jaffray and Tokay, 13.7 miles; between Tokay and Cranbrook. 18.4 
miles. 

Sirdar Subdivision — Between Cranbrook and Kootenay Landing,.. 
83 miles, 5 men with velocipedes, as follows : Between Cranbrook 
and Moyie, 19.8 miles; between Moyie and Yahk, 20.9 miles; be- 



26 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

tween Yahk and Kitchener, 14.7 miles ; between Kitchener and Creston, 
12.1 miles; between Creston and Kootenay Landing, 15.5 miles. 

Kimherley Subdivision — Between Cranbrook and Marysville, Kim- 
berley and the end of the track, 21.2 miles, one man with velocipede, 
one round trip per day. An additional foot patrol shall be maintained 
between mileage 10 and 15, should such action become necessary in the 
judgment of the divisional fire inspector at Cranbrook. 

Waldo Subdivision — Between Caithness and the end of the track 
south of Waldo, approximately 10.7 miles, one man with velocipede, 
who shall also patrol the spur from branch line to Bain lake, a dis- 
tance of approximately 2.5 miles; to patrol thirty minutes after each 
train. 

Fort Steele Subdivision — Between Colvalli and Fort Steele, 23 miles, 
one man with velocipede, to patrol continuously. As new line is put 
under operation, an equivalent patrol shall be established and main- 
tained, as directed by the divisional fire inspector at Cranbrook. 

Kingsgate Subdivision — Between Yahk and Kingsgate, 10.5 miles, 
one man with velocipede. 

British Columbia Division 

District No. 1 

On the Mountain subdivision (between Field and Revelstoke, 
130.3 miles), the Shuswap subdivision (between Revelstoke and Kam- 
loops, 129.1 miles), the Okanagan subdivision (between Sicamous and 
Okanagan Landing, 50.8 miles), and on the Arrow Lake subdivision 
(between Revelstoke and Arrowhead, 27.4 miles), patrol by section- 
men, track walkers, and watchmen, with a minimum patrol of one 
round trip per day, including Sundays. No special patrol is required 
betv/een Chase and Kamloops on the Shuswap subdivision, and between 
Mara and Okanagan Landing on the Okanagan subdivision. The 
above is based on the assumption that oil will be used exclusively as 
locomotive fuel during the fire season, and that the right-of-way will 
be maintained in a condition free from inflammable material, as 
required by Section 297 of the Railway Act. Should either of these 
conditions not be fulfilled to the satisfaction of the fire inspector for 
the railway belt, or should additional fire hazards be found to exist on 
account of conditions resulting from tunnel construction ^or double 
tracking or main line diversions not adequately protected against fire by 
the above measures, such additional measures shall be taken by the 
company as shall be prescribed by the fire inspector for the railway 
belt. These additional measures may include any of the special mea«:- 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 27 

ures relating to the above portion of the line enumerated in patrol 
letter to the company dated June 15, 1912. In particular, a special 
patrol shall be provided by the company, following thirty minutes 
after any coal-burning locomotive passing over any portion of District 
No. 1 in the daytime. 

District No. 2 

Thompson Subdivision — Between Drynoch and North Bend, 42.3 
miles, patrol by sectionmen, track walkers and watchmen; minimum 
of two round trips per day, including Sundays. 

Nicola Subdivision — Between the water tank at mileage 15 and 
Nicola, 32 miles, patrol by sectionmen, track-walkers and watchmen; 
minimum of two round trips per day, including Sundays. 

Cascade Subdivision — Between North Bend and Waleach, 53.4 
miles, four men with velocipedes, distributed as follows : Between 
North Bend and mileage 14, 14 miles; between mileage 14 and Yale, 
13.1 miles; between Yale and Hope, 13 miles; between Hope and 
Waleach, 13.3 miles. 

Whenever oil shall be used exclusively as locomotive fuel on any 
portion of the above lines, and satisfactory compliance with Section 
297 of the Railway Act shall have been secured, relief will be granted 
in whole or in part from the above special requirements, upon appli- 
cation to the fire inspector for the railway belt. 

District No. 3 

Procter Subdivision — Between Nelson and Procter, 20.4 miles, 
patrol by sectionmen, track- walkers and watchmen; minimum of one 
round trip per day. An additional patrol shall be made, following 
thirty minutes after each train running from Nelson to Procter in the 
day time. 

Lardo Subdivision — Between Lardo and Gerrard, 33.2 miles, one 
man with velocipede, to patrol thirty minutes after each train. 

Two patrolmen with velocipedes shall be substituted for the above 
should such action at any time become necessary, in the judgment of 
the divisional fire inspector at Nelson. 

Boundary Subdivision — Between Nelson and Castlegar, 25.7 miles, 
patrol by sectionmen, track-walkers and watchmen ; minimum of one 
round trip per day. Between Castlegar and Shields, 13.3 miles, one 
man with velocipede. Between Shields and mileage 41.8, 2.8 miles, 
one foot patrolman, who may also be bridge watchman. Between 
mileage 41.8 and mileage 50, 8.2 miles, one foot patrolman. Between 
mileage 50 and mileage 55, 5 miles, one man with velocipede, who may 



28 COMMISSION OF C O X S E R V A T I O X 

also be bridge watchman. Between mileage 55 and Paulson. 7.4 miles,, 
one foot patrolman. Between Paulson and Coryell, 4 miles, one man 
with velocipede, who may also be bridge watchman. Between Cor>'ell 
and mileage 74, 7 .d miles, one foot patrolman. Between mileage 74 
and Cascade, 7.9 miles, one foot patrolman. Between Cascade and 
mileage 92.3, 10.4 miles, one man with velocipede. Between mileage 
92.3 and Grand Forks, 2.5 miles, one foot patrolman, who may also be 
bridge watchman. Between Grand Forks and Fisherman, 5.6 miles, one 
man with velocipede, who may also be bridge watchman. Between 
Fisherman and Eholt, 8.4 miles, one foot patrolman. Between Eholt 
and Greenwood, 8.5 miles, one man with velocipede. Between Green- 
wood and Midway, 9.3 miles, one man with velocipede. Between 
Greenwood and Mother Lode Mine, 6.3 miles, one foot patrolman, who 
may also be bridge watchman. Between East Granby and Granby 
Smelter, 2.2 miles, one foot patrolman, who may also be bridge watch- 
man. 

Slocaii Subdiz'ision — Between South Slocan and Perry, .23.4 miles, 
one man w-ith velocipede to patrol thirty minutes after each train. 
Between Perry and Slocan City, 7.9 miles, patrol by sectionmen and 
other regular employees, with a minimum of one round trip per day, 
to follow as closely as possible thirty minutes after each train passing 
over the line in the day time. 

Phoenix Subdivision — Between Eholt and Athelston, 5.5 miles, and 
between Coltern and B.C. ]\Iines, 2.4 miles, total 8 miles, one foot 
patrolman. Between Reftek and Athelston, 3.1 miles, and between 
Athelston and Phoenix, 4.2 miles, total 7.3 miles, one foot patrolman. 

RossJand Subdivision — Between Castlegar junction and Smelter 
junction, 18.7 miles, one man with velocipede. Between Smelter 
junction and Rossland, 10.6 miles, one foot patrolman. An additional 
foot patrolman shall be assigned should such action become necessary 
at any time in the judgment of the divisional fire inspector at Nelson. 

Kakusp Subdivision — Between Nakusp and Sandon, 40.7 miles, 
three men with velocipedes to patrol thirty minutes after each train, 
as follows: Between Xakusp and Summit Lake, 12.7 miles; between 
Summit Lake and Rosebery, 15.7 miles ; between Rosebery and Sandon. 
12.3 miles. 

Kaslo Subdivision — Between Three Forks and Kaslo, approximately 
25 miles, one man with power speeder. 




Tank Car Constructed by the Grand Trunk Railway 

For use in extinguishing forest fires along the railway line between Ottawa and Depot 

Harbour, Ontario, with especial reference to the protection of Algonquin Park. 




The Above Tank Car Being Tested 

The pressure is furnished bj' the locomotive which moves the car from place to place. 

From one to four streams of water can be thrown at once. Extra lengths of hose 

enable fires to be extinguished at a distance from the track. The railways 

have greatly improved the efficiency of their fire protection work. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 29 

Lines Under Construction 
Kootenay Central 

Between Golden and mileage 9 south, 9 miles, one man with veloci- 

•pede, to patrol thirty minutes after each train running over the 

line in the day time. 

Between Fort Steele and the southern boundary of the railway belt, 

-one patrolman on foot or horseback for each ten miles of the line 
under construction; provided, however, that if a co-operative agree- 

•ment shall be entered into between the company and the Lands Depart- 
ment of the province of British Columbia, whereby the patrol along 
this portion of the line is to be handled by said Department of Lands, 
such arrangement shall be considered a satisfactory substitute for the 
special patrols above enumerated. 



Under the preceding requirement, an arrangement was entered into 
"between the railway company and the provincial Department of Lands, 
by which the following system of patrols was maintained along the 
■line under construction between Fort Steele and Spillimacheen, 104 
miles: Between Fort Steele and Skookumchuck, 24 miles, one patrol- 
man with hand speeder; between Skookumchuck and Canal Flats, 23 
vmiles, one mounted patrolman ; between Canal Flats and Goldie Creek, 
.25 miles, one mounted patrolman; between Goldie Creek and Edge- 
water, 18 miles, one mounted patrolman; between Edgewater and 
Spillamacheen, 20 miles, one patrolman on hand speeder. As soon as 
track laying was completed, the mounted patrols were replaced by 
speeder patrolman with approximately same mileage to patrol. 



As a result of conferences between representatives of the railway 
company and the fire inspection staff of the Board in the field, power 
speeder patrols were substituted early in the season for nearly all of 
the velocipede patrols prescribed in the above letter for the Laggan, 
Cranbrook and Sirdar subdivisions of the Alberta division, and the 
Procter, Lardo, Slocan, Boundary, Phoenix, Rossland, Nakusp, 
:Sandon and Kaslo subdivisions of the British Columbia division. 

grand trunk pacific railway 
Lake Superior Division 

Between Dona, Ont., and the Ontario-Manitoba boundary, 331.2 
Tmiles, special patrol by the section force and other regular employees, 
with a minimum of one round trip per day. The work of these men 
:shall be supervised by a competent man, with power speeder, who 



30 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

shall devote his whole time to the supervision and inspection of the 
patrol and other fire protective work of the section crews. Between 
the Ontario-Manitoba boundary and Elma, Man., 35 miles, one man. 
with power speeder. 

Mountain Division 

Between Edmonton and Entwistle, Alberta, 66.1 miles, section 
patrol. Between Entwistle and Peers, 43.6 miles, one man with power 
speeder. 

On the Alberta Coal Branch, three men with power speeders as fol- 
lows : Between Bickerdike and Coalspur, Z7 miles ; between Coalspur 
and Lovett, 19.5 miles; and between Coalspur and Mountain Park^. 
approximately 30 miles. 

Between Peers and Galloway, 39.7 miles, one man with power 
speeder ; between Galloway and Dyke, 40.8 miles, one man with power 
speeder; between Dyke and Pocahontas, 18 miles, one man with veloci- 
pede; between Pocahontas and Jasper, 26 miles, one man with power- 
speeder; between Jasper and Yellowhead, 17 miles, one man with 
velocipede. 

Between Yellowhead and Shelley, B.C., 225.3 miles, five men with- 
power speeders, as follows: Between Yellowhead and Albreda, 44.8 
miles; between Albreda and McBride, 45.4 miles; between McBride 
and Kidd, 50.8 miles; between Kidd and Dewey, 40.4 miles; between. 
Dewey and Shelley, 43.9 miles. Between Shelley and the end of steel,, 
as it is laid in a westerly direction, an equivalent patrol shall be main- 
tained, as directed by the divisional fire inspector having jurisdiction. 
Between the end of steel which is being laid westerly from Prince 
George, and the end of steel which is being laid easterly from Words- 
worth, one foot patrolman shall be assigned for each ten miles of the 
line under construction: provided, however, that if a co-operative 
agreement shall be entered into between the company and the Lands 
Department of the Province of British Columbia, whereby the patrol' 
along this portion of the line is to be handled by said Department of 
Lands, such arrangement shall be considered a satisfactory substitute 
for the special patrols above enumerated. 

As track-laying is completed on the two portions of the line between 
Shelley and Rose Lake, power speeder patrols shall be established by 
the company, on the basis of one man for each 40 to 50 miles of track, 
as directed by the divisional fire inspector having jurisdiction. 

Between Rose Lake and Amsbury, 215.3 miles, four men with< 
power speeders, as follows: Between Rose Lake and Knockholt, 55.6 
miles; between Knockholt and Beament, 50.1 miles; between Beament 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 31 

and Cedarvale, 54.2 miles; between Cedarvale and Amsbury, 55.4 
miles. Between Amsbury and Prince Rupert, 85 miles, patrol by 
sectionmen, track-walkers and watchmen. 

great northern railway (british columbia) 

Cascade Division (Oii, Fuel) 

Between Vancouver and the International boundary, 36.2 miles; 
between Guichon and the International boundary via Cloverdale, 46.5 
miles; between Fraser River junction and Hazelmere, 20.3 miles; and 
between Kilgard and Abbottsf ord, 5 miles ; patrol by sectionmen, track- 
walkers and watchmen. Should coal fuel be used, special patrol to 
follow twenty minutes after each train. 

Marcus Division 

Second District — Between Waneta and Troup junction, 54.2 miles, 
two men with power speeders. 

Third District — Between Laurier and Grand Forks, 14.4 miles, one 
man with power speeder; between the International boundary at mile- 
age 66 near Midway and the International boundary at mileage 95.3 
near Bridesville, 29.3 miles, one man with power speeder supplemented 
by sectionmen if necessary. 

Fifth District — Between Rossland and mileage 12.3, 5 miles, one 
foot patrolman; between mileage 12.3 and Paterson, 3.9 miles, one 
foot patrolman. 

Sixth District — Between Grand Forks and Phoenix, 23.8 miles, 
patrol as follows: Between Spencer and mileage 11, 4.4 miles, special 
section patrol to follow all trains; between mileage 11 and mileage 15, 
4 miles, one foot patrolman ; between mileage 15 and mileage 19.5, 
4.5 miles, one foot patrolman; between mileage 19.5 and Phoenix, 
4.3 miles, one foot patrolman. 

Seventh District — Between Chopaka and Coalmont, 69.9 miles, one 
man with power speeder. On the line under construction between 
Coalmont and Otter Summit, approximately 32 miles, three foot patrol- 
men with approximately equal mileages. On the completion of this 
line, such power speeder patrols shall be established as shall be pre- 
scribed by the district fire inspector. 

Kauspell Division 

Between Michel and the International boundary at mileage 72.67, 
near Gateway, 72.67 miles, three men with power speeders as follows: 



Z2 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Between IMichel and Fernie, 20.9 miles; between Fernie and Mott, 
22i.77 miles ; between Mott and the International boundary near Gate- 
way, 26 miles. 

Spokane Division 

Between Port Hill and Wynndel, 12.1 miles, special section patrol to 
follow twenty minutes after each train, 

KETTLE VALLEY RAILWAY (BRITISH COLUMBIA) 

Between International boundary and Lynch Creek, approximately 
24 miles, section patrol; between Midway and Carmi, approximately 
46 miles, section patrol; between Carmi and Hydraulic summit, 
approximately 30 miles, two foot patrolmen with equal mileage; 
between Hydraulic summit and Canon creek, 11 miles, one foot 
patrolman. 

As soon as track is ballasted between Carmi and Canon creek, 41 
miles, the patrols specified for this part of the line shall be replaced 
by one foot patrolman between Carmi and Arlington lake, approxi- 
mately 10 miles, the balance of the section, that is, between Arlington 
lake and Canon creek, approximately 31 miles, to be patrolled by 
sectionmen. 

Between Canon creek and Sawmill creek, 11 miles, one foot 
patrolman ; between Sawmill creek and the long tunnel at mile 104 
west of Midway, approximately 15 miles, one foot patrolman, to be 
replaced by section patrol when track laid and ballasted to Sawmill 
creek. Between the long tunnel at mile 104 west of Midway and 
Penticton, approximately 20.5 miles, patrol by sectionmen ; between 
Penticton and Osprey lake, approximately 39 miles, patrol by sec- 
tionmen : between Osprey lake and Christina creek, approximately 
20 miles, patrol by two foot patrolmen with equal mileages; 
between Merritt and Otter Summit, approximately 30 miles, patrol by 
sectionmen. 

Power speeder shall follow twenty minutes after all trains over 
operated portions. Between Coquihalla summit and Hope, approxi- 
matelv 35 miles, two mounted patrolmen, patrol to be carried on con- 
tinuously between Hope and the summit. Patrols to be divided as 
follows : One man between Hope and Boston Bar creek and one man 
between Boston Bar creek and Coquihalla summit. 

ESQUIMALT AND NANAIMO RAILWAY (VANCOUVER ISLAND, B.C.) 

As oil fuel is used on the locomotives of this line, it is deemed 
unnecessary to prescribe special patrols. In view, however, of the 



THE RAILWAY FlRK SITUATION 33 

existence of other sources of railway fire danger than sparks from the 
locomotive stacks, it is considered necessary to require that you provide 
a patrol of not less than one round trip per day over the various por- 
tions of your line, through the sectionmen or other regular employees. 
This requirement shall include the line between McBride junction and 
Courtenay, 45 miles, as soon as this line shall be placed under operation. 
Should any coal burning engine be operated over any portion of 
your line, a special patrol following thirty minutes after such engine 
shall be provided. 

VICTORIA AND SIDNEY RAILWAY (VANCOUVER ISLAND, B.C.) 

The requirement with regard to the establishment of a specially 
organized force of employees, who shall devote all, or a considerable 
portion of their time to fire protection work, is waived, on the basis of 
the performance by the company of the following requirements : 

Between Victoria and Royal Oak, 5.5 miles, no special patrol will 
be necessary. 

Between Royal Oak and Sidney, 12.7 miles, two patrols each day 
by sectionmen or other employees to be designated by company. 

Locomotives to be equipped with 150 feet of one-inch hose, with 
facilities for attaching to injector feed pipe. 

Engineers to watch out for fires along track, train crews to extin- 
guish fire discovered if possible; if not possible for train crew to 
extinguish, to stop and notify nearest section foreman, who shall 
immediately proceed to fire. 

The company shall make arrangements with the city water station 
at Elk Lake, and with persons having telephone service at Keating, 
Saanichton, at Basin Bay Brick Co., and with James A. Johns, and 
with a resident in the vicinity of Elk Lake, under which arrangement 
the section foreman or the Victoria office of the company will be notified 
immediately of any fire discovered burning along the right-of-way. 

EDMONTON, DUNVEGAN AND BRITISH COLUMBIA RAILWAY 

(ALBERTA) 

Between Edmonton and mileage 65, 65 miles, patrol by sectionmen. 
Between mileage 65 and Athabaska Crossing, 65 miles, three men with 
velocipedes with approximately equal mileage. 

As the steel is laid westward from Athabaska Crossing, an 
equivalent velocipede patrol shall be established and maintained by 
the company. 

Between the end of steel and the western limit of construction 
work, one special patrolman shall be assigned for each 15 miles of the 
right-of-way through forest country upon which construction work is 
3— C.C. 



34 COMMISSION OF C O X S E R V A T I O X 

being carried on. These patrolmen shall so far as possible be mountecL 
but where this action is not practicable a foot patrol shall be maintained. 

CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY i EASTERN LINES) 

Atlantic Division 

Bay Shore Subdivision- — Between St. John and St. Stephen, 83.7 
miles, special -patrol by sectionmen, or by special patrolmen at option 
of company. 

Fredericton Subdivision — Between Fredericton Junction and 
Fredericton, 22.15 miles, one man with velocipede. 

vS'^. Andrezi's Subdivision — Between ^^'att junction and Chamcook,. 
23.11 miles, patrol by sectionmen. 

St. Stephen Subdivision — Between McAdam junction and St. 
Stephen, 33.91 miles, one man with power speeder. 

Woodstock Subdivision — Between ]\IcAdam junction and Canter- 
bury, 22.47 miles, one man with power speeder. 

Tobique Subdivision — Between Perth Junction and Plaster Rock,. 
27.49 miles, one man with velocipede. 

Gibson Subdivision — Between Newburg and Millville, 20.63 miles, 
and between Millville and Keswick, 26.59 miles, one man with power 
speeder. 

Lines in Quebec 

Moosehead Subdivision — Between Boundary and Megantic, 16.26 
miles, one man with velocipede. 

Eastern Division 

Megantic Subdivision— ^tiwttn Megantic and Scotstown. 25.00' 
miles, one man with velocipede. 

Laurentian Subdivision — Between Xomining and Mont Laurier,. 
34.47 miles, two men with velocipedes with approximately equal 
mileages. 

Waltham Subdivision — Between Davidson and Fort Coulonge, 1.94- 
miles, patrol by sectionmen. 

Timiskaming Subdivision — Between Mattawa and Timiskaming,. 
37.5 miles, two men with velocipedes. 

Kipawa Subdivision — Between Timiskaming and Kipawa, 10.5- 
miles, one patrolman. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 35 

GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY 

Province of Quebec — Between Lyster and Methot Mills, 17.84 
miles, one man with velocipede; between Walker's Cutting and St. 
Gregoire, 26.75 miles, patrol by track- walkers and other employees of 
the company. 

Province of Ontario — Between Pembroke and Depot Harbour, 
199.79 miles, and between Washago and North Bay, 128.7 miles, patrol 
by sectionmen. 

CANADIAN NORTHERN ONTARIO RAILWAY 

Between Sudbury and Severn River, 153.6 miles, and between Sud- 
bury and Ruel, 70.9 miles, patrol by sectionmen. 

CANADIAN NORTHERN QUEBEC RAILWAY 

Between Arundel and St. Sauveur, 20 miles, two men with power 
speeder, to make two round trips per day, once in the forenoon and 
once in the afternoon. This patrol to be made only on week days 
unless trains shall be run over the line in the day time on Sundays,. 
in which event the company shall provide a special patrol following 
each train. 

Between Riviere-a-Pierre and Hervey junction, 21 miles, two men 
with velocipedes, to make a minimum patrol of two round trips per 
day, including Sundays, once in the forenoon and once in the afternoon. 

TEMISCOUATA RAILWAY 

Between Whitworth and Ste. Rose, Que., 44.2 miles, special section- 
patrol following all trains, with minimum patrol of two round trips 
per day. 

On the balance of the line in Quebec and New Brunswick, the 
issuance of special instructions to employees will be considered 
satisfactory. 



VeivOcipede vs. Power Speeder Patroi^s 

There has been considerable discussion as to whether, everything 
considered, the best results are secured by equipping special patrol- 
men with track velocipedes or with power speeders. In the first 
case, using a velocipede, the patrolman must furnish his own 
motive power, by pumping the machine, and can, on an aver- 
age, cover a beat of about twenty miles of track, making one 
round trip per day, or about ten miles if two round trips are 
required. In the second case, using a power speeder, the motive 
power is a gasolene engine, and the patrolman can, on an average^ 



26 COM MISSION OF CONSERVATION 

cover at least twice as much mileage as a velocipede patrolman. This 
would be about forty miles of track, where one round trip per day is 
to be made, or twenty miles, where two round trips are required. 

Patrol by men with velocipedes is preferred by the Canadian 
Northern railway, on the basis of both efficiency and economy. It is 
argued that velocipede patrols are much more reliable, since the 
machines do not get out of order, as is frequently the case with power 
speeders. At the relatively low rate of wages paid patrolmen, it is 
often very difficult to secure men with sufficient mechanical ability to 
keep power speeders in running order, and the interruption of a patrol 
at a critical time in the dry season may result in a fire doing more dam- 
age than the total cost of all patrols for many years. It is argued, 
further, that without a gasolene engine on which to spend his time in 
making adjustments and repairs, the velocipede patrolman can put in 
about half of his time during the fire season in clearing up bad places 
along the right-of-way, thus reducing the actual cost of fire patrol to 
a lower figure than is practicable in the case of the power speeder 
patrolman. The fire inspector for the Canadian Northern railway 
maintains that, when the above points are fully considered, and the 
first cost and annual depreciation of velocipedes and power speeders 
compared, the velocipede patrol is cheaper in the long run, where the 
grades are not too heavy to make such action impracticable. 

On the other hand, there has been a strong tendency toward the 
use of power speeders on the Great Northern, Canadian Pacific and 
Grand Trunk Pacific railways, and their use has in general been 
approved by the British Columbia Forest Branch, notwithstanding some 
individual instances of failure due to the engine getting out of order. 

The following extracts from a report by W. C. Gladwin, Assistant 
Provincial Fire Inspector for British Columbia, are of interest in this 
connection : 

The most essential points in favour of power speeder patrol are 
these : First, a patrolman on a power speeder can keep within fifteen 
to twenty minutes of the train he is following, whether the grades are 
heavy or easy. He can carry tools to extinguish a fire that would equip 
four men and can carry a chemical fire extinguisher on his machine. 

Second, if he discovers a fire that is too large for him to extin- 
guish he can get quickly to where he can get help, and can carry two 
or three men besides himself back to the fire. This done quickly means 
everything in fire-fighting. 

Third, he can cover and patrol more efficiently a district two or 
three times larger than a hand speeder patrolman can, and not be nearly 
so fatigued. 

The following extracts from other reports by Mr. Gladwin 
throw additional light upon both advantages and disadvantages of 




Raii.way Fire Patroi^man with Velocipede 

One man can in this way patrol about twentj- miles of track, making one round trip 
per day, or ten miles of track if two round trips per day are required. 




Railway Fire Patrolmen with Power Speeder 

Such a patrol can cover about 40 miles of track, making one round trip per day, or 20 

miles making two round trips. Ordinarily, these patrols are handled by one 

man, though in some cases two men work together as shown here. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION ^7- 

power speeder patrols, as carried out during 1914 in southern British 

Columbia : 

Great Northern Power speeder patrolmen not capable, and unable to 
Railway keep speeder in repair. Example: — August 1, speeder- 

broke down. Patrolman stayed at Elko all day, the 
worst day for fires in four years. The northbound passenger started 
six fires between Baynes and Elko. They had to be looked after by 
Forest Branch officials. The next day the town of Elko was threatened^ 
costing the Forest Branch several hundred dollars to control it. 

In the early period of the dry season, a power speeder patrol can 
properly look after twenty-five to forty miles of track. As the danger 
increases, extra special foot patrolmen or hand speeder patrolmen 
should be placed in the most dangerous sections, supplemented again, 
as the hazard increases, by patrolmen sent out from section crews to 
inspect the most dangerous spots in their sections where a fire would 
probably start. Some days, when fires seem to start by the least little 
cause, a foot patrolman to every mile would pay in the long run. 

When their speeders broke down and it was neglected to send a 
man out from the section crews, any fires that were started by sparks 
from locomotives did damage and generally cost a considerable sum 
to put out. Incident : — May 22, a fire was started on the right-of-way 
between Salmo and Ymir by passing freight train. The power speeder 
was broken and patrolman did not follow this train. The section fore- 
man neglected to send out foot patrol from his crew to follow this 
freight. The patrolman following the passenger train some hours after 
discovered the fire and the result was that two section gangs and two 
Forest Branch officials worked ten hours to extinguish it. 

Arrangements were also made that, in case the patrolman on 
power speeder did not appear within his time, the patrol was taken up 
by a man from the section crew who would follow the train. This 
was effective. 

Another system they tried out proved efifective. The patrolman 
on power speeder in a dangerous country for fires would, as he came 
to a section crew, take one of them with him, and if a fire was dis- 
covered he would put the sectionman off to put it out. If no fires were 
discovered, he would carry this man to the section boundary and drop 
him off, and he would walk back to his crew, and so on with each 
section crew, making practically a double check. This system they 
intend to adopt next season. 

From Chopaka to Princeton, the power speeder patrol did not 
prove effective owing to the machine breaking down frequently. 
Whether this was the fault of not having a practical man in charge or 
not, is not known. Fires were started by locomotives and w^ere not 
properly attended to by the employees of the company, causing consid- 
erable damage to standing timber. The engines were properly equipped 
with fire protective appliances, and were inspected frequently. The 
situation got so grave that the railway company put on an oil-burning 
locomotive, and no fires were started afterwards. 



38 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Canadian Patrols were well maintained and relief granted when 

Pacific Railway and where necessary. The patrolmen equipped with 
power speeders demonstrated that they could take 
•care of a much larger section, and give more efficiency than patrol- 
men equipped with hand speeders, giving forty miles of a patrol and 
*close inspection where the grades are easy and danger from fire not 
rgreat. Also that the patrol should follow all trains not later than 
twenty minutes. Fires inside that time would not as a general rule be 
beyond control. 

Results show that during a season that is not counted as extra 
dangerous a power speeder patrolman can effectively cover a patrol 
of thirty-five miles in length, going a round trip per day. During a 
spell of weather when the danger of fire is great, experience shows that 
the patrol should be doubled and all trains during the daytime followed 
as close as ten to fifteen minutes. On one occasion the company had 
forty men on the fire exactly twenty minutes after the train that started 
the fire had passed. Conditions were so dry and dangerous that the 
fire had spread beyond control. It was also found necessary to put 
on, besides the extra power speeder patrol, a foot patrolman to watch 
extra dangerous localities. This proved effective. 

When patrolman followed trains within the prescribed time the 
patrol proved good, but when behind time more than thirty minutes, 
fires got away beyond control. Two destructive fires reported as origi- 
nating from sparks from locomotives got beyond control, costing large 
amount to control them. Estimated damage, $90,000. At present the 
cause of these fires is disputed by the railway company. 

Kettle Valley Excellent co-operation and results were secured from 
Railway this company during construction. A great part of 

this line is built through splendid timber. The right- 
of-way was cleared and burned properly, and, although this is in the 
dry belt, no fires escaped from the right-of-way clearing, which fur- 
nishes a splendid example of what can be done by a close and rigid 
inspection. Another aspect of this railway building is that this line 
passes through the watersheds of four large irrigation systems, and, 
owing to the very close patrol supervision, not an acre was burned over, 
although the danger from camp fires of men looking for work was 
very great. 

Summary of Fire Reports 

The fire season of 1913 was marked by relative freedom from 
serious fires, on account of the generally satisfactory distribution of 
rain. However, the season of 1914 was the most serious in many 
years in Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia and in the western 
portion of Quebec, dry spells of almost unprecedented severity occur- 
ring in both spring and autumn. In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
the eastern half of Quebec the climatic conditions were such that very 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 39 

little trouble from fire was experienced. The losses caused by fire over 
the whole Dominion were considerable, and there is no doubt that the 
losses along railway lines would have been very much greater had it 
not been for the preventive measures taken by the railways and by the 
Dominion and provincial agencies co-operating with them. 

The accompanying statements show all the information available 
with regard to fires in forest sections, originating within 300 feet of 
railway tracks, during the seasons of 1913 and 1914. Many incipient 
fires were extinguished in both years, of which the record is incomplete. 
Figures are not available as to fires in agricultural sections. 

The information available as to the situation in eastern Canada in 
1913 is very much less satisfactory than that relating to the west, 
partly on account of delay in organizing the eastern work in that year, 
and partly on account of insufficient inspection having been provided 
by the provincial governments which have co-operated with the Board. 
On account of incomplete organization in Ontario, it was not practi- 
cable to secure information relative to some of the fires which occurred 
during that year, particularly in the Muskoka section. This situation 
was greatly improved in 1914, and promises to be very efficiently 
handled during 1915. 

In general, it may safely be stated that the results which have been 
secured from the co-operative handling of the railway fire-protection 
work have been admirable. The occurrence and spread of railway fires 
has, beyond the possibility of a doubt, been greatly reduced. There is 
every reason to believe that the efficiency of the work will be still 
further increased during the coming year, through the extension and 
increased efficiency of the inspection staffs to be made available by the 
various co-operating agencies, especially in eastern Canada. For the 
most part, full credit must be given the railways for the fine attitude 
they have shown toward the work of the fire inspection department, 
and for their very general endeavor to comply honestly with the various 
requirements. 

It is reported that, in 1913, no-fires originated within 300 feet of the 
track in the case of the following railways : White Pass and Yukon, 
Esquimau and Nanaimo, Atlantic, Quebec and Western, Quebec 
Oriental, Rutland, Temiscouata, Central Railway of Canada, Western 
Canada Power Company. 

On account of incomplete organization at that time, no information 
is available as to the fire situation in 1913 along the following lines, 
which operate at least in part through forest sections : Algoma Cen- 
tral and Hudson Bay, Algoma Eastern, Central Ontario, Dominion 
Atlantic, Elgin and Havelock, Moncton and Buctouche, St. Martins, 



40 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Cumberland Railway and Coal Company. Fairly satisfactory informa- 
tion was, however, secured during 1914, as to these lines. 

No fires were reported during 1914 as originating within 300 feet 
of the track, along the Quebec Oriental, Atlantic, Quebec and Western, 
Quebec, Montreal and Southern, and Salisbury and Albert railways. 

The following lines do not operate to any material extent through 
forest sections and fire statistics have accordingly not been secured : 
Bay of Quinte, Brockville, Westport and Northwestern, Klondike 
Mines, Michigan Central, Ottawa and New^ York, Pere jSIarquette, 
Schomberg and Aurora, Thousand Islands, Oshawa, Toronto, Hamil- 
ton and Buffalo, Wabash, Essex Terminal. 





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44 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

There has been very satisfactory comphance by rail- 
to Railway '^'^'^y companies with the Board's requirements for the 
Employees issuance of instructions to employees relative to the 
reporting and extinguishing of fires along railway lines. The form 
of instructions issued follows closely, in most cases, the draft prepared 
by the Board and submitted to the railways for their consideration. 
While undoubtedly these instructions have not been strictly observed 
in all cases, their issuance has unquestionably improved the railway 
fire situation very materially, and this improvement may be expected 
to continue. 

An example of such instructions may be seen at page 70 of this 
report. 

Inspection of The inspection of fire-protective appliances on loco- 
Appiiancer*^^^ motives is under the jurisdiction of the operating 
department of the Board. However, during 1913 and 
1914, 28 local officials of the fire inspection department were instructed 
in this work, in co-operation with the operating department. This 
makes a total of 33 of the local fire inspectors in this department who 
have been so instructed. The services of these men in connection with 
this fine of work are especially valuable as to railway lines under con- 
struction, and the more remote branches of railways in forest sections,, 
since they supplement materially the regular inspections by operating 
department officials. 

Oil fuel is in exclusive use on 477 miles of the Cana- 
p„gl dian Pacific railway, on 134 miles of the Esquimalt and" 

Nanaimo railway, and on 115 miles of the Great 
Northern railway, a total of 726 miles, all in British Columbia. In no 
case has a definite report been submitted of a fire caused by an oil- 
burning engine in Canada. The Grand Trunk Pacific railway has 
announced that during the spring and early summer of 1915, oil- 
burning engines will be installed on that portion of its lines in British 
Columbia and Alberta between Prince Rupert and Jasper, a distance 
of 718 miles. It is expected that this action will materially decrease 
the danger of fire along this portion of the line. The use of oil fuel is 
purely voluntary with the railways, and its adoption is dictated alto- 
gether by business considerations. 

During the past two years, complaints have been received by the 
Board as to fire danger resulting from the use as locomotive fuel of 
certain classes of western coals. In order to secure expressions of 
opinion from all concerned, the Board issued Circular No. 141, under 
date of January 25, 1915. containing the suggestion that it might be- 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 45 

■considered advisable to require a different kind of spark-arresting 
•device, on engines using such coals, than the standard screen prescribed 
in Regulation 2 of General Order No. 107. The replies received 
indicated the need for further investigation, and, as a result, the situa- 
tion will be carefully studied during the coming year, in the hope that 
some solution of the problem may be found that will cause the least 
possible hardship to all the interests affected. Both the Commission of 
Conservation and the Mines Branch of the Department of Mines are 
co-operating in the investigation, the latter having assisted materially 
ty making a number of analyses of samples of coal from the mines in 
question. 

It is fully recognized that the condition of the right- 
Clearing" of-way is a very important factor in determining the 
extent of railway fire hazard. The best evidence indi- 
cates that, of locomotive sparks capable of setting fire, a large percent- 
age — though by no means all—^fall within a distance of fifty feet from 
the track, and will thus be within the average railway right-of-way. In 
many cases where fires burn over lands adjacent to railway rights-of- 
way, the fires originate in the first place upon the right-of-way, that is, 
at a distance of fifty feet or less from the track. Dry grass and weeds, 
bark peelings, or other inflammable matter, if allowed to accumulate 
upon the right-of-way, enable even very small sparks to start a blaze, 
which may readily communicate to lands adjacent to the right-of-way 
containing timber or other property liable to damage or destruction by 
fire. Fires resulting from cigars and cigarettes thrown from trains, 
or dropped by pedestrians, as well as fires due to the carelessness of 
sectionmen, almost invariably start upon the right-of-way. 

The importance of rendering the right-of-way as nearly fireproof 
as practicable thus becomes obvious, not only from the point of view 
of public policy, but also from a purely selfish interest of the railways 
themselves, if there be reasonable consideration of potential earnings 
from passenger and freight traffic, as also of the expense incurred in 
the litigation and settlement of damage claims. 

To maintain the right-of-way reasonably free from inflammable 
matter, constant attention on the part of railway employees is required. 
On some railways, or portions of railways, this matter has not received 
sufficient attention in the past, in part due to the limited staff of sec- 
tionmen being fully occupied in keeping the track in order and attend- 
ing to other duties of an imperative character. In some cases, usually 
due to crippled financial condition, the debris resulting from the 
original clearing of right-of-way has never been disposed of. In other 
cases, provision has been regularly made for the adequate handling of 



46 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

this work, including disposal of the annual accumulation of dry grass, 
weeds, etc. Experience has, however, shown that in the case of many 
railways, a close inspection by the Board assists materially in securing 
an efficient handling of this work by railway companies. Much atten- 
tion has accordingly been paid to this matter by the fire inspection 
department, and probably more progress was made in right-of-way 
clearing work during 1914 than in any previous year. 

p. . The problem of railway fire protection through forest 

Outside sections can never be solved satisfactorily until ade- 

Rights-of-way quate provision is made for the disposal of inflammable 
debris on lands immediately adjacent to railway rights-of-way. In 
most cases the removal of inflammable debris from a strip of even 50 
feet outside the right-of-way would decrease the fire hazard materially, 
though 100 feet would be much preferable. 

In no part of Canada thus far has there been an adequate handling 
of this matter, through both legislative and administrative action. As 
in other matters of forest protection, however, the situation is most 
favourable in British Columbia. In that province, under the Forest 
Act, and the provisions of the new form of license in effect since 
1912, much progress has been made in securing the disposal of recent 
slash along railway lines under construction. The adjacent timber 
lands are very generally Crown lands, and the cutting operations are, 
for the most part, by contractors, in connection with securing material 
for ties and other construction purposes. Here, as also in the case of 
timber licenses recently issued, there is provision for enforced brush 
disposal, and the policy has been adopted of safeguarding, so far as 
practicable, a strip of limited width on both sides of the right-of-way. 
The situation is very different, however, as to lines constructed before 
1912. The timber licenses along these lines of railway are of older 
standing and they do not contain the effective brush disposal pro- 
visions of those issued during the past three years. As a rule, timber 
lands along these railway lines were cut over years ago, they being 
naturally among the most accessible. No provision for brush dis- 
posal was made, either by the operators or by the provincial govern- 
ment. In most cases, these operations were carried on before the 
question of brush disposal on lumbering operations was seriously 
raised in either Canada or the United States. The result is a serious 
fire hazard, in the form of highly inflammable lumbering debris, as 
well as dry grass and weeds, immediately adjacent to a very consider- 
able railway mileage. While the percentage of live sparks liable to 
fall outside the right-of-way is small, still some fires do result, and the 
severity of these fires, and the difficulty of controlling them, are greatly 




Kettle Vaeeey Railway Right-of-Way 
After piling and burning of debris. \'ernon District, B. C. 




Brush Piling Along Tote Road 
Incident to (rrand Trunk Pacific Railway- construction. Tete Jaune District, B. C. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 47 

increased by this inflammable debris. Small fires starting on the 
right-of-way also spread quickly to this debris, so that bad fires result 
before the patrolmen or section crews can reach the scene. If the 
inflammable matter could be disposed of, by burning, at a safe time, 
a strip of 50 to 100 feet in width outside the right-of-way, the 
situation would be tremendously improved, since fewer fires would 
start, and there would be a much better chance to reach these before 
they got beyond control. 

There is a provision in the Forest Act of British Columbia (Sec 
123) which provides that the Minister of Lands or the Provincial 
Forest Board shall have the power to declare any inflammable material 
w'hich endangers life or property a public nuisance, and to require the 
land owner or occupier, or the operator, to dispose of same. 

Another section (124) provides that, when the safety of any forest^ 
or woodland, or cut timber is endangered by the debris caused by 
any lumbering or other industrial operations, the Minister or the 
Forest Board may require the person or corporation conducting such 
operations, or the owner or occupier of the land on which such debris 
exists, to cut down dead debris or stubs within such area, and to estab- 
lish a safe fire line around the area or areas covered by such debris;, 
said fire line to be cleared of inflammable material, and to be of a 
width and character satisfactory to the Minister or to the Provincial 
Forest Board. 

However, advantage has not been generally taken of these pro- 
visions to require a clean-up of slashings on old cuttings, along rail- 
way lines, where the hazard to settlements is not severe. The cost 
of carrying out such work is necessarily a serious obstacle to its rapid 
and general completion. On the other hand, a small beginning has 
been made in some places, by the Forest Branch, in persuading land 
owners to voluntarily clean up dangerous slashings along railway lines. 
The existence, in the Forest Act, of the provisions above referred to,.. 
has undoubtedly aided materially in enabling the Forest Branch to 
secure such co-operation. The voluntary action of the timber land 
owners alone will not, however, prove adequate in securing the handling 
of this problem generally, in British Columbia or elsewhere. The 
situation in British Columbia will no doubt steadily improve, through 
gradual application of the strong provisions of the Forest Act. 

In all the provinces of Eastern Canada this situation is very mucb 
less satisfactory than in British Columbia, since, so far as known, 
there is no legislation applicable, nor, with few exceptions, do any 
material results appear to have been accomplished, by co-operation 
between the agencies concerned. In many sections, the lands adjacent 



48 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

to railway lines have been so frequently and so completely burned 
over that the slashings have been consumed, and the problem has been 
changed from one of brush disposal as a preventive measure, to one of 
general fire protection, in order to permit the re-establishment of a 
young forest growth. 

The governments of Ontario and Quebec have, however, given 
some consideration to the matter of legislation somewhat similar to 
the provisions of the British Columbia Forest Act above referred to, 
with a view of making it possible to enforce the disposal of inflammable 
debris where the same is a menace to life or property. 

The Forest Fires Prevention Act of Ontario has been amended 
(Bill Xo. 110, third reading, April 27, 1914,) by providing that the 
municipal council of any city, town or township, may file a statement 
with the Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, where it appears that 
the condition of any land within the limits of the municipality or 
adjacent thereto is, by reason of unfinished clearing, a source of 
danger from fire to property within the municipality. The Minister 
is authorized, after investigation, to require the owner to properly 
clean up the land, to such an extent as may be necessary to remove 
the source of danger from fire. Since this amendment apparently 
requires the initiative to be taken in each case by the municipal council, 
it seems doubtful whether it will prove as eftective as would be the 
case could the initiative be taken by any interested party, or by the 
Minister direct. This section is not applicable to ordinary lumbering 
slash on non-agricultural lands under license from the provincial gov- 
ernments, but only to lands located, purchased, assigned or occupied 
for agricultural purposes. It is, therefore, not sufficient to meet the 
general situation above described. 

It is believed that, so far as existing slash is concerned, the ade- 
quate solution of this problem demands the enactment, in each of 
the eastern provinces, of an act similar to that in British Columbia, 
authorizing some executive officer, for instance, the Minister having 
jurisdiction over the Crown lands of the province, to issue an order 
requiring the owner or lessee of forest lands adjacent to railway lines 
to make satisfactory disposal of inflammable debris on a strip of 
specified width adjacent to railway rights-of-way, where, in the judg- 
ment of such officer, this action is necessary in the public interest, as 
a matter of fire protection. In the case of Crown timber lands under 
license, the question would, of course, have to be considered whether 
the licensee should bear the whole cost of this work, or a portion 
should be borne by the provincial government. In the case of Crown 
lands not under license, the whole cost must obviously fall upon the 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 49 

province, unless the co-operation of the railway concerned in each 
case, or of limit-holders threatened by the slashing, could be secured. 
As to Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, the provision would appar- 
ently be through action by the Dominion Government, since a very 
large percentage of the timber lands along railway lines in these pro- 
vinces is held under Dominion timber license. 

Legislation should also be enacted, to provide against the accumula- 
tion of inflammable debris from future cutting operations on lands 
immediately adjacent to railway rights-of-way. Such legislation should 
be made applicable to settlers' clearings as well as to lumbering opera- 
tions. Laws which include provisions for the disposal of slashings 
along railway lines are in effect in Minnesota, Oregon, New York and 
New Jersey, and are advocated in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Maine, and several other states. It will thus be seen that the necessity 
for action of this kind is becoming recognized to a constantly increasing 
extent. 

Pending such legislation, there is unquestionably a wide field for 
either individual or co-operative action by the various interests con- 
cerned. Of these interests, the chief are the provincial governments, 
the railways, and the owners or licensees of timber lands along railway 
lines. Varying degrees of co-operation would be justified, according 
to the circumstances surrounding each case. While the provincial 
governments and the limit-holders, and, in some cases, the municipali- 
ties, should undoubtedly either co-operate or take individual action in 
this matter, the railways are also directly interested, and are fully 
justified in many cases in incurring expense, either alone or on a co- 
operative basis, for eliminating fire hazards of this character. 

As an example of the policy adopted by one of the most progressive 
railways in matters of fire protection, the following statement, by Mr. 
E. A. Ryder, Commissioner, Department of Fire Claims, Boston and 
Maine railroad, is quoted : 

" We burn over our right-of-way each spring and autumn, but, under 
certain conditions, sparks from locomotives will fall outside thereof, 
and we naturally felt that something should be done to avoid fires on 
property contiguous to our right-of-way. We have, therefore, asked 
the owners to clear back or burn the inflammable material, such as 
slash, dry grass, etc., and, if for any reason they have been unable 
to do it, we have asked their permission to let us do the work at our 
expense. Last year [1913] we cleared 75 such places. We believe 
it is a good investment. We know it has been the means of preventing 
many fires, and we also know that it is a good example to a large 
number of land owners contiguous to our property as well as others. 
We figure that our moral obligation extends at least to the limit we 
can get protection. The added expense is not very great, because we 
4 — c. c. 



50 COMMISSION OF COXSERVATION 

try to have our men do such work on rainy days, when there is no 
track work they can do. \\'hile there are laws in the states of Massa- 
chusetts and New Hampshire regarding the removal of slash, we are 
glad to state that the people are gradually growing more wiUing to 
allow strips of their property alongside the railroad to be burned or 
cleared for fire protection purposes. We are trying to make people 
see that, while preventing fire claims is a large factor, we also have 
a great interest in conserving our forests, because they mean lumber, 
and lumber means freight, and freight means revenue; and further. 
New England, being the vacation grounds of this country (so we think, 
at least), we must do everything to maintain its picturesqueness. which, 
to a large extent, is due to its woods, so that we may secure the pas- 
senger revenue therefrom." 

Although it should not be necessary for railways to incur expense 
for the disposal of inflammable debris outside rights-of-way in forest 
sections, and such action can not be expected except under the most 
unusual circumstances, nevertheless some excellent results have been 
secured during 1914 through co-operation between railways and gov- 
ernmental as well as private agencies. In a few cases,, particularly 
along the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific (eastern lines) railways, 
there was co-operation between the railway company and the owners 
of adjacent lands, resulting in the disposal of inflammable debris on a 
narrow strip adjacent to the right-of-way. The best example of this 
occurred in Algonquin Park, Ont., where the provincial Department 
of Lands, Forests and Mines employed a gang of men and cleared up 
the inflammable debris along a portion of the Grand Trunk right-of- 
way and lands immediately adjacent thereto, the Grand Trunk man- 
agement bearing one-half the cost. It is expected that this arrange- 
ment will be continued in 1915, until the line through the park shall 
have been covered. 

Along the Canadian Pacific line, through theShawanaga and Nipis- 
sing Indian reserves in Ontario, the Department of Indian Affairs 
disposed of inflammable debris on a strip adjacent to the railway, the 
company having cleared up the right-of-way independently. 

In each of the above cases, the Department concerned is entitled 
to much credit for its progressive action. 



Fire-Guard Construction 

The question of fire-guard requirements in the Prairie provinces 
has received most thorough consideration by the Board's fire inspection 
department since its inception, in the spring of 1912. The require- 
ments for that year (see Forest Protection in Canada, 1912, p. 34) 
were necessarilv substantiallv those which had been in effect under the 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 51 

previous requirements of the Board, embraced in Orders No. 3,245 
and 15,995. In other words, sixteen feet of ploughing was required, at 
a distance of 300 feet from the track, without reference to the character 
of the land in question, except where a showing should be made by 
the company that such ploughing was unnecessary or impracticable. 

As outlined at page 36 of Forest Protection in Canada^ 1912, the 
matter of revising the fire-guard requirements for 1913 was exhaus- 
tively taken up in the fall of 1912, by circulars, which were sent to 
hundreds of representative farmers throughout the prairie provinces, 
as well as to provincial government officials, and representatives of all 
the railways concerned. A heavy correspondence followed the receipt 
of the answers to the questions contained in the circular. After most 
careful consideration of the many opinions expressed, including the 
preliminary submission, for criticism, of tentative drafts of require- 
ments to railway officials and representatives of the Grain Growers' 
associations of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, as well as to 
provincial government representatives, a final draft of requirements 
was prepared and issued to railways concerned, as follows: 

board of railway commissioners for canada 

Fire; Inspection Department, Ottawa 

May 24, 1913 

To The Canadian Pacific Railway Company, The Canadian Northern 
Railway Company, The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Company, 
The Great Northern Railway Company: 

Subsection 4 of Section 298 of the Railway Act provides that " The 
Board may order, upon such terms and conditions as it deems expe- 
dient, that fire-guards be established and maintained by the company 
along the route of its railway and upon any lands, of His Majesty or 
of any person, lying along such route, and, subject to the terms and 
conditions of any such order, the company may at all times enter into 
and upon such lands for the purpose of estabhshing and maintaining 
such fire-guards thereon, and freeing, from dead or dry grass, weeds 
and other unnecessary inflammable matter, the land between such fire- 
guards and the line of railway." 

Regulation 9 of Order 16,570, provides that " every such railway 
company shall establish and maintain fire-guards along the route of 
its railway as the Chief Fire Inspector may prescribe." 

You are accordingly required to establish and maintain fire-guards 
on both sides of the right-of-way, along the route of your railway, in 
the Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, as follows : 

Cultivated Lands — On lands under cultivation, fire-guards shall be 
constructed in the form of a ploughed strip not less than eight feet in 
width, not less than 100 feet from the centre of the track. All dead oi 



52 ■ COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

dry grass and other unnecessary combustible matter shall be burned 
or otherwise removed from the right-of-way. \\'here the right-of-way 
is 200 feet in width, the fire-guard may be ploughed at the outer edge 
of the right-of-way immediately inside the fence. 

The construction of fire-guards is not required where, on account 
of recent ploughing, or the presence of non-combustible crop, there is 
no danger of fire spreading and doing damage. 

The construction of fire-guards in standing grain or other similar 
crops is not required, but lire-guards shall be constructed as above pre- 
scribed immediately following the cutting or harvesting of such crops. 

Your attention is called to the requirement of Order No. 16,570, 
that "' Xo such railway company shall permit its employees, agents, or 
contractors to enter upon land under cultivation, to construct fire- 
guards, without the consent of the owner or occupant of such lands," 
and that " Wherever the owner or occupant of such land objects to the 
construction of fire-guards, on the ground that said construction would 
involve unreasonable loss or damage to property, the Company shall 
at once refer the matter to the Board, giving full particulars thereof, 
and shall in the meantime refrain from proceeding with the work." 
Said order also provides that " Xo agent, employee or contractor of 
any such railway company shall permit gates to be left open or to cut 
or leave fences down, whereby stock or crops may be injured, or do 
any other unnecessary damage to property, in the construction of fire- 
guards." 

Where the owner or owners of cultivated lands have refused the 
company permission to plough fire-guards on such lands, and where, on 
account of weather conditions or other reasons, the dead 'or dry grass 
and other unnecessary combustible matter on the right-of-way has not 
been burned ofif or otherwise removed, the company shall construct a 
fire-guard along the outer edge of the right-of-way in the form of a 
ploughed strip not less than eight feet in width. Such ploughing along 
the outer edge of the right-of-way shall be done either before or imme- 
diately following such cutting or harvesting of crops on the adjacent 
cultivated lands. 

Fenced Grazing Lands — On fenced, uncultivated lands, fire-guards 
shall be constructed and maintained in the form of a ploughed strip not 
less than 16 feet in width, not less than 200 feet from the centre of 
the track. All dead or dry grass and other unnecessarv^ combustible 
matter shall be burned or otherwise removed from the right-of-way. 

Open Prairie — On unfenced, uncultivated lands, fire-guards shall be 
constructed and maintained in the form of a ploughed strip not less 
than 16 feet in width, not less than 300 feet from the centre of the 
track. All dead or dry grass and other unnecessary combustible matter 
between such ploughed strip and the track shall be burned or otherwise 
removed from such strip. 

Aspen or Poplar Lands — In sections where fire-guards are neces- 
sary and, on account of aspen or poplar growth it is impracticable to 
plough, the fire-guard may be constructed by clearing away such trees 
and undergrowth and removing all combustible material on the ground, 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 53 

SO as to expose the mineral soil, for a width of 16 feet, at a distance 
of approximately 200 feet from the centre of the track. 

Additional Provisions — Where there are alternating bodies of cul- 
tivated, fenced, grazing, open prairie, or poplar lands, the ends of the 
fire-guards above prescribed shall, so far as possible, be so connected 
as to make an unbroken, continuous fire-guard. 

Wherever, for any reason, it is not practicable to construct a con- 
tinuous fire-guard as above specified, the ends of the constructed por- 
tions of the fire-guard shall be turned in to the right-of-way, and 
special care shall be taken to connect such ends, either by ploughing a 
strip eight feet wide along the outer edge of the right-of-way, or by 
burning or otherwise removing the combustible matter along such 
right-of-way, in such a manner as to provide good and efficient pro- 
tection against the spread of fire to lands which have been properly 
fire guarded. 

The construction of fire-guards shall be completed, as above spe- 
cified, not later than the first day of August, 1913, except as to culti- 
vated lands, where the requirements as to time of construction, above 
specified under that heading, shall be observed. Between the date of 
construction and the 15th day of May, 1914, said fire-guards shall be 
maintained in a good and efficient manner, and dead or dry grass and 
other unnecessary combustible matter shall be burned or otherwise 
disposed of, on lands or portions of lands between such fire-guards and 
the track, in accordance with the above requirements. 

W^here a fire-guard has been ploughed within two years, in accord- 
ance with the above specifications, the operation of discing and harrow- 
ing will be acceptable instead of reploughing, provided that all weeds 
and other inflammable material are disced and harrowed under the fur- 
row, so as to make a good and efficient fire-guard. Otherwise, replough- 
ing is required. 

The provisions of this order shall apply to the portions of the line 
under construction, in the three provinces named, the same as to por- 
tions under operation. In other words, fire-guards shall be constructed 
at the time grading is done on each new portion of the line. 

The foregoing requirements shall apply to all lines of the company 
in the three provinces named, except where the company shall be specifi- 
cally exempted from such requirements on the basis of a showing by 
the company that such construction and maintenance of fire-guards is 
either unnecessary or impracticable. The list of such specific exemp- 
tions will accompany another letter, at a later date, after a field inspec- 
tion by this department on the basis of the showing made or to be 
made by the company in this connection. In the meantime, the com- 
pany must proceed upon the basis of constructing and maintaining fire- 
guards as above specified, except where such action is clearly imprac- 
ticable or unnecessary. 

The company shall submit to the Chief Fire Inspector for the Board,, 
at Ottawa, not later than November 1st, 1913, a report in triplicate, in 
the form of a graphic chart, showing by mileages, subdivisions, and 
provinces the portions of the line in the three provinces named where 
fire-guards shall have been constructed or exemptions granted, and 



54 COM MISSION OF CONSERVATION 

where and for what reason there shall have been failure to comply with 
the requirements of this order. Said report shall account fully in the 
above respects for all lines of the company in the said provinces, 
including lines under construction. 

In every case where the owner or occupant of cultivated land objects 
to the construction of fire-guards, the name and address of such owner 
or occupant, together with the description of the land in question, 
both by legal subdivision and railway mileage, shall be immediately 
submitted to the Board, as provided in Regulation 9 of Order 16,570, 
above referred to. This information shall also be shown upon the 
graphic chart constituting the annual report. Exemption by the Chief 
Fire Inspector is not necessary in such cases, since Order 16,570 
specifically prescribes the procedure. 

Very truly yours 

(Signed) Cl\T)E Leavitt 

Chief Fire Inspector, B.R.C. 

The principal points in which the above requirements 

Synopsis of ^j^^^. ^^^^^ ^j^^gg hsned in 1912 are as follows: 

Variations 

(1) A specific classification of lands, with separate 

treatment prescribed for each. 

(2) Eight feet of ploughing, instead of sixteen, in the case of cul- 
tivated lands; only the right-of-way to be burned ofif. Distance from 
track, 100 feet instead of 300. 

(3) In fenced grazing lands, ploughing to be at a distance of 200 
feet from the track, instead of 300 feet. Requirement for burning off 
grass between guard and track reduced to cover burning off of right-of- 
way only; this to decrease loss of pasturage. 

It will be noted that this order made it necessary for railway com- 
panies to handle the fire-guarding of cultivated lands in substantially 
the same way as open prairie and fenced grazing lands, viz., by the 
contract system. In practice, however, great difficulty was found in 
securing permission of land owners or occupants to enter for the pur- 
pose of fire-guarding. Much time was lost by the necessity for repeated 
visits, by railway representatives, in order to find the owner or occu- 
pant. Unnecessary expense was in some sections incurred in ploughing 
fire-guards in grain stubble where the climatic conditions did not render 
such action necessary. Farmers were subject to annoyance by railway 
employees, in connection with the granting or refusal of permission to 
enter upon cultivated land, and also through the danger of fences being 
cut and gates left open in connection with fire-guarding operations. It 
was also found very difficult, if not impracticable, to handle the fire- 
guarding of grain stubble lands efficiently under the contract system 
applicable to open prairie and fenced grazing lands, on account of the 




i^ .^iLC^L. 



Tie Slash ix Connection with Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Construction 

A fire under these circumstances would mean the practically complete destruction of 

the forest. Under present regulations, such debris must be piled and burned 

in order to reduce fire hazard. Northern British Columbia. 




RaiIvWay Right-of-way After the Cutting of Grass 
In accordance with section 297 of the Railway Act. Fire danger greatly reduced 



Ontario. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 55 

difference in the time at which the work must be done. In the case of 
open prairie and fenced grazing land, the requirement called for the 
completion of construction by August 15. Obviously, fire danger in 
growing grain crops being negligible as a rule, fire-guarding should not 
take place until immediately after the cutting of the grain. It must, 
however, be done immediately after that operation, or the fire hazard 
will, in many sections, be great. The problem was further complicated 
by the materially different times at which cutting of grain takes place 
in the same sections of the country. Thus, in order to secure efficient 
results in stubble fire-guarding, the railway company must not only 
provide for the handling of this work at a later date than that pre- 
scribed for open prairie and fenced grazing land, but must also provide 
for the separate handhng of the work in each grain stubble field. 

These difficulties were obvious, and had been consid- 
Guarding ^^^^ ^° some extent previous to the issuance of cir- 

cular of May 24, 1913, without, however, the develop- 
ment of any practicable method of obviating them up to that time. 
During the early summer, however, the matter was further taken up, 
principally by personal investigation in the field. The result was a joint 
conference at Winnipeg, on August 6, 1913, at which were present 
representatives of the three railways most concerned, and of the Grain 
■Growers' associations of the three prairie provinces, as well as the 
Ghief Fire Inspector of the Board. Following this conference, the 
following circular was issued : * 

board of railway commissioners for canada 

Firs Inspection Departme;nt 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Aug. 8, 1913 

To The Canadian Pacific Railway Company, The Canadian Northern 
Railway Company, The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Company, 
The Great Northern Railway Company: 

Reference is made to my letter of May 24, 1913, containing require- 
ments for the construction of fire-guards along railway lines in the 
provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. 

As a result of a conference held at Winnipeg, August 6, 1913, with 
representatives of the C.P.R., C.N.R., G.T.P.R., United Farmers of 
Alberta, Grain Growers' Association of Saskatchewan, and Grain 
Growers' Association of Manitoba, the following modifications are 
liereby made in the requirements prescribed in said letter of May 24, 
1913: 

Fenced Grazing Lands— No change in requirements. 

Open Prairie — No change in requirements. 



56 COMMISSION' OF C O X S E R V A T I O X 

Aspen or Poplar Lands — Xo change in requirements. It is, how- 
ever, suggested that fire-guarding of this class of land is generally 
unnecessary, and that exemptions may properly be requested in such 
cases, as provided in letter of May 24, 1913. Especial care must, how- 
ever, be taken to construct fire-guards, where practicable, along lines 
running through or near forest reserves. 

Cultivated Lands — All grass, brush, weeds and other unneces- 
sary combustible matter shall be burned or otherwise removed, between 
the track and the edge of the cultivated land, provided that this require- 
ment shall not extend more than ten feet outside the right-of-way on 
private land. Every effort must be made to have this work completed 
in an efficient manner at the earliest practicable date this autumn. 
\\'here mowing is necessary to secure a clean burn, this action must be 
taken. 

It is generally agreed that if the right-of-way and adjacent narrow 
uncultivated strip are freed from combustible material, in accordance 
with the above requirements, the greatest source of fire danger in cul- 
tivated sections will have been removed, and that, while in some sec- 
tions and under some conditions the ploughing of fire-guards through 
cultivated land will still be necessary, in other sections and under other 
conditions such action is not essential to a reasonable degree of safety. 
It is also agreed that in general the best judge of the necessity for 
ploughing fire-guards through cultivated lands is the owner or occupant 
of the land himself, and that, where such action is necessary, some 
degree of co-operation on the part of the land owner or occupant may 
reasonably be expected. 

You are accordingly required, in addition to the measures above pre- 
scribed, to plough either four-foot or eight-foot fire-guards through 
cultivated lands adjaceflt to your lines in the provinces of Alberta, 
Saskatchewan and ^Nlanitoba. wherever such action is necessary in the 
judgment of the owner or occupant of such land, and where such 
owner or occupant will undertake to plough, immediately following the 
harvest, either a four-foot or an eight-foot fire-guard, as he may con- 
sider necessary, at a distance of approximately 100 feet from the 
track, for a remuneration of $1.75 per lineal mile of four-foot fire- 
guard, or S3.00 per lineal mile of eight-foot fire-guard, such amount 
to be promptly paid by the company, it being understood that the 
minimum amount to be paid in any case shall be one dollar. 

\\'here the owner or occupant of such cultivated land is unwilling 
to undertake the construction of fire-guards in accordance with the 
above, the company will exercise its discretion as to whether it will 
make other arrangements for the ploughing of fire-guards or leave such 
lands unguarded. In case the owner or occupant will neither contract 
for the construction of such fire-guards nor permit such work to be 
done by an agent of the company, the company may either drop the 
matter of fire-guarding or make application to the Board for authority 
to enter upon such land for the purpose of fire-guard construction, over 
the protest of such owner or occupant. Such refusal must, however, be 
reported to the Board, as required by General Order 107 and by letter 
of Mav24. 1913. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION ST 

The construction of fire-guards is not required where, on account 
of recent ploughing or the presence of a non-combustible crop, there is 
no danger of fire spreading and doing damage. 

It is clearly understood that nothing contained in this letter shall 
be construed as in the slightest degree affecting the statutory respon- 
sibihty of the company for the payment of damage claims on account 
of fires. 

It is also understood that the above modifications of the require- 
ments contained in letter of May 24, 1913, are experimental, and that 
requirements as to fire-guard construction for the season of 1914 will 
depend upon the showing made in connection with the requirements 
for the current season. 

The forms to be used in presenting the above matter for the signa- 
ture of land owners or occupants shall be subject to the approval of 
the Chief Fire Inspector. Such forms, after signature, shall be avail- 
able for examination by any authorized officer of the Board. 

The graphic chart, in triplicate, comprising the annual report, 
required by letter of May 24, 1913, to be submitted not later than 
November 1, 1913, shall, as to cultivated lands, indicate lands fire- 
guarded, lands on which fire-guarding is stated by the owner or occu- 
pant to be unnecessary, lands on which permission to construct fire- 
guards has been refused by owner or occupant, lands exempted because 
fire-guard ploughing is unnecessary on account of recent ploughing, the 
presence of non-combustible crop, climatic conditions, or other reason, 
if any, wdiy fire-guards have not been ploughed. 

Your attention is directed to the fact that a strict enforcement by 
the company of Regulation 13 of General Order 107, with regard to 
the reporting and extinguishing of fire by all employees, is desirable 
in the prairie sections, and would undoubtedly not only reduce damage 
claims, but also make possible some relaxation of the requirements as 
to the ploughing of fire-guards. 

The issuance and posting of full instructions to employees, in 
printed form, as required by Regulation 14 of General Order 107. is 
necessary in this connection. This action has not yet been generally 
taken in the prairie section, by the companies concerned. 

In view of the above modifications, supplementary requests for 
exemption from fire-guard construction may be submitted at any time 
prior to October 1, 1913. 

Yours very truly 

(Signed) Ci^yde; Leavitt 

Chief Fire Inspector, B.R.C. 

The above arrangement worked out satisfactorily during the autumn 
of 1913, and very much more work was done in connection with the 
fire-guarding of grain stubble lands adjacent to railway lines than had 
ever been the case in previous years. No complaints regarding the 
arrangement were received from any source, thus proving the justice 
of the assumption that the requirement for the fire-guarding of grain 



5& C O -M M I S S I O X OF C O X S E R V A T I O X 

stubble lands by railway companies may reasonably be limited to cases 
where the land owner or occupant considers such action necessary, and 
is also willing to co-operate to the extent of ploughing the guard for the 
fixed reasonable compensation specified above. It will be noted that 
for the first time provision is made above for materially reducing the 
fire hazard through grain stubble lands, by the requirement that rail- 
way companies shall dispose of dry grass and other combustible matter 
between the right-of-way and the edge of cultivation. This is important, 
since, as a general rule, fires burning over grain stubble lands seldom 
start in the stubble itself, but in the dry grass or weeds on the right- 
of-way, or in the narrow uncultivated strip immediately between the 
stubble and the right-of-way fence. The requirements above specified 
have greatly reduced both these sources of fire danger, so far as grain 
stubble lands are concerned. 



As in previous years, the details of fire-guard require- 

Fire Guarding, n^g^ts for 1914 were fully discussed, in advance, with 
oeason or 1914 . "^ . ' 

the railway companies and with representatives of the 

Grain Growers' associations. The result w'as the issuance of the fol- 
lowing circular. 

board of railway commissioners for canada 
Fire Ixspectiox Department 

Ottawa, ]^Ionday, the 11th day of May, 1914 

Fire Guard Requirements 

To The Canadian Pacific Railway Company, The Canadian Northern 
Railway Company, The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Company, 
The Great Northern Railway Company : 

Subsection 4 of Section 298 of the Railway Act provides that " The 
Board may order, upon such terms and conditions as it deems expe- 
dient, that fire-guards be established and maintained by the Company 
along the route of its railway and upon any lands of His Majesty or 
of any person, lying along such route, and, subject to the terms and 
conditions of any such order, the Company may at all times enter into 
and upon such lands for the purpose of establishing and maintaining 
such fire-guards thereon and freeing, from dead or dry grass, weeds 
and other unnecessary inflammable matter, the land between such fire- 
guards and the line of railway." 

Regulation 8 of General Order Xo. 107 provides that " Every such 
railway company shall establish and maintain fire-guards along the 
route of its railway as the Chief Fire Inspector may prescribe." 

You are accordingly required to establish and maintain fire-guards 
on both sides of the right-of-way, along the route of your railway, in 
the provinces of Alberta. Saskatchewan and Manitoba, as follows : — 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 59 

(A). Grain Stubble I^ands — 1. Section 297 of the Railway Act 
requires that '" The Company shall at all times maintain and keep its 
right-of-way free from dead or dry grass, weeds and other unneces- 
sary combustible matter." As to portions of lines where the right-of- 
way adjoins lands devoted to grain crops, this requirement is hereby 
extended to include the strip between the right-of-way and the edge 
of cultivation, provided that this requirement shall not apply more than 
ten feet outside the right-of-way on private land. 

2. It is generally agreed that if the right-of-way and adjacent nar- 
row, uncultivated strip are freed from combustible material, in accord- 
ance with the above requirements, the greatest source of fire danger 
in cultivated sections will have been removed, and that, while in some 
sections and under some conditions the ploughing of fire-guards 
through grain stubble lands will still be necessary, in other sections and 
under other conditions such action is not essential to a reasonable 
degree of safety. It is also agreed that, in general, the best judge of the 
necessity of ploughing fire-guards through grain stubble lands is the 
owner or occupant of the land himself, and that, where such action is 
necessary, some degree of co-operation on the part of the land owner or 
occupant may reasonably be expected. 

3. You are accordingly required to provide for the ploughing of fire- 
guards through grain stubble lands adjacent to your lines in the pro- 
vinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, wherever such action 
is necessary in the judgment of the owner or occupant of such 
land ; and where such owner or occupant after notice by 
the railway company as hereinafter prescribed, shall take the initiative 
and plough, immediately following the cutting of the grain, such fire- 
guard, four feet in width at a distance of approximately one hundred 
feet from the main track for a remuneration of $1.75 per lineal mile 
of four-foot ploughed fire-guard, such amount to be paid by the com- 
pany within forty days after the submission by the land owner or 
occupant of written statement of account to the railway company, it 
being understood that the minimum amount to be paid in any case 
shall be one dollar. 

4. The railway company shall notify land owners and occupants as 
to the above requirement, by posting printed notices at all stations 
and all public road crossings through cultivated sections within the 
provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Notices at sta- 
tions shall be posted in a conspicuous place, readily accessible to the 
general public. Two copies of such notice shall be posted on the rail- 
way crossing sign pole in a substantial manner at each public road 
crossing, these notices to be on the opposite sides of pole, one copy 
facing the railway track. Such notices shall be posted not later than 
July 15, 1914. 

5. In notices to land owners and occupants, railway companies may 
insert a clause stating that the above arrangement relative to the con- 
struction of and payment for the fire-guarding of grain stubble lands 
will remain in effect during 1914 and successive years, until changed 
by public notices to be posted in a manner similar to that above pre- 



60 C O M -M I S S I O X OF CONSERVATION 

scribed. In other words, the above arrangement will remain in effect: 
without further notice, unless and until said arrangement shall be 
changed by public notice under instructions issued by the Chief Fire 
Inspector of the Board. 

6. Notices under the above requirements shall be issued over the 
signature of a responsible official of the railway company, and the 
form of such notices shall be subject to the approval of the Chief Fire 
Inspector of the Board. Provision shall be made in the notice that 
the ploughing of these fire-guards shall be done in a workmanlike and 
efficient manner, and that where such guards do not connect with 
similar fire-guards on adjacent lands, the ends shall be turned in to 
the railway right-of-way. 

7. Your attention is called to the requirement of General Order 
No. 107, that " Xo such railway company shall permit its employees, 
agents, or contractors to enter upon land under cultivation, to con- 
struct fire-guards, without the consent of the owner or occupant of 
such lands," and that " Wherever the owner or occupant of such land 
objects to the construction of fire-guards, on the ground that the said 
construction would involve unreasonable loss or damage to property, 
the company shall at once refer the matter to the Board, giving full 
particulars thereof, and shall in the meantime refrain from proceeding 
with the work." Said Order also provides that " No agent, employee 
or contractor of any such railway company shall permit gates to be 
left open or to cut or leave fences down, whereby stock or crops may 
be injured, or do any other unnecessary damage to property, in the 
construction of fire-guards." 

8. Where the owner or occupant of grain stubble land is unwilHng 
to undertake the construction of fire-guards in accordance with the 
above, the company will exercise its discretion as to whether it will 
make other arrangements for the ploughing of fire-guards or leave such 
lands unguarded. In case the owner or occupant will neither construct 
such fire-guards under the above requirement, nor permit such work 
to be done by an agent of the Company, the Company may either drop 
the matter of fire-guarding or make application to the Board for 
authority to enter upon such lands for the purpose of fire-guard con- 
struction over the protest of such owner or occupant. 

9. The construction of fire-guards is not required where, on ac- 
count of recent ploughing or the presence of a non-combustible crop, 
there is no danger of fire spreading and doing damage. Fire-guards are 
not required in standing grain crops. 

10. It is clearly understood that nothing contained in this letter, 
nor any action to be taken under it, shall be construed as in the slightest 
degree affecting the statutory responsibility of the Company for the 
payment of damage claims on account of fires. 

(B). Fenced Grazing Land — 1. This classification shall include 
fenced, uncultivated lands, which are occupied by owner or tenant or 
which are used for the purpose of grazing. Meadows and hay lands 
generally shall be construed as coming under this classification. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 61 

2. On such lands fire-guards shall be constructed or maintained 
-in the form of a ploughed strip not less than sixteen feet in width. 

Where such fire-guards have been constructed in the past at a distance 
of from 150 to 250 feet from the track, they shall be maintained in the 
same location, in order to minimize the weed nuisance. Otherwise, 
construction shall be at a distance of approximately 200 feet from the 
main track or as close a distance to 200 feet as the nature of the country 
will permit. 

3. All dead or dry grass and other unnecessary combustible matter 
shall be burned or otherwise removed from the right-of-way, Burning 

■outside the right-of-way is not required under this classification. 

4. Wherever the owner or occupant of land under this classification 
objects to the construction or maintenance of fire-guards as above 
prescribed, the Company shall refrain from doing such work, but shall 
immediately report the matter to the Board, stating name and address 
of such owner or occupant, the description of the land by legal sub- 
division and railway mileage, and whether the Company desires the 
permission of the ijoard to enter on such land for the purpose of 
constructing or maintaining such fire-guards notwithstanding such 
refusal by owner or occupant. 

(C). Open Prairie. — 1. This classification shall include unfenced, 
uncultivated lands, and fenced lands which are uncultivated, unoccu- 
pied by owner or tenant, and not used for purposes of grazing. 

2. On such lands fire-guards shall be constructed or maintained in 
the form of a ploughed strip not less than sixteen feet in width. Where 
such fire-guards have been constructed in the past at a distance of 
from 200 to 400 feet from the track, they shall be maintained in the 
same location, in order to minimize the weed nuisance. Otherwise, con- 
struction shall be at a distance of approximately 200 feet from the 
main track or as close a distance to 200 feet as the nature of the coun- 
try will permit. 

3. All dead or dry grass and other unnecessary combustible matter 
shall be burned or otherwise removed, between the fire-guard and the 
track. Where the ploughing of fire-guards is impracticable on account 
of ground being too stony or rocky, or too hilly or broken to plough, 
the dead or dry grass and other unnecessary combustible matter shall 
be burned off on a strip extending 200 feet from the track. 

4. Under the provisions of the Railway Act and of the Board's 
Order, the consent of the owner of private land coming under this 
classification is not essential in connection with either the ploughing of 
fire-guards or the burning off of grass between the fire-guard and the 
main track as above prescribed. 

(D). xA.sPEN OR Poplar Lands — 1. In sections where fire-guards 
are necessary and, on account of aspen or poplar growth it is imprac- 
ticable to plough, the fire-guard may be constructed by clearing away 
the undergrowth and removing all combustible material on the ground, 
so as to expose the mineral soil, for a width of sixteen feet, at a dis- 



62 COMMISSION OF COXSERVATIOX 

tance of approximately 200 feet from the track. Where the land is 
sufficiently open so that ploughing is practicable, fire-guards shall be 
constructed as above prescribed for fenced grazing lands or open 
prairie, according to the status of the particular tract in question. 

2. It is understood that fire-guarding of this class of land is gener- 
ally unnecessary, and that exemptions may properly be requested in 
such cases. Especial care must, however, be taken to construct fire- 
guards where practicable along lines running through forest reserves. 

3. All dead or dry grass and other unnecessary combustible matter 
shall be burned or otherwise removed from the right-of-way. 

(E). Additional Provisions — 1. Where there are alternating 
bodies of grain stubble, fenced grazing, open prairie, or poplar lands, 
the ends of the fire-guards above prescribed shall so far as possible be 
so connected as to make an unbroken, continuous fire-guard. 

2. Wherever, for any reason, it is not practicable to construct a 
continuous fire-guard as above specified, the ends of the constructed 
portions of the fire-guard shall be turned in to the right-of-way, and 
special care shall be taken to connect such ends, either by ploughing a 
strip eight feet wide along the outer edge of the right-of-way, or by 
burning or otherwise removing the combustible matter along such 
right-of-way, in such a manner as to provide good and efficient pro- 
tection against the spread of fire to lands which have been properly 
*fire-guarded. 

3. The construction of fire-guards shall be completed, as above 
ipecified, not later than the 15th day of August, 1914, except as 
to grain stubble lands, where the requirements as to time of construc- 
tion, above specified under that heading, shall be observed. Between 
the date of construction and the 15th day of May, 1915, said fire- 
guards shall be maintained in a good and efficient manner, and dead or 
dry grass and other unnecessary combustible matter shall be burned 
or otherwise disposed of, on lands or portions of lands between such 
fire-guards and the track, in accordance with the above requirements. 

4. Where a fire-guard has been ploughed within two years in accord- 
ance with the above specifications, the operation of discing and harrow- 
ing will be acceptable instead of reploughing, provided that all weeds 
and other inflammable material are disced and harrowed under the 
furrow, so as to make a good and efficient fire-guard. Such discing 
and harrowing shall be completed before the weeds on the fire-guard 
shall have gone to seed. Where more than one operation of discing 
and harrowing is necessary in order to keep down the weeds on a 
particular fire-guard, such action shall be taken. 

5. The provisions of this Order shall apply to the portions of the 
line under construction, in the three provinces named, the same as to 
portions under operation. In other words, fire-guards shall be con- 
structed at the time grading is done on each new portion of the line. 
However, in case the laying of the track is to be delayed for a period 
of one year or more, temporary exemption from this requirement will 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 63 

be granted, upon a showing to that effect, to be made to the Board by 
the company. 

6. The foregoing requirements shall apply to all lines of the com- 
pany in the three provinces named, except where the company shall be 
specifically exempted from such requirements on the basis of a show- 
ing by the company that such construction and maintenance of fire 
guards is either unnecessary or impracticable. Such showing shall be 
made at the earliest practicable date but in any event not later than 
June 10, 1914, in the form of two blue print copies from right-of-way 
plan. Such plan shall indicate railway mileages and shall show in each 
case why fire-guard construction is considered unnecessary or imprac- 
ticable. Pending action by the Chief Fire Inspector upon such request 
for exemption, the company shall proceed upon the basis of construct- 
ing or maintaining fire-guards as above specified, except where such 
action is clearly impracticable or unnecessary. 

7. The following reasons will be considered in connection with 
requests for fire-guard exemptions : ground too stony or rocky, or too 
hilly or broken to plough (exemption here, as to open prairie, will apply 
to ploughing but not to burning, see paragraph 3 under heading " Open 
Prairie"); timber or scrub; swamp, muskeg or sloughs (where per- 
manently wet and too large to plough around) ; cities and villages (only 
where ploughing is impracticable) ; and the following where width and 
location are such as to constitute an ef^cient fire-guard, thus making 
ploughing unnecessary : — irrigation canals, ditches, rivers, lakes, creeks,, 
graded roadways or other railway grades parallel to the company's 
tracks. 

8. The company shall submit to the Chief Fire Inspector for the 
Board at Ottawa, in duplicate, not later than December 31, 1914, 
annual graphic charts and an annual fire-guard statistical report, 
in accordance with the accompanying forms. Such charts shall indi- 
cate by mileages, subdivisions and provinces, the portions of th^ lines 
in the three provinces named, where fire-guards shall have been con- 
structed or maintained, and where and for what reason there shall not 
have been such construction or maintenance. All portions of the lines 
in the said provinces, including those under construction, shall be 
fully accounted for in the above respects. 

Very truly yours 

Clyde Leavitt 

Chief Pire Inspector 

■a • ^ • X.- u The principal new points included in the 1914 require- 
Points m which f f f m 

Requirements ments are as follows : 

^^"^^ (1) The use of the term "grain stubble" instead 

of " cultivated land " as one of the classifications. This is merely a 
change in form. 

(2) Farmers to be informed of the arrangements for the fire- 
guarding of grain stubble lands, through public notices posted at all 



■64 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

stations and public road crossings in cultivated sections in the prairie 
provinces, instead of by personal visits of raihvav representatives, as 
in 1913. 

(3) Four-foot fire-guards made standard in grain stubble lands, 
instead of leaving it to the individual land owner or occupant to 
determine whether the guard should be four feet or eight feet in width. 

(4) Two hundred feet made the standard distance from the track 
for the ploughing of fire-guards in open prairie, instead of 300 feet, 
•except that, where guards have been previously ploughed at a distance 
of from 200 to 400 feet from the track, they shall be maintained in the 
same location. This change was considered desirable, on account of 
previous confusion where doubt arose as to whether a particular piece 
of land should be regarded as fenced grazing or open prairie land, 
thus raising the question as to whether the fire-guard should be 
ploughed at a distance of 200 feet or 300 feet from the track. Also, in 
many cases, what is open prairie one year becomes fenced grazing land 
the next, thus necessitating the ploughing of a new fire-guard and the 
abandoning of the old. with consequent possible increase in the number 
of noxious weeds, which thrive on old fire-guards. Both these diffi- 
culties are overcome in the 1914 requirements. 

(5) Inclusion of requirement that where the ploughing of fire- 
guards in open prairie is impracticable on account of ground being too 
stony or rocky, or too hilly or broken to plough, the dead or dry grass 
and other unnecessary combustible matter shall be burned off on a strip 
extending 200 feet from the track. This provision is obviously neces- 
sary in order to reduce the danger of fires spreading in open prairie 
lands where guards cannot be ploughed, but where the dry grass would 
otherwise accumulate year after year until the occurrence of an acci- 
dental fire, which, under such circumstances, might assume serious 
proportions. 

jj J On the whole, the 1914 requirements worked very 

Have Proven satisfactorily and seemed generally acceptable, aside 
Satisfactory from the feeling of the railways that they should have 

the right of unrestricted entrance upon fenced grazing lands for the 
purpose of ploughing fire-guards, instead of being compelled to follow 
the procedure prescribed in the requirements. A few other points have 
been raised, concerning which it was not possible to completely meet 
the sometimes conflicting points of view of the railways, but these are 
of a minor character and do not modify the general statement that, on 
the whole, the requirements have given very general satisfaction. 

During 1914, specific complaints were received as follows: Damage 
by fire: Canadian Pacific, 4; Canadian Northern, 12; Grand Trunk 
Pacific. 2 : total. 18. In each case the complainant was advised that 











Commission of Conservation 



Fire Hazard in Algonovin Park, Ontario 

Reduced through the disposal of inflammable material along Grand Trunk railway 

right-of-way and land immediately adjacent. This work was done through 

co-operation between the railway company and the Provincial 

Department of Lands and Forests. 




Fire Hazard alono Provincial Government Wagon Road 
Due to failure of construction gang to pile and burn debris when building road, 
condition is now being gradualh- corrected. Southern British Columbia. 



This 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 65 

the Board has no jurisdiction in connection with damage claims and 
that recourse should be had through the courts, in case of failure to 
reach a settlement with the railway concerned. 

Failure to construct fire-guards, or construction unsatisfactory: 
Canadian Pacific, 3 ; Canadian Northern, 5 ; Grand Trunk Pacific, 1 ; 
total, 9. 

Report by railway company that land owner refuses to permit con- 
struction of fire-guards in fenced grazing lands: Canadian Pacific, 11; 
Grand Trunk Pacific, 22 ; total, 33. In twelve of these cases, the Grand 
Trunk Pacific requested authority to enter upon the lands in question 
for the purpose of constructing fire-guards, notwithstanding such 
refusal of the owner. In three of these cases, orders were issued by 
the Board, granting authority for such entrance and construction, as 
a-equested. 

The following tables show fire-guard statistics for 1913 and 1914: 



i)- C.C. 



c 
OS 

c 

CO 

J3 
u 

CO 

(0 

(d 
CO 



0) 



£1 



-C fo 



CO CO 

rt O 

^ .t: 

X) 

C 

.2 

+-• 

o 

D 

+-• 
w 
C 
O 
U 



CO 

6 

e 

CO 



u 



o 



C 

o 



c 

3 



CO CO 

rH IM 

CT) CO 



^ GO 

in o 



oc CO 

1—1 C^l 

o o 



IM "0 
IT) O 

^ CO 



-^ : ^ 



o 



lO o 



o 

^ ! — 

51 '-' 

^ 2 
O i 



CO(N 

i-ieo 



(M ^ 

CO (M 

.-(CO 



O -^ r^ M 
t^ 1^ O u~j 

ex ro_^ 'H -t 

CO ^ M t^ 



00 -* M 
r^ "* CI 

CO i-i o 



;C LC •-' M 

cc r^ -r X 

CO CO CO o 



o in 

^ ^ 30 

CO ic x 



to 

O M t^ 
C^l CO lO 

M coco 
.-I ^ 



t^ CO c; 
■* o in 

UO i-H CVJ 



«^"'^ 



r^ CO 

00 CO 



i-H r^ CO M 
00 CO to r- 

7-( M 



lU (J 

.-=•0 3 



rt a> 



•^. ^o E.i: eSt;; 
. 2 si5 S 



' yr (« 



rt 



r- '^ C ' 



r, y-= 2 
o 



3 3 ctn 



en tn 

2-E 

o-o S 
c t-.S 

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bo »- 

2 <U CJ 

3 ^ 5< 



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3 o V- 
rt^i3 



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W 



<U ^ (U 
3-^ C ^ 



3 O 
C " 

^2 



■s5 ° 



tn -o :^ 



J= o 



O 3 



t o 



O 3 

^ bO 
in 3 



rt 



i« 



to -3 



a; 

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en 


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3 
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^1 

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'p "S 

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-6 ^ 

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<L) 3 

•£ '^ 

CJ 
<U I- 

o S 
•o o 



fit n p, 



S 



o S 



(U o J2 



'fi o 



<n ,^ -4-1 



O U 

r- CI. 

5 >> 

C/) TO 



o 



t- 3 

rt 
>■. u 
3 <1J 



o tn 






S " ^ .-^3 



> O 3 '3' 



M- be 

O 3 









dl 



>> 3 

^ bo 

E ± 



3 O 

•-CQ 
bo .. 



bc-o 



fO •»1- lO 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 67 



Fire Protection in Ontario, Quebec and New Bruns- 
wick along the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
Season of 1914 

By B. M. Winegar, Forest Inspector, C. P. Ry. 

In spite of the long, dry season and the droughts in May, July, and 
August, comparatively few very serious fires occurred on timber lands 
immediately adjoining the eastern lines of this railway. A great 
amount of damage was, however, done in various sections by fires 
which had their origin a long distance from our railway lines. Timber 
in the Laurentian mountains and on the upper Ottawa suffered 
severely. 

New Brunswick L°gg^"b operations along this company's lines are not 
Fairly Satis- being carried on, except perhaps to a limited extent, 
factory ^^^ ^^^ settlement is not as marked as in some of the 

more western provinces. 

' Reproduction, which is very satisfactory generally, amply repays 
the cost of necessary protection. A total of 43 fires occurred on or 
within five miles of the company's lines during the fire season of 1914. 
Fourteen of these occurred within the 300-foot limit; of this number 
five were proved to be of foreign origin. Nine occurred immediately 
on the right-of-way, but the agency is not definitely known. The 29 
other fires referred to occurred on cut-over timber lands, on farms, 
newly settled areas, etc. There was no damage from fires starting on 
right-of-way, nor did any fires on neighbouring land cause any timber 
losses. The fire situation in New Brunswick is fairly satisfactory. 

Slash along highways, parallel to the company's rights-of-way, has 
been pretty well cleared up, and outside of a few deserted mill pro- 
perties there seems little danger of a heavy loss. 

Quebec has -^" ^^^ °^^ settled and thickly populated districts there 

Difficult is only a small portion of the area covered by forest 

Conditions growth. These are used principally for wood-lots, but, 

here and there, some local timber industries thrive. Protection in such 
districts is comparatively simple, and very few losses are recorded 
each year. Fires rarely get away from the average farmer in the 
older districts, who is careful in doing his clearing. 

Along the Laurentian and Maniwaki subdivisions, in the Lauren- 
tian mountains, a variety of conditions make difficult a satisfactory 
system of fire protection. Settlement is going on all the time, right 
after logging operations. The settler follows the lumberman, and the 



68 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

debris and slash accumulation make the reduction of the fire risk 
most difficult. The average new settler is extremely careless, and 
added to this is the lack of passable highways. Several very important 
factors militate against the conservation of the merchantable timber and 
young growth. It has been shown that the most dangerous zone for 
fires lies between the railway Hne and the virgin forest, because here 
the settler is clearing up. This strip may be two miles wide, and, in 
some places, it is five miles in width. 

Local organizations are needed in the villages and settlements to 
handle all fires. Equipment for fighting fire could be kept in an 
accessible spot, under the care of the local police officer, who could 
be named " fire warden." Telephone lines and lookout stations could 
be constructed at a comparatively small cost. The value of the two 
last mentioned improvements is indisputable, especially where topo- 
graphical conditions such as exist in the Laurentian mountains permit. 

Two protective associations, which are made up of lumbermen and 
pulp-wood limit-holders, are doing most efficient work along fire protec- 
tion lines. One of these associations gives permits to burn during the 
fire season. This idea has proved ver}' valuable, as it educates the 
settler not only to use care in handling his slash, but his contact with 
the local fire officer tends to ensure a more amicable relation between 
the settler and the lumberman. 

In the Timiskaming country, the question of fire protection ought 
to be comparatively simple. Waterways allow the use of motor boats 
and a mobile equipment, and easy access could be gained to fires occur- 
ring near the lakes and rivers. Telephone lines and trails are badly 
needed in this area. 

^ , . The lack of organization for handling fires, the 

Ontario *= ° 

Conditions Very absence of cleared highways in the timber districts, 
Unsatisfactory ^^^^ j-j-^g non-existence of the permit system for burn- 
ing on settlers' lands have resulted in a very dangerous and unsatisfac- 
tory condition. Especially is this so between Muskoka and Sudbury, 
and between Chalk River and Chapleau. 

The system of fire protection which has been in force in Ontario 
looks only to the conservation of merchantable timber, and seemingly 
disregards reproduction, which is so essential. 

To reduce the fire loss to forest properties a fire pro- 
F^' Protection tection system has been developed by this company, 

and the co-operation of all operating employees is 
given. A fire inspection force gathered data of all fires on or within 
five miles of the company's lines. Reports on the efficiency of the 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 69 

patrols furnished, under orders of the Board of Railway Commis- 
sioners, were made by fire inspectors. 

Circular No. 8, copy of which is attached, together with supple- 
mentary letter, outlines the plan for the elimination and extinguishing 
of fires which occur along the company's lines. 

Under the order of the Board a number of special patrolmen were 
kept patrolling through the forest regions. During extremely dry 
seasons additional patrolmen were put on; and besides these, section- 
men constantly patrolled their sections. 

The results proved satisfactory this past year, and little damage 
w^as done to timber by fires of known company origin. 



CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY 

(Eastern Lines) 

Office of the Generai, Manager 

Montreal, April 3rd, 1914 

To General Superintendents. 
Dear Sir:— 

Referring to my circular No. 8, dated February 25th, covering the 
prevention and extinguishing of fires on or in the vicinity of our right 
of way. 

Your attention is drawn to the fact that sub-section {e) of section 
13, General Order No. 107, of the Board of Railway Commissioners, 
specifies that the company's zone of responsibility is within 300 feet 
of the track. However, the company is interested in the preservation 
of all natural resources, and, therefore, whenever an employee dis- 
covers a fire outside of the 300 foot zone, he should immediately advise 
his superintendent, who will in turn telegraph the nearest provincial 
forest officer, notifying him that a fire has been discovered in such and 
such a place, outside of the company's zone; this, of course, so that the 
provincial authorities may have an opportunity to promptly extinguish 
the fire. 

(Sgd.) A. D. MacTier 

General Manager 



70 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY 

(Eastern Lines) 

Office of the General Manager 

Montreal, February 25th, 1914 
Circular No. 8 

To all Officers and Employees: 

Instructions Covering Prevention and Extinguishing of Fires on or 
in the Vicinity of Right-of-Way. 

In carrying out this Order, it will be the duty of all officers and 
employees generally, to take precautions to prevent fires on or along 
the railway of the Company, to promptly extinguish and prevent the 
spread of fires outside the right-of-way, and to investigate and report 
fires and probable cause thereof. 

When fire is noticed by any train or engine crew, on or in the 
vicinity of right-of-way, they must notify first section gang after 
observing fire by giving three short whistles repeated twice. 

Sectionmen, as well as such other employees of the Company as 
are available, must proceed at once to the fire, and take all possible 
and immediate steps to prevent its spreading, and, if possible, to 
extinguish it. 

Conductor must send to Superintendent, by telegraph, from the first 
telegraph office, full report of any fire discovered by himself or of 
which he receives notice, giving the exact situation of the fire, its extent, 
and any other information which may be of value, particularly as to the 
means required to cope with it; and, when a fire threatens to be of any 
magnitude, copy of this report must immediately be telegraphed by the 
Superintendent to the Local Fire Inspector of the Board of Railway 
Commissioners. 

If fire is of such an extent that sectionmen, or other local force 
available, cannot control it unaided. Superintendent, or, in his absence, 
his representative, must immediately arrange for the despatch of the 
Roadmaster, or other competent ofiicer, with the necessary additional 
men, who can be drawn from those available in any department, and 
all necessary fire-fighting appliances, to the scene of the fire, and must 
so arrange the train service that they will get to the fire with the least 
possible delay, in order that no time may be lost in getting it under 
control. 

The officer in charge must also arrange to obtain promptly complete 
statements from all witnesses so that origin of and responsibility for 
the fire can be accurately determined. 

Employees must not do or cause damage or injury to any of the 
fire-protective appliances on any engine. The back dampers of engines 
must not be opened while running ahead, or the front dampers while 
running tender first, except when there is snow on the ground, and it 
is necessary to take such action in order to have engines steam properly. 



THE RAILWAY FIRE SITUATION 71 

Fire, live coals, or hot ashes must* not be deposited upon the tracks 
or right-of-way, unless they are extinguished immediately thereafter, 
except in pits provided for the purpose. On no account shall ash pans 
be dumped, or ashes from cars or cabooses be thrown out on the right- 
of-way while running. Burning or smouldering waste taken from hot 
boxes shall be covered with earth, or otherwise completely extinguished. 

Fires must not be started upon or near the right-of-way for the 
clearing of rubbish or dried grass from the right-of-way, between the 
first day of April and the first day of November, unless specially 
authorized by the Roadmaster or his superior officer. Officers of the 
Board of Railway Commissioners may at any time require that no 
burning be done along specified portions of the right-of-way, and 
employees must observe such instructions. 

General Order No. 107 of the Board of Railway Commissioners 
provides as follows : 

"If any employee or other person included in the said regula- 
tions fails or neglects to obey the same, or any of them, he shall, in 
addition to any other liability which he may have incurred, be 
subject to a penalty of twenty-five dollars for every such offence." 

A copy of this Circular must be posted at all Stations and Tool- 
houses, as well as in Bulletin Books. 

(Sgd.) A. D. MacTier 

General Manager 



PART II 

Reports of the Committee on Forests of the 
Commission of Conservation 

BY 

Clyde Leavitt 

Chief Forester, Commission of Conservation 

Report for 1913 

THE report of the Committee on Forests for the year 1913 is, for 
the most part, one of progress. 

The Railway Fire Situation 

At the instance, largely, of the Commission of Conservation, the 
Board of Railway Commissioners on May 22, 1912, issued its well- 
known order, No. 16,570, with respect to forest fires along the lines of 
railway that are subject to its jurisdiction. The unique feature of this 
order was that it placed on the railway companies, under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Board, the responsibility of taking all the precautions rea- 
sonably necessary in order to prevent forest fires due to railway opera- 
tion. For the purpose of administering the order, the Chief Forester of 
the Commission also holds the position of Chief Fire Inspector of the 
Board of Railway Commissioners, in pursuance of a co-operative 
arrangement between Hon. Mr. Sifton and the late Chief Commissioner 
Mabee. Thus, this Commission has every reason to take a particular 
interest in the railway fire protection work, although the actual admin- 
istration of the work itself is necessarily under the sole jurisdiction of 
the Railway Commission, to the members of which the fullest credit 
must be given for the splendid support they have afforded the new 
department. 

-, ., „. As was announced at the last annual meeting, the rail- 

Railway Fire ° 

Protection way fire protection work was organized only m western 

^°^^ Canada during 1912. In 1913, the organization was 

extended as far as possible in the eastern provinces. The plan of 
building up an inspection staff, through co-operation with the exist- 
ing fire-protective organizations of the Dominion and Provincial 

72 



DIAMETER 



APPLIED FORESTRY 

SPRUCE 



8 m 



10 



;V.:^M^Ji^J^;sM^?^?J>?Ji^^'>^:-S--? 



^^^"^"■-^"^'-^^VKEIN, 96-2% ^^-*^^ 



: ?1 



LEFT, 11-67. 



TAKEN, 88-4 /^o 



12 LEFT, 23-2 ^o 



TAKEN, 76-8% 



J 



QUANTITY OF MATERIAL - CUTTING TO VARIOUS DIAMETERS 




NUMBER OF TREES-CUTTING TO VARIOUS DIAMETERS 




RATIO, NUMBER OF TREES TO VOLUME-CUTTING TO 8 




TAKEN, 88 470 



LEFT, 43 470 



TAKEN, 56-6% 






VOLUME 
NUMBER 



VOLUME 
NUMBER 



RATIO, NUMBER OF TREES TO VOLUME-CUTTING TO 10 




RATIO, NUMBER OF TREES TO VOLUME - CUTTING TO 12 



DIAMETER 



NUMBER OF 
TREES 



,^NV.-.--NXVN.N.XXXSNXNNN.N^XVX-,NXVl 



8 
10" 
12" 
14 
16 
IB 



50 

21 

13 

8 

6 



^^ 



NUMBER OF TREES OF VARIOUS SIZES 
REQUIRED TO MAKE 1000 FEET OF LUMBER 



Courtesy of Conservation Commission, State of New York 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 72, 

governments, within the territory already covered by the jurisdictioii 
and organization of each, has been consistently followed throughout. 
As a result, a considerable number of the officials of the Dominion 
Parks Branch, Dominion Forestry Branch, British Columbia Forest 
Branch, Department of Lands, Forests and Mines of Ontario, Forest 
Protection Branch of Quebec, and the Department of Crown Lands of 
New Brunswick have been appointed officers of the Fire Inspection 
Department of the Railway Commission. The principal work of these 
officials has been in connection with enforcing the requirements 
respecting patrol work and right-of-way clearing by the railways, as 
well as co-operating with the Operating Department of the Board in 
the inspection of fire-protective appliances in use on locomotives. Thus, 
the fire-protective work of the Board is carried on in full accord with 
existing fire-protective organizations of the Dominion and Provincial 
governments, and all unnecessary duplication is avoided. 

p. Q , In the Prairie provinces, fire-guard inspection has been 

in Prairie carried on under the direction of the Chief Fire 

Provinces Guardian of Alberta and the Fire Commissioner of 

Saskatchewan, who have been appointed officers of the Railway Com- 
mission. It is hoped that a similar arrangement may be made in 
Manitoba, negotiations being under way for co-operation with the Fire 
Commissioner of that province. 

Almost without exception, the results of the co-operative handling 
of the railway fire protection work have been highly satisfactory. Not 
only has the number of fires been reduced, but most of the fires that 
have occurred were prevented from spreading. It is worthy of note 
that the efficiency of the work is in direct ratio to the sufficiency and 
efficiency of the inspection staff made available by the various co-oper- 
ating agencies. In the western provinces, especially, very little 
criticism can be made of the work. However, certain minor changes 
will be made with a vieiv to still further increasing the usefulness of 
the organization. 

In the east, the work of organization has been much slower, owing 
to the more conservative attitude taken by the authorities, resulting in 
an inadequate inspection staff being made available. Assurances have 
been received, however, which will mean a very much more satisfac- 
tory organization in the east during 1914. Such extension is particu- 
larly needed in Ontario at the present time. In Nova Scotia, too, the 
proposed plan of co-operation has not yet been put into effect, pending 
the appointment of a provincial forester. This appointment was pro- 
vided for in a law passed last spring, following the report made by 
Dr. Fernow, on forest conditions in that province. It is proposed. 



7,4 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

under this law, to give the forester, when appointed, supervision of 
forest protection work in general, including that of railway fire 
inspection. 

The railways have, for the most part, shown a uniformly friendly 
attitude toward the work, and have made honest efforts to meet the 
various requirements. There is every reason to believe that henceforth 
the railways will be found near the foot instead of at or near the head, 
in the list of agencies responsible for forest fires, providing the amount 
of damage rather than number of fires be considered. 

_, ., ^ Before this condition shall be fully reached, however, 

Railways not ■' . . . 

Subject to the it is urgently necessary that further action be taken as 

Commission |-q ^^^q classes of railways which are not subject to the 

jurisdiction of the Railway Commission. These are the various rail- 
ways operating under provincial charters, and the Government rail- 
ways, consisting of the Intercolonial, Prince Edward Island, and 
National Transcontinental. 

In regard to the first class, action in the form of new legislation, or, 
in some cases, a more complete enforcement of existing legislation, is 
required in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario 
and Alberta. The governments of these provinces have already been 
approached in this matter, and it is hoped that steps will be taken to 
improve conditions as to fire protection on provincially-chartered rail- 
ways. The one great essential, which has all too generally been lack- 
ing, is the provision of an adequate inspection staff for this line of 
work. 

During the past year, marked improvement has been shown in the 
matter of fire protection on Government railways. In the spring of 
1913, following representations made by this Commission and by the 
government of New Brunswick, a system of special fire patrols was 
established along the line of the National Transcontinental railway 
between Edmundston and Moncton, N.B., and special instructions 
were issued to all employees relative to reporting and extinguishing 
fires occurring along the railway line. There is still much to be done, 
however, before the fire protection afforded on Government railways 
will be as efficient as on the lines now subject to the Railway Commis- 
sion. Much still remains to be done in the matter of removing inflam- 
mable material from the rights-of-way of the Transcontinental and 
the Intercolonial. The former is in an especially dangerous condition, 
and measures should be adopted to destroy the debris at the earliest 
possible moment. Patrols should be established and regulations 
applied similar to those in force on the New Brunswick division. More 
attention should also be paid to the fire-protective appliances in use on 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 75 

locomotives running on portions of the Transcontinental not yet opened 
to traffic. 

It is believed, also, that the best results would be secured in the 
long run by making the Government railways subject to the same fire 
regulations as are prescribed by the Board of Railway Commissioners 
for lines under its jurisdiction. This action is accordingly recommended. 

Investigation of Forest Resources 

Considerable progress may also be reported in connection with 
matters other than railway fire protection. A beginning has been made 
toward the collection of information relative to the forest resources 
and forest conditions of the Dominion. The value and importance of 
this work may be reaHzed when it is considered that there is at the 
present time no sufficient basis for anything like a reliable estimate of 
the forest resources of the Dominion as a whole. It is, however, 
known, in a general way, that these resources have been vastly over- 
estimated, and that, instead of being able to supply the United States 
-after her timber shall have been exhausted, Canada has, as a matter 
of fact, probably not more than one-fifth to one-fourth as much saw- 
timber as has the United States. 

Inventory of The work of collecting this information was com- 

„ '"®^* menced during 1913 in two provinces. In British 

Resources ° ^ 

Commenced Columbia Dr. H. N. Whitford has gathered mforma- 

tion relative to the territory south of the railway belt. In this work, 
the co-operation of the British Columbia Forest Branch and the Fores- 
try Branch of the Canadian Pacific railway has been of the very 
greatest value. Limit-holders have also been of very material assist- 
ance, by furnishing information as to the quantities of timber in 
various specific sections of the province. At the same time, Mr. J. C. 
Blumer has been engaged in similar work in the district west of Prince 
Albert in Saskatchewan. Here the co-operation of the Forestry 
Branch of the Department of the Interior has been most helpful. As 
in British Columbia, the limit-holders have provided much valuable 
information. It is considered exceedingly important that this work be 
continued until the two provinces have been covered. This is the first 
attempt at a comprehensive study of this kind in Canada, and the 
results will undoubtedly be of great interest and value. 

It now seems, however, that, unless the existing appropriation can 
be increased, not only will it be impossible to extend this work so that 
the final result for the whole Dominion may be secured within a reason- 
able number of years, but it may even be necessary to cut down the 
amount of work now being done in British Columbia and Saskatche- 



16 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

wan, so that the results in these two provinces may be seriously 
delayed. It is believed that this work should be handled on such a 
scale that the data for British Columbia and Saskatchewan may be 
gathered within the next eighteen months, and for the whole Dominion 
within five years. 

There are also various other investigations for which 
Forest it is exceedingly important that provision be made. 

Reproduction Qne of these is a study of forest reproduction and 
rate of growth, with a careful check estimate of the amount of stand- 
ing timber on representative portions of the Crown timber lands of 
New Brunswick. There has already been tentative discussion with the 
Government of New Brunswick relative to a co-operative handling of 
this project. It is believed that the execution of such work as this, not 
only in New Brunswick but in other provinces as well, together with 
the collection, on an adequate scale, of data relative to the forest 
resources of the Dominion, will amply justify a request for an increased 
appropriation for the work of the Commission. 

A detailed statement of the financial situation as to forestry work 
during the current year is as follows : 

Cost of investigation of forestry conditions on the 

public domain, by J. H. White, approximately.... $1,700 

Cost of detailed study of forest reproduction on Trent 

watershed, by Dr. C. D. Howe, approximately. . . . 1,600 

Study of forest resources and forest conditions in Sas- 
katchewan, by J. C. Blumer 1,000 

Study of forest resources and forest conditions in 

British Columbia, by Dr. H. N. Whitford, to date 1.600 

Necessary, for balance of fiscal year 1,100 

The total approximate cost of conducting all the above field work,, 
exclusive of travelling expenses of the Chief Forester, is thus approxi- 
mately $7,000. The projects of Messrs. White and Howe were con- 
ducted only during the summer, approximately four months. Messrs.. 
Whitford and Blumer were not employed until late in the summer. 

Dr. Whitford is still on duty, and the above estimate (S2,700) 
covers a period of approximately seven months. The estimate for 
Mr. Blumer's work ($1,000) covers approximately four months' work,, 
and it is impossible to continue the project at the present time on 
account of lack of funds. Both these projects will require to be prose- 
cuted during the whole of the coming year, and longer, unless the 
benefit of the work already done is to be largely sacrificed. In addition, 
provision should be made for one man to work with Dr. Whitford, in 
order that the report on the entire province of British Columbia may 
be completed within the next eighteen months. Provision should also 
■be made for a detailed study of forest reproduction under various con- 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 11 

ditions, on burns and cut-over lands in British Columbia, to supplement 
the information relative to the stand of timber, etc., being collected by 
Dr. Whitford. 

A detailed summary of the needs for the ensuing fiscal year is as 
follows : 

For continuation of work of Dr. H. N. Whitford, 

study of forest resources of British Columbia.... $4,500 

For additional man to co-operate with Dr. Whitford in 

British Columbia 4,500 

For continuation of work of J. C. Blumer, study of forest 

resources of Saskatchewan 4,000 

Study of forest reproduction in British Columbia 2,000 

Co-operative forest investigation in New Brunswick.. 2,000 

Total $17,000 

The total needed is thus $17,000, or $10,000 additional to the sum 
made available during the present year. If the Commission desires to 
retain the services of Dr. Whitford and Mr. Blumer, continuous em- 
ployment must be provided, otherwise new men must be found when 
the work can again be taken up, thus losing the benefit of the personal 
experience gained by the men, and delaying the work so greatly that 
its value will be largely lost before the final results can be secured. 

Dominion Forest Reserve Extension 
Each year, for some years past, the Forestry Branch of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior has had six or seven parties in the field examin- 
ing the lands in the western provinces which are under Dominion 
jurisdiction. The purpose of this work has been to determine the 
lands that control watersheds or are absolute forest lands and which 
should, therefore, be set apart for timber production. In addition to 
the area of 35,805 square miles already set apart for forest purposes 
by Act of Parliament, the surveys show that there is an additional 
area of 20,980 square miles which is best suited for timber growth. 

Protection of These areas are of two characters. There are, first, the 
Forested large forested watersheds in the northern portions of 

Watersheds ^^ provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, 

such as the Porcupine hills, the Pasquia hills, the Swan hills and 
others. These form the main watershed between the Mackenzie and 
Churchill River systems and the Saskatchewan and Red River systems, 
and should, in addition to protecting the water supply, form the great 
source of timber for domestic and manufacturing purposes for the 
great prairie regions to the south. 

The second class of reserves are smaller or larger areas of light 
sandy lands, scattered through the prairie, which are of absolutely no 
agricultural value and which, although now generally denuded of tree 



78 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



growth, may, by an active policy of reforestation, be made of great 
value to the surrounding prairies. 

In the Railway Belt, in the province of British Columbia, there are 
also large tracts of mountain country which are suitable only for forest 
lands, and which, after examination, have been recommended for 
addition to forest reserves. The Commission of Conservation should 
use its influence to secure these additions to the forest reserves. 

A detailed statement of the results of the Forestry Branch examina- 
tions is as follows : 

Approximate Areas of Additions to the Dominion Forest Reserves^ 
Recommended by the Forestry Branch, Department of the Interior 

British Columbia (Railway Belt) 

New Reserves Square miles 

Shuswap Lake 1,097 

Hope 1,044 

Nahatlatch 935 

Joss Mountain 802 

Petee 747 

Coast 1,200 

5,825 

Additions to Existing Reserves 

Hat Creek 178 

Larch 30 

208 

Total for British Columbia 6,033 

Alberta 

Lac la Biche (new reserves) 4,248 

Lesser Slave (addition) 1,496 

5,744 

Total for Alberta 5,744 



Saskatchewan 

New Reserves 

Square miles 

Dundurn ^3 

Sheep Creek 7 

Stench Lake 27 

Keppel 25 

Steward 31 

Eagle Hills 34 

Good Spirit Lake 6 

Manitou Lake 180 

Sturgeon River 560 

Pasquia Hills 2,592 

Big River 1,250 

Battleford 951 

Elbow 115 

5,841 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 79^ 

Additions to Existing Reserves 

Cypress Hills 26 

Porcupine 2,559 

2,585 

Total for Saskatchewan 8,426 

Manitoba 

Square miles 

Lake Winnipeg (new reserve) 546 

Eastern Manitoba (new reserve) 231 

Ill 

Total for Manitoba Ill 

Total for British Columbia (Railway Belt), Alberta, Saskatchewan and 
Manitoba, 20,980 square miles. 

Trent Watershed Survey 

There is now in process of publication a report on the Trent 
Watershed Survey, by Dr. C. D. Howe and Mr. J. H. White. This- 
report was prepared under the direction of Dr. B. E. Fernow, and 
shows very clearly the serious consequences which have followed the 
agricultural settlement of a section of old Ontario, which for the most 
part is essentially non-agricultural in character. The soil having 
quickly become impoverished from cultivation, the people who remained 
on the poorer lands are living under undesirable economic conditions. 
The merchantable timber has been largely removed, and protection from 
fire on such lands, having ceased to be worth the while of the limit- 
holders, has therefore practically not been given. Neither has such 
protection been considered practicable or worth while on the part of 
the Provincial Government itself. The result is that the repeated fires 
have destroyed a young growth of timber having a potential stumpage 
value of millions of dollars, besides impoverishing the soil, facilitating 
erosion, and so changing the composition of the forest that its possible- 
future value is greatly decreased. 

This is a matter of serious import to the Dominion 
Water^ed of Government, since the area in question comprises 

a large portion of the watershed of the Trent canal, 
the partial construction of which has already involved the expenditure 
of something like ten millions of dollars. It is thoroughly established 
that a forest cover exercises a very beneficial influence in preventing 
extremes of low-water and high-water stages. The maintenance of a. 
forest upon the slopes is, therefore, of the greatest importance, in order 
to supplement and protect the necessary system of dams for water 
storage. To this end, it is essential that an adequate system of fire- 



so COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

protection be established. Even during the past summer, fires burned 
over not less than 190,000 acres, largely covered with young growth, 
causing an enormous present and prospective loss. The interest and 
responsibility of the Provincial Government is great, since it still con- 
trols approximately one-third of the area in question. Probably the 
most practicable arrangement would be for the Provincial Government 
to take the initiative, the Dominion Government making a cash con- 
tribution to cover a portion of the cost of protection, in consideration 
of its very great interest in the matter. Co-operation on the part of the 
municipalities and private owners is also suggested in the report. It 
is beheved that this matter is of sufficient importance to justify a con- 
ference between representatives of the Dominion and Provincial 
governments, looking toward the adoption of a definite co-operative 
plan for the solution of the problem. 

It should be understood that the situation in the Trent watershed 
is not an isolated case, but is merely one example of a situation which 
•exists to an alarming extent in other portions of the Dominion. 

Forest Staff Under Civil Service Commission 

In accordance with recommendations made at the last annual meet- 
ing, representations were made to the Federal and to the several Pro- 
vincial governments urging the extension of the merit system of 
appointment for forestry and fire-protection work. So far as the 
Dominion Government is concerned, this matter is covered in a general 
way in the report of Sir George Murray, w^hich is now under considera- 
tion by the Dominion Government. The elimination of political influ- 
ence in matters of personnel is believed to be absolutely essential before 
satisfactory results can be hoped for in fire-protective organization. 
The extension of the jurisdiction of the Civil Service Commission to the 
field staflf of the Dominion Forestry Branch would go further in 
increasing the efficiency of the fire-protective w^ork of that organization 
than perhaps any other step that could be taken. This matter should 
again be strongly urged upon the Dominion Government. 

Forestry on Dominion Timber Berths 

During the past summer, a study has been made for the Commis- 
sion of forest conditions on the public domain in Alberta, Saskatche- 
wan and Manitoba and the Railway Belt of British Columbia. In this 
study, which was conducted by Mr. J- H. White, particular attention 
was paid to the matter of fire prevention through brush disposal, and 
to the question of securing a natural reproduction of the forest through 
control of the methods of cutting. In addition to certain technical 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 81 

features, the question of organization is raised, and the fact is brought 
out that in matters affecting the timberlands of the Dominion Govern- 
ment, jurisdiction is divided between three separate branches of the 
Department of the Interior. 

As to the timber berths, which comprise a very large percentage of 
the accessible merchantable timber on the public domain, both inside 
and outside the forest reserves and Dominion parks, responsibility 
rests upon the Timber and Grazing Branch of the Department of the 
Interior, which is, to a large extent, in practice, a fiscal organization, 
charged with the collection of revenue, the prevention of trespass, the 
administration of grazing leases, etc. This is due to the fact that, 
legally, the licensed timber berths are not a part of the forest reserves 
or parks, even though included within their exterior boundaries. The 
jurisdiction of the Forestry and Parks branches in the enforcement of 
timber regulations extends only to the lands in the forest reserves and 
Dominion parks not included in licensed timber berths. However, in 
the matter of establishing and maintaining fire patrols, the whole 
forested portion of the public domain is covered by the organization 
of the Forestry and Parks branches. 

, The question of brush disposal as a fire preventive 

Disposal as measure, and of so controlling the methods of cutting 

Fire Preventive ^g ^q ensure the perpetuation of the forest, are the 
principal technical features of present-day forestry practice, and pro- 
vision for these matters is made in the licenses covering all timber 
berths. 

Both the Forestry and Parks branches have field organizations 
actually on the ground, sufficient to handle the work which falls within 
their respective jurisdictions. The Timber and Grazing Branch, which 
has jurisdiction over the licensed timber berths, is, however, not so 
fortunately situated in this respect, since it has only a limited field 
staff. The Crown timber agents and their office staffs are obviously 
unable to devote any material personal attention to these technical 
matters in the field. The inspectors under the Crown timber agents 
are the only men upon whom this work can fall under the present plan 
of organization. Of these, one is at New Westminster, one at Kam- 
loops, one at Calgary, six at Edmonton, four at Prince Albert, and 
five at Winnipeg. The time of these men has previously been fully 
occupied with the duties regularly incident to their positions, and it 
would be hopeless to expect that anything like adequate results can be 
accomplished by trying to place upon these already fully occupied men 
the responsibility for the enforcement of the technical forestry pro- 
visions of the licenses. These provisions have not been enforced in 
6 — c. c. 



82 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

the past on the Hcensed timber berths, nor can they by any possibihty 
be enforced under present conditions of organization. 

From a forestry and fire-preventive point of view, we 
Technical thus have the anomalous situation of a total lack of 

Supervision ^j^g essential features of technical supervision of 

logging operations upon lands containing the vast majority of the 
accessible merchantable timber which is now the property of the 
Dominion Government. Until this situation is remedied in some way, 
the Dominion Government can have very little cause for self-congra- 
tulation so far as the practice of forestry is concerned. The particular 
way in which this problem of organization should be worked out is, of 
course, strictly a departmental matter. The main consideration is that 
the results ought to be accomplished in some way. 

It goes without saying that, whatever the solution, it must involve 
the assignment to this work of men who are fully qualified by training 
and experience to enforce the technical provisions of the timber 
licenses with due regard at the same time to the future of the forest 
and the interest of the lumbermen concerned. Efficient results at a 
minimum of cost to the operator must be the aim. This work can most 
certainly not be handled by men without special qualifications in the 
way of training and experience. 

The above is not intended, and should not be considered as, a 
criticism of the Timber and Grazing Branch. The situation simply 
appears to be that the Dominion Government has made no provision 
for the administration of forestry regulations upon the licensed timber 
berths of the public domain. As a result, the protection and perpetua- 
tion of the forest upon the best timbered areas, both within and outside 
the forest reserves and parks, is most seriously endangered. The 
correction of this omission is of the most pressing importance, and will 
amply justify the submission of strong representations by this Com- 
mission to the Dominion Government. 

RECOMMENDATIONS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS, 1913 

The Committee on Forests finds that, since the last annual meeting, 
the situation, to which its recommendations at that time referred, has 
changed but little, and that it can repeat with propriety most of the 
propositions then formulated — with some additions. 

1. The protection from forest fires, in which decided progress 
has been made, still requires assiduous effort to make it effective in 
all directions. 

2. The matter of fire protection along Government railways should 
be further taken up with the Dominion Government, and such rail- 



REPORTS OF COMAIITTEE ON FORESTS 83 

ways should be made subject to the fire regulations prescribed by the 
Board of Railway Commissioners for lines subject to its jurisdiction. 

3. Representations should be made to the governments of Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Alberta, urging that both legisla- 
tive and administrative provision be made for requiring provincially 
chartered railways to take adequate steps to safeguard the adjacent 
country from fires due to railway causes. 

4. The ascertainment or inventory of timber supplies has been 
properly begun in British Columbia, in co-operation with the Pro- 
vincial Forest Branch and with the Forestry Branch of the Canadian 
Pacific railway, and in Saskatchewan in co-operation with the Domin- 
ion Forestry Branch. This work should be persistently continued. 
Co-operation of the Provincial Government of New Brunswick for the 
same purpose should be encouraged, and the governments of Ontario 
and Quebec invited to pursue a similar course. 

5. The attention of the Dominion and Provincial governments 
should be again drawn to the vital necessity of withholding from 
settlement all lands which cannot properly be classed as agricultural, 
and of setting such lands apart for the permanent production of timber 
supplies. The importance should be especially accentuated of reserv- 
ing and protecting from fire the vast areas of young forest growth, in 
order that they may reach merchantable size and form a future source 
of local revenue and industry. 

6. The governments of Ontario and Quebec should be urged to 
undertake a systematic classification of land in the " clay belt " in 
advance of settlement, in order to have settlement properly directed, 

7. A strong effort should be made to secure co-operation between 
the Dominion Government and that of the Province of Ontario, to 
solve the problem of protection and recuperation of the Trent 
watershed. 

8. The extension of forest reservations in the public lands of the 
west should be forwarded, as the surveys by the Dominion Forestry 
Branch develop their desirability. 

9. The organization of forestry branches should be urged on the 
two forest provinces, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, which are 
still without such an agency. 

10. The Commission reiterates its opinion that, in the forest services 
of the Dominion and Provincial governments, more than in any other 
service, the appointments should be based on capability and experience, 
such as may be secured by civil service examinations. 

11. Representations should be made to the Dominion Government 
looking toward the adoption of some plan, whereby adequate pro- 



84 COMMISSION OF C O X S E R V A T I O X 

vision may be made for the enforcement of the technical provisions 
affecting lumbering operations on the licensed timber berths. 

12. The immediate establishment of a game preserve in the southern 
■portion of the Rocky mountains, in Alberta and British Columbia, 
•adjacent to the Glacier National Park of Montana, should be urged 
Tipon the Dominion Government and the Government of British Colum- 
bia. Immediately favorable action upon this recommendation is imper- 
ative in the interests of game preservation. 

13. In the opinion of the Committee, an expenditure of $25,000 
per annum for the next four years is urgently needed, to furnish the 
basis for formulating and forwarding a forest policy for the Dominion. 

14. In view of the importance, for water-power development, of 
the forest cover on the upper waters of the Winnipeg river, and 
especially on the watershed of the lake of the Woods, steps should 
be taken to segregate as a forest reserve the area drained by this 
river. 

REPORT FOR 1914 

In the matter of forest protection, the general aspects of the situa- 
tions have not changed materially since the last meeting, though there 
have been improvements in some respects. 

The fire season of 1914 was the worst since 1910, and the aggre- 
gate of loss will be heavy. Fire-protective organizations throughout 
the Dominion were severely taxed, and, in most cases, the results have 
shown that these organizations need strengthening in one or more re- 
spects, in order to provide really adequate protection. In practically 
all cases, larger appropriations are needed, especially for the protec- 
tion of young forest growth. This action, wherever at all practicable 
under present conditions, is fully justifiable on the basis that fire pro- 
tection must be regarded, not as an expense, but as an investment, 
•necessary in the public interest, that will pay high dividends in the 
future. 

Inventory of Forest Resources 

The inventory of forest resources, begun in British Columbia and 
Saskatchewan in 1913, has been continued during the past year. The 
financial situation has, however, made it necessary to cut down ex- 
penses, and the work in Saskatchewan, under J. C. Blumer, has been 
discontinued, with apparently no prospect of its being again taken up 
during the coming season. The work in British Columbia is being 
continued under Dr. H. X. Whitford and Roland D. Craig. 

As indicated last year, there is strong reason for the belief that 
the forest resources of Canada have been much over-estimated in the 
past, and the necessity for a general stock-taking is obvious, in order 



REPORTS OF CO^I^IITTEE ON FORESTS 85 

to provide the basis for a comprehensive plan for the intelHgent con- 
servation of this most important resource. 

In British Columbia, during 1913 and 1914, figures 
The Work in _ and other data have been collected covering over 200,- 
British Columbia QQQ square miles, at an average cost of about six cents 
per square mile. The explanation of this low cost lies in the fact that 
a very large amount of detailed information had been previously col- 
lected at great cost by the British Columbia Forest Branch, the 
Dominion Forestry Branch, the Canadian Pacific Forestry Branch,, 
and a great many limit-holders. Practically all this information has 
been placed at the disposal of our investigators, and has been supple- 
mented to a hmited extent by further data collected by them at first 
hand, on the ground. Without the admirable co-operation of all these 
ao-encies the results which are being secured would be impossible 
except at a cost that would be prohibitive to the Commission. It is 
hoped that with one more year's work, the report on the timber 
resources of British Columbia will have been completed. In addition 
to the descriptive text, this report will include maps showing land 
classification, forest regions, sylvicultural types, and range of the 
principal tree species. 

In Saskatchewan, the work, to date, has covered some 

Progress in 60,000 square miles, but the information collected on 

Saskatchewan. . r .^ ■ li. xz -i 

a part of this area is incomplete, as financial con- 
siderations made it necessary to discontinue the investigation. At 
least another year should be devoted to completing the work in 
Saskatchewan, but it does not seem possible to carry it forward 
during 1915. The investigations already made show that the total 
amount of spruce in the timber limit belt of Saskatchewan is dis- 
couragingly small, especially in proportion to the vast area over which 
this timber is scattered. Fire has been largely responsible for this situa- 
tion, and the need is emphasized for more adequate fire protection. 

From this uncompleted investigation, the indications are that, of 
spruce saw-timber, there are in the portion of the province of 
Saskatchewan accessible by present logging methods, some 2,100 
million feet, board measure. This area comprises 27,000 square 
miles, and includes all the timber hmits, for which specific esti- 
mates have been secured from most of the limit-holders. Between 
this timber-limit belt and the Churchill river is another area of 33,00(> 
square miles, with no timber limits, and for which the incomplete data 
available indicate a total stand of 1,200 million feet of spruce saw- 
timber, generally inaccessible under present conditions. North of 
the Churchill river is another vast area of 88,000 square miles, ora 



86 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

which the timber is generall}- poor and scattering. Assuming this 
vast inaccessible area to contain 200 million feet of spruce saw-timber, 
we have, roughly, for the whole of Saskatchewan a total of only 3,500 
million feet of spruce of saw-timber size, of which not quite two-thirds 
is accessible at present. 

^ . ^ A\'hile no detailed studv has been made in Manitoba 

Estimate for , . i, ' i • i- • i i 

Manitoba and and Alberta, a very rough mdication may perhaps be 

Alberta. secured by applying the averages found in Saskatch- 

ewan. If this be done, we would have for Manitoba about 2,500 
million feet of spruce, and for Alberta, some 6,000 million feet, making 
a rough total for the Prairie provinces of 12,000 million feet of spruce 
saw-timber. 

While these figures are for the most part only rough approxima- 
tions, they indicate clearly the depleted condition of these forests, 
and, before the advent of the white man, which has so generally been 
followed by large and destructive fires, they, undoubtedly, contained 
many times their present stand of timber. With adequate protec- 
tion from future fires, these great areas would gradually re-establish 
their former productivity of timber wealth. 

RSPRODUcTiox Study in British Columbia 

During the past summer, an investigation was made by the Com- 
mission, to determine the conditions under which the reproduction of 
commercial tree species is occurring most advantageously in the coastal 
region of British Columbia. Particular attention was paid to the 
effect of fire upon the reproduction of Douglas fir, which is the most 
valuable and most widely distributed species in the province. The 
study was conducted by Dr. C. D. Howe, of the Faculty of Forestry, 
University of Toronto. In this work the British Columbia Forest 
Branch co-operated by assigning a forest assistant to work w^ith Dr. 
Howe, and by furnishing a considerable amount of information avail- 
able from the head office in Victoria. The report is now being put 
in shape for publication. 

The report emphasizes the fact that the popular assumption that 
nature alone will provide satisfactorily for the replacement of valu- 
able commercial forests on cut-over and burned-over lands is only 
partially true. Nature is oftentimes wasteful in her methods, and 
needs to be aided by man in order to secure the best results. This is 
particularly true with regard to forest resources. The detailed investi- 
gations made by Dr. Howe, in British Columbia, show, in the first 
place, that the burning of logging slash, at selected times and under 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 87 

proper supervision, not only greatly reduces the fire hazard, but favors 
the reproduction of Douglas fir by exposing the mineral soil. However, 
repeated fires, and fires occurring during dry periods, not only destroy 
the young growth, but the seed trees as well, thus preventing or greatly 
retarding the establishment of a stand of commercial species. 

T, . J T- As a general rule, a sufficient number of seed trees is 
Repeated Fires , . ^ , . , ^ , i r 

Destroy Valu- left after loggmg, so that one fire leaves enough for 

able Species. seeding purposes. Each fire thereafter, however, re- 
duces them in proportionately larger quantities. Thus, through the 
diminution of seed trees, each fire makes it increasingly difficult to 
re-establish, by natural means, the forest on the successively burned 
areas. On this account, in many sections, reproduction of valuable 
species is wholly inadequate in amount, or is entirely lacking, since 
each successive fire diminishes the earning capacity of the area, from 
the point of view of timber production, unless artificial planting be 
resorted to; and this is impracticable at the present time, on any large 
scale, on account of the great expense involved. The same results 
^an, however, be secured at relatively slight expense, by providing 
more adequate protection from fire on cut-over lands, especially those 
laearing young forest growth at the present time. In a sense, protec- 
tion of young growth is more essential than that of mature timber, since 
the effect of fire is so much more disastrous, a single fire entirely 
destroying the young trees, while the old timber on the Pacific coast 
is very fire-resistant, being protected by a thick covering of bark. 
The additional protection needed naturally means the employment of 
a larger patrol force than has previously been practicable, on account 
of the limited funds available. 



Railway Fire Protection 

Under the fire regulations of the Board of Railway Commissioners, 
the railway fire protection work has been continued along the lines of 
-organization and policy established during 1912 and 1913. Steady 
improvement has taken place, and it is only fair to state that along 
liundreds of miles of railway lines, especially where there are no 
timber limits, the fire protective organizations of the railway com- 
panies have proved the most effective, and, in some cases, the only 
organized, agencies in those particular sections, for the extinguishing 
•of fires. Some of the worst fires have been those which originated 
at a distance from the track and, in many such cases, the railways have 
l)een very effective in checking the spread of fires, for the origin of 
which they were in no wise responsible. 



88 COMMISSION OF COXSERVATIOX 

The Board has established co-operation, in the handling- 
Co-op^ration in ^^ j^^ railway fire inspection work, with governmental 
fire-protective organizations in all of the forest pro- 
vinces with the single exception of Nova Scotia. In that province the 
situation reported a year ago still exists, and active co-operation is 
still pending, awaiting the appointment of a provincial forester, for 
which appointment provision has been made by law. Fire protection 
in general, and the railway situation in particular, would benefit 
greatly by the early appointment of a qualified man to this position. 

At the past two annual meetings attention was called to the need 
for more adequate control of railway fire-protective work in a number 
of the provinces, along lines not subject to the Board of Railway 
Commissioners. This situation has, to a considerable extent, been 
cleared up during the past year. 

Under the terms of the Canadian Northern Railway 
Lines Brought ,...,,, , ,. 

Under Railway Guarantee Act, a number ot provmcially-chartered fines 

Board. in the Canadian Northern system have been declared 

works for the general advantage of Canada, and thus come under the- 

Board's jurisdiction. Of these, the most important are the Hah fax 

and Southwestern, in Nova Scotia; the Quebec and Lake St. John^ 

in Quebec ; and the Irondale, Bancroft and Ottawa, in Ontario. Also, 

the Canadian Northern Pacific, comprising the British Columbia lines 

of the Canadian Northern system, will come under the Board when 

it is completed and opened for operation. 

The International railway of New Brunswick, a provincially-char- 
tered line, has been absorbed into the Government Railways system. 
The International runs through an almost solid forest, so that its 
acquisition by the Intercolonial serves to emphasize the need for the 
adoption of the same fire-protective measures upon Government lines 
as are required by the Government, through the Railway Commis- 
sion, upon lines privately-owned. Upon the International, in particular, 
there is needed the establishment of special fire patrols and a thorough 
cleaning up of the right-of-way. Also, the special instructions to 
regular employees relative to reporting and extinguishing fires, issued 
during the past two summers, by the management of the Intercolonial 
should be repeated prior to April 1, 1915, and each spring thereafter. 

A year ago a resolution was adopted by the Commission, urging 
that Government railways should be made subject to the Railway 
Commission, so far as fire protection is concerned. However, this 
action has not vet been taken. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE OX FORESTS 89 

Reduction of Railway companies throughout Canada are seriously 
Railway Fire handicapped in their efforts at fire protection by the 
Hazard presence of large quantities of inflammable debris on 

Crown and private lands immediately adjoining railway rights-of- 
way. The prevention of fires through reduction of the hazard is a 
most essential feature of any campaign for better fire protection. All 
that the railways can reasonably be required to do under the regula- 
tions of the Railway Commission can never be more than partially 
effective so long as the lands adjoining their property are allowed ^o- 
constitute the worst possible fire-traps. Further legislation, coupled 
with adequate enforcement, is necessary in order to provide satisfac- 
torily for remedying the conditions on private lands and on Crown 
lands under license. As to Crown lands not under license, the remedy 
needed is not legislation, but provision for the expenditure of money, 
in order to gradually clean up the most dangerous sections. This,, 
again, should be regarded, not as an expense, but as a dividend-pay- 
ing investment. Work of this kind, especially along railway lines 
through parks and forest reserves, would be thoroughly suitable for 
alien enemies, for whom self-supporting employment must be fur- 
nished. 

While the situation, as a whole, is still in urgent need of attention,. 
distinct progress has been made along this line in some individual cases. 

Burning; During the year, the provincial authorities of British 

of Slash Columbia issued instructions requiring the burning 

Required q£ slash resulting from new public road construe 

tion, and also made provision for a beginning at cleaning up the 
old road slash, left from the work of previous years. Although only 
a relatively small beginning has been made as yet, the situation should 
now improve from year to year. The reduction of fire hazard in this 
way will materially benefit the general situation, and will be of par- 
ticular value in the numerous cases in the mountains where pubhc 
wagon roads necessarily parallel the railway lines closely. 

In Ontario, provision appears to have been made for the satisfac- 
tory disposal of road slash on the very considerable amount of new 
construction, particularly in proximity to railway lines. 

p . A particularly creditable piece of co-operation has 

Secures Good been brought about between the Grand Trunk rail- 
Results ^^y ^j^(^ |.]^g Department of Lands and Forests of 
Ontario, whereby an excellent beginning has been made in reducing 
the railway fire hazard through Algonquin park. This arrangement 
contemplates the careful and thorough disposal of inflammable debris 
on the Grand Trunk right-of-way and a strip of the Crown lands 



90 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

adjoining on both sides, through the park, the cost to be shared equally 
between the railway company and the provincial government. It is 
understood that this work will be continued next summer, until the 
mileage through the park shall have been completed. 

A further example, on a somewhat smaller scale, is the work done 
by the Department of Indian Affairs in disposing of old slashings 
along the Canadian Pacific line through the Shawanaga Indian Reserve, 
in the Muskoka district, Ontario. This work has been most efificiently 
done, and practically eliminates what was a serious railway fire hazard. 

In these, and other individual cases, the railway companies have 
shown a thoroughly co-operative spirit, which has gone far toward 
inducing land owners to do their share and to meet the companies half- 
way. The continuation and extension of such co-operation will, in the 
course of years, reduce the railway fire hazard very materially. 

Dominion Forest Reserves 

During the past year material additions have been made to the 
area of Dominion forest reserves in Saskatchewan, but there are still 
large areas of non-agricultural forest lands in all the western prov- 
inces which should likewise be included in permanent forest reserves. 
At the present time the total area of forest reserves and parks is as 
follows : 

Manitoba 4,072.50 square miles 

Saskatchewan 9.680.79 " 

Alberta 26,270.90 " 

British Columbia 3,777.56 " '' 

Total 43.801.75 " 

The net area of forest reserves alone is as follows: 

Manitoba 4,072.50 square miles 

Saskatchewan 9,680.79 " 

Alberta 19,473.15 " 

British Columbia 2,749.56 " 

Total 35,976.00 " 

Areas temporarily reserved, with a view to being, later, included in 
permanent forest reserves, are as follows: 

Manitoba, approximately 700 square miles 

Saskatchewan, approximately 3,200 " " 

Alberta, approximately 14,000 " " 

Total 17,900 " 

This does not include areas which were examined during 1914, 
the temporary reservation of which has not yet been approved. The 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 91 

Commission should exercise its influence to secure the early reserva- 
tion of these additional areas of non-agricultural lands. 

Civil Service Reform 

The merit system of appointments is not yet in effect in the field ser- 
vice of the Dominion Forestry Branch. The passage of the proposed 
Civil Service Act would presumably lead to an order in council putting 
this very necessary reform into effect, together with others. However, 
there now seems to be some doubt as to whether this legislation will be 
enacted during the coming session of Parliament. All experience goes to 
show that a really ef^cient field service cannot be developed under the 
patronage system of appointment, and it is believed that, in the interests 
of forestry, the adoption of the merit system should be brought about at 
the earliest possible moment. The Canadian Forestry Association has 
also urged this reform for years, and it has been recommended 
by Sir George Murray in his report to the Dominion Govern- 
ment. It is understood that favourable assurances have been given 
by the Government. It appears, however, that the enactment of the 
new Civil Service Act is not essential to this action, but that it can be 
taken at any time by an order in council, under existing legislation, 
which action would still be necessary even under the proposed new 
Act. It is therefore believed that, whether the new Act is passed 
or not, at the coming session of Parliament, the Government should 
be strongly urged to issue an order in council placing the field 
force of the Dominion Forestry Branch in the inside service, and 
providing for the filling of all places by competitive examination. 
Many of the force, as at present constituted, are fully competent, but 
many others are not, and provision should be made for appointing 
qualified men. This is most urgently needed at the present time to 
place Dominion forestry on a satisfactory basis. 

It should also not be overlooked that similar action is necessary as 
to the forestry and fire-protective services of the several provincial 
governments. 

Forestry on Dominion Lands 

We are still faced with the anomalous situation of a practically com- 
plete divorce between the theory and practice of forestry on Dominion 
lands held under license to cut timber. This matter was discussed last 
year, on the basis of a report made for the Commission by J. H. White, 
of the Faculty of Forestry, Toronto. It was then shown that, while the 
Forestry Branch is well equipped with men technically trained in fores- 
try and is administering the forest reserves, as well as affording 
fire-protection both within and outside these reserves, it has abso- 



92 COMMISSION' OF C O X S E R V A T I O X 

lutely no connection with the administration of cutting regulations^ 
on the licensed timber berths, although many of these berths are 
included within the boundaries of the reserves. This is because the 
timber berths are not legally a portion of the forest reserves. At the 
same time, the Timber and Grazing Branch, which is charged with 
the administration of the timber berths, has not, so far as known, even 
one man in its employ who has had any training in forestry whatever. 
As stated last year, the principal technical features of present-day 
forestry practice are such control of the methods of cutting as shall, 
ensure the perpetuation of the forest, and such measures of brush dis- 
posal, as a fire-preventive measure, as may be found practicable and 
desirable under the conditions of each individual case. The licensed- 
timber berths naturally include the bulk of merchantable accessible 
timber on Crown lands, and it is obviously illogical and thoroughly 
undesirable in every way to permit the cutting of this timber without 
the most careful and intelligent enforcement of the existing regulations,, 
which have for their object the perpetuation of the forest, by wise use. 
Such enforcement is, however, not now provided, and is impossible 
under existing conditions of organization. 

Forest Reserves ix Ontario 

The present area of forest reserves and parks in Ontario is 22,57+ 
square miles, or 14,447,360 acres. This area, while large in itself, is 
not great in comparison with the 108,089,362 acres of provincial and 
township forest reserves and parks in Quebec; nor is it large in pro- 
portion to the total area of non-agricultural lands in Ontario which 
must always be chiefly valuable for the production of timber. There 
are many millions of acres of cut-over or burned-over forest lands in 
this province, belonging to the Crown, which are now practically with- 
out fire protection, but which contain a great deal of young growth 
and much timber at present below merchantable size. This timber, 
if protected from fire, would, however, ultimately become merchant- 
able. 

The present annual revenue from woods and forests in Ontario is 
in the neighbourhood of $2,000,000. It is obvious that, if this revenue 
is to be maintained, new areas must be continually opened up for lum- 
bering, and this, in turn, necessitates the protection of the non-mer- 
chantable areas and the young growth, in order that, when the time 
comes, they may contain merchantable timber ready for cutting. Any 
other policy means the sacrifice of a large future revenue to avoid 
much smaller present expenditures. Since the expense of protecting 
the large areas of young growth during the necessary period of many 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 93 

years would in the aggregate be heavy, while there is, at the same 
"time, a strong demand for the surplus revenues for purposes of general 
governmental administration, the problem is undoubtedly a difficult one. 
It seems probable that the situation could best be met by the adoption 
of a definite policy which would result in the reservation and placing 
under protection each year of a limited but definite area of young 
forest growth, found upon examination to be most suitable for this 
purpose. An excellent step in this direction was the addition last year 
■of 2,000 square miles to the Mississagi forest reserve, and 811 square 
miles to the Algonquin park; but this constitutes only the beginning 
'of what should be adopted as a definite and continuing policy. 



The necessity for further protection of important 
'of Watersheds 



Protection watersheds must also be considered. Water-power 



development is now a vital factor in the industrial life 
•of the province, and this importance is bound to increase tremen- 
dously in the future. For the intelligent protection of this great interest, 
:f orest preservation is absolutely essential. A concrete example of this 
relationship was brought to the attention of the Commission at the 
annual meeting a year ago, by Mr. J. B. Challies, Superintendent of 
"the Dominion Water Power Branch. As a result of the representations 
made by Mr. Challies, a resolution was adopted by the Commission, 
favouring the establishment of a forest reserve on the upper waters of 
■^the Winnipeg river, and especially on the watershed of the lake of the 
Woods. So far as known, however, no action has been taken by the 
Ontario Government. 

Tri;nt Watershed 
At the last two annual meetings of the Commission, there has been 
full discussion of the situation on the watershed of the Trent canal, 
and resolutions have been adopted and transmitted to the Ontario 
Government. However, so far as known, there has been no action 
taken, and the situation remains unchanged. 

The land surface of this watershed comprises some 2,000 square 
miles, of which about one-third, or 725 square miles, still remains in 
the ownership of the Provincial Government. Of this, 450 square miles 
are still under license, while 275 square miles, or 176,000 acres, repre- 
sent limits which have reverted to the Crown, after the licenses had 
lapsed or been abandoned. These Crown lands are practically all 
non-agricultural, and are chiefly valuable for forestry purposes. 

It is understood that, on account of financial considerations, and 
"the existence of very large areas of similar or better forest lands in 
'tthe province, for which it is impracticable at the present time to pro- 



94 COMMISSION OF C O X S E R V A T I O X 

vide adequate protection, there is little hope of the Provincial Govern- 
ment being able to provide the amount of protection urgently needed 
in the Trent watershed. 

On the other hand, the Dominion Government is vitally interested 
in this situation, having already expended some ten million dollars 
upon works pertaining to the Trent canal. The protection of this 
watershed, and consequent regulation of waterflow, are essential ta 
the full success of this undertaking. It is beheved that, under these 
circumstances, the Dominion Government would be amply justified in 
incurring further reasonable expense for this purpose, in order to 
protect the investment already made, as well as the future expenditures 
which must be incurred in completing the project. 

In the Dominion Forestry Branch, there is already in existence an 
organization admirably equipped to carry on this work. The Dominion 
Government has already been authorized by the provincial authorities 
to acquire Crown land in the Trent watershed at fifty cents per acre. 

The Committee on Forests beheves that the most practicable- 
method of securing a beginning in the solution of this problem would 
be for the Dominion Government to proceed with the purchase of such, 
portions of the 176,000 acres of unlicensed Crown lands as are fairly 
contiguous, and place the same under the Forestry Branch for protec- 
tion and development; or else, considering the benefits which such. 
action would confer upon the province, it may be possible to induce 
the province to place such areas, free of charge, under the care of the 
Dominion Government, under an arrangement by which, eventually, 
financial satisfaction might be secured for the province. 

Undoubtedly, at least some plan of co-operation could be developed 
whereby a system of fire-protection would be established, covering the 
more important portions of the watershed outside as well as within this 
area. The cost of this work v.'ould not be great, in proportion to the 
benefits to be received. 

In addition to the value of watershed protection, this 

Value as _ work would have a very great indirect value as an 

Demonstration . , , . „ . • • i 

experimental demonstration to all the provincial gov- 
ernments and owners of forest lands in eastern Canada, of what can 
be done in the way of restoring such waste lands to a productive con- 
dition. Educational work of this character is a thoroughly well-justified 
function of the Dominion Government, and is closely comparable to 
work which the Dominion Forestry Branch is already doing in the 
west, as well as to work in other lines which other departments of the 
government are conducting throughout the Dominion. It is also 
directly parallel to work which the United States Government is carry- 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 95 

ing on in the eastern states, under the Weeks law. This law carries a 
large appropriation for the acquisition of non-agricultural forest lands 
on the watersheds of navigable streams. 

The work in the Trent watershed could be taken up on this basis, 
by the Dominion Government, without any large expenditure, either 
for first cost or for annual charges. Also, entirely aside from the 
indirect benefits resulting from better watershed protection, the invest- 
ment would, in the long run, undoubtedly be a paying one, from the 
sale of forest products in future years. In addition, these relatively 
barren lands would be made productive, and would thus add to the 
wealth of the country and afford an opportunity for labour on the 
part of the local population, for whom there is far too little remunera- 
tive employment under present conditions. 

Wider Use of Western Coae 

During the past several years there has been some difficulty on 
account of excessive fire danger resulting from the use as loco- 
motive fuel of certain western coals having poor coking qualities. 
This difficulty has interfered quite seriously with the use of some 
of these coals by railways during the summer season. In order 
to increase their summer market, the Canadian Coal and Coke Com- 
pany has employed an expert to devise a spark arrester which shall so 
check the emission of live sparks from the stack, as to permit the 
reasonably safe use of such coals the year round. The Grand Trunk 
Pacific railway and the Operating and Fire Inspection Departments 
of the Railway Commission are co-operating with the Canadian Coal 
and Coke Company in the conduct of these experiments. The results 
already secured give considerable promise of success. Such an out- 
come is greatly to be desired, since the utilization of local coal supplies 
means the development of additional Canadian industries. 

Co-operative Fire Protection 

A notable occurrence of the past year in eastern Canada was the 
organization last spring of the Lower Ottawa Forest Protective Asso- 
ciation. The territory protected by this association comprises some 
7,500,000 acres, on the watersheds of the Gatineau, Lievre, Rouge, 
Coulonge and Nation rivers, in the province of Quebec. The lines of 
organization are closely similar to those which had previously proved 
so successful in the case of the St. Maurice Forest Protective 
Association, whose territory lies just east of the territory embraced 
within the Lower Ottawa Association. The combined territory of 
these two associations now comprises approximately 15,000,000 acres 



96 C O MI^I I S S I O X OF CONSERVATION 

of forest lands. Both organizations co-operate closely with the Pro- 
vincial Government of Quebec. In each case also, the association 
manager is an officer of the Fire Inspection Department of the Rail- 
way Commission, and secures co-operation in that capacity from the 
railways operating within the association boundaries. 

Co-operative fire protection, having proved such a success in a por- 
tion of Quebec, as it had previously proved in many portions of the 
United States, there is every reason to hope that the movement will 
continue, and, in particular, that the plan at present under discussion 
of an association on the Upper Ottawa, shall be made effective. 

Game Preservation 

At the last two annual meetings of the Commission, resolutions 
have been adopted favouring the establishment of a game preserve in 
those portions of Alberta and British Columbia adjoining the Glacier 
National Park of Montana. Through the extension of the Waterton 
Lakes park, this action has now been taken so far as the Alberta por- 
tion is concerned, but no action has been taken in British Columbia. 
The provincial government verj' naturally objects to the establishment 
of a park in that section, which embraces a portion of the headwaters 
of the Flathead river, on account of interference with the further 
development of the natural resources, particularly coal. It should, how- 
ever, be emphasized that the Commission has recommended only the 
establishment of a game preserve, and that this action could readily be 
taken without the withdrawal of either land or minerals from aliena- 
tion, and thus would not at all retard the development of the natural 
resources of the section in question. All that is needed is the enactment 
of a law by the Provincial Legislature, or the passage of an order in 
council, closing an area of some 320 square miles to hunting, together 
with adequate provision for enforcement. Unless the Government of 
British Columbia can be persuaded to co-operate to this extent, it 
appears that there will be a serious limitation to the efficiency of the 
measures already taken by the United States Government in Glacier 
park, Montana, and by the Dominion Government in Waterton Lakes 
park, Alberta, looking toward the preser\'ation of big game, particu- 
larly mountain sheep and mountain goats. This proposal has the 
cordial support of the Camp-Fire Club of America, which has con- 
tinuously urged favourable action during the past several years. 

Scientific Investig.\tions 

While fire-protection is the first essential to any plan of forest 
administration, it does not by any means constitute all there is to 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 97 

forestry, which is a well-developed science and profession in 
itself, even entirely aside from fire protection. The Dominion 
Forestry Branch, the British Columbia Forest Branch, and the 
Quebec Forest Service all have quite extensive organizations, 
.and have done excellent work, while the Ontario Government is 
-doing less and has only the nucleus of a forestry organization. New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia have no forestry organizations at all. 
Past efforts have in all cases been directed primarily at protection and 
general administration, with very little attention to the carrying on of 
■scientific investigations calculated to develop a permanent basis for 
Canadian forestry practice. 

The Dominion Forestry Branch is now considering the extension 
of its organization to include a section of forest investigations, to be 
■charged with the special conduct of fundamental scientific studies, the 
results of which shall, in the long run, guide the work of administration. 
This is a very necessary and exceedingly commendable project, and the 
Commission should urge its adoption, with adequate provision for 
making it effective. 

RESOLUTIONS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS, 1914 

1. The inventory of forest resources of British Columbia, now 
well under way, should be continued until completed. The similar 
work in Saskatchewan, now discontinued for lack of funds, should be 
resumed at the first opportunity. Similar studies should be commenced 
in other provinces as rapidly as funds will permit. 

2. In connection with the investigation of forest resources of 
British Columbia, the Commission should recognize the exceedingly 
valuable co-operation afforded by the British Columbia Forest Branch, 
the Canadian Pacific railway, the Dominion Forestry Branch, and also 
■of the large number of limit-holders and other individuals who have 
supplied detailed information. As to the work in Saskatchewan, the 
same acknowledgment should be made to the Dominion Forestry 
Branch and a large number of limit-holders and other individuals. 

3. The Board of Railway Commissioners should be congratulated 
upon the beneficial results arising from its efforts toward better fire 
protection along railway lines. 

4. The governments of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick should 
be urged to make early provision, for the appointment of provincial 
foresters. 

5. Further representations should be made to the Dominion Govern- 
ment concerning fire protection along the Government railways. 
Attention is particularly needed along the International railway of 

7 — c. c. 



98 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

New Brunswick, in connection with right-of-way clearing and the 
establishment of special patrols. The Government railways should be 
made subject to the fire-protection requirements of the Board of 
Railway Commissioners. 

6. Representations should be made to the Dominion and Provincial 
governments, urging that a systematic beginning be made at reduction 
of the fire hazard along railway lines, by the removal of inflammable 
debris on a narrow strip adjacent to railway rights-of-way through 
forested sections. So far as lands in private ownership are concerned, 
legislation will be necessary in some cases, while, in others, the more 
thorough enforcement of existing provisions will be sufficient. The 
same is true as to Crown lands under license. To cover the situation 
on unlicensed Crown lands, the expenditure of money by the respective 
governments will be necessary. The more dangerous sections through 
forest reserves and parks should receive first attention. 

7. The action already taken by the Dominion Government in the 
estibhshment and extension of forest reserves is to be commended. 
This policy should be continued as rapidly as the necessary land classi- 
fication can be completed, and sufficient funds should be made available 
to provide for protection and administration. 

8. The action most urgently needed at the present time, to increase 
the efficiency of the administration of Dominion forest reserves, is the 
extension of civil service regulations to include the field staff of the 
Forestry Branch, with provision for annual examinations of a thor- 
oughly practical character, and the appointment of only those men 
found to be up to the required standard. Similar action is also urgently 
needed in the field services of the various provincial forestry and fire 
protective organizations. 

9. The attention of the Dominion Government should again be 
called to the urgent need for such a change in organization as will 
result in the adequate enforcement of cutting regulations on hcensed 
timber berths, with a view to securing better forest reproduction and a 
greater reduction of the fire hazard. 

10. The Ontario Government should be urged to make further 
extensions of the forest reserve area, with a view to placing under 
protection and administration the better classes of forest growth on 
non-agricultural lands, not at present included in forest reserves and 
parks. Such action as to the best stands of young growth is 
particularly desirable. 

11. A further attempt should be made to interest the Dominion 
Government and the provincial authorities of Ontario in the adoption 
of some co-operative arrangement looking toward the protection and 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON FORESTS 99 

restoration of the Crown lands on the Trent watershed. It is sug- 
gested that these lands be turned over to the Dominion Forestry 
Branch for this purpose, under some arrangement acceptable to the 
Ontario Government. 

12. Further representations should be made to the Government 
of British Columbia, favouring the establishment of a game preserve 
on the headwaters of the Flathead river, adjoining the Glacier National 
park in Montana and the Waterton Lakes park in Alberta. 

13. The Dominion Government should be urged to make suitable 
provision for the establishment of a section of forest investigations in 
the Dominion Forestry Branch, such section to be charged with the 
conduct of scientific studies in the field calculated to furnish a per- 
manent basis for Canadian forestry practice. 



PART III 
Forest Fires and the Brush Disposal Problem 

Introduction by Clyde Leavitt, Chief Forester, Commission of 

Conservation 

THE relation between forest fires and the brush disposal problem 
was fully discussed in Forest Protection in Canada, 1912. Up 
to that time, however, the question of brush disposal had received 
relatively little consideration in Canada; therefore, the discussion in 
the 1912 report was, for the most part, based upon conditions and 
results of investigations in the United States. The attempt was made 
in that report to draw some conclusions applicable to eastern Canada 
from experience under the operation of the state law of New York, 
which requires the lopping of tops of coniferovis trees, in connection 
with logging operations on privately-owned lands in the Adirondack 
mountains. For western Canada the conclusions were based principally 
upon the results secured by the United States Forest Service, which 
has for years required some form of brush disposal as a condition of 
sales of government timber on the national forests. 

Now, however, there is a considerable amount of information avail- 
able, relative to the situation in Canada, and reports have been secured 
from the officials best qualified to state the facts and express opinions 
in the matter. Some further data are also added, showing later 
developments in certain portions of the United States. 

There is no rule which can invariably be followed in this matter, 
luiless it be one to the effect that the owner or operator should always 
consider what measures, if any, are both desirable and practicable, to 
reduce the fire hazard on the land in question. Undoubtedly, the estab- 
lishment of an efficient patrol system, aided by the construction of 
telephone lines, trails, look-out towers, etc., must be placed ahead of 
brush-disposal in order of importance.- \\'^ith such a system established 
the disposal of logging slash will be found unnecessary in some cases, 
and, where advisable, the measures to be taken must depend on the 
surrounding conditions. 

Since the Dominion and Provincial governments own a very large 
percentage of the timber-lands in Canada, this matter is primarily one 

100 




Heavy Logging Slash. Douglas Fir Coast Type 

Broadcast burning at a safe time is the only practicable method of reducing this fire hazard 

and preparing for a second forest crop. 




Inflammable Logging Debris in Northern Coast Type 
Spruce, hemlock, cedar and balsam. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPO'SAE 101 

for their consideration rather than for the limit-holders or private 
owners. It is not to be expected that these latter, individually, will, to 
any material extent, be able to solve this problem, since the expense 
of brush disposal would add to logging costs, and thus place their 
product at a disadvantage, in comparison with their competitors, who 
do not incur this added expense. A government can, however, impose 
reasonable conditions for brush disposal upon all limit-holders alike, in 
connection with the renewal of licenses, and the added cost of this 
requirement should be taken into consideration in the readjustment of 
stumpage dues. Commercial conditions would thus be equalized in the 
long run, and no material additional hardship would be imposed on 
operators. 

Under certain circumstances the disposal of logging slash is unques- 
tionably necessary if large areas of non-agricultural lands are to con- 
tinue to add to the wealth of the country by producing successive crops 
of timber. Vast areas of cut-over lands totally unsuitable for agricul- 
ture, have already been turned into barren deserts by fire, due to the 
extreme hazard caused by inflammable logging debris, and to the failure 
of the respective governmental agencies to provide adequate machiner)/ 
for the detection and control of such fires. 

The adoption of measures for the reduction of the fire hazard in 
connection with logging operations must be regarded as only a matter 
of time. This change must, however, be preceded by the dispelling of 
the apathy and inertia which exist only too generally on the part of 
both government officials and the general public. It is distinctly en- 
couraging to note that a beginning at brus'h disposal on Crown lands 
has been made under the direction of the British Columbia Forest 
Branch and also of the Dominion Forestry Branch. 



DISPOSAL OF LOGGING SLASH IN BRITISH COLUr^BIA 

By R. B. Benedict, Assistant Forester, British Columbia Forest Branch 

The one factor which prevents, and which will continue to prevent 
for many years, the adoption and application of advanced or scientific 
methods of growing timber in the North American continent is the 
extremely small amount of the wood crop which can be used or 
marketed. Speaking generally, only stems sixteen feet long and at 
least eight inches in diameter, sound, straight and fairly free from 
large knots, can be profitably harvested. 

This means that all tops and branches, most of the unsound stems 
and logs, all small trees, nearly all of the dead and down trees, and all 
undergrowth must be left on the ground. The amount of such 



102 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

material varies, of course, with the character of the forest and the 
market, but even under the most favourable conditions it is consider- 
able, and, in the dense forests of the Rocky mountains and Pacific 
■coast, the quantity is enormous. In other words, the standard of 
merchantability is so high, as compared with the wood material pro- 
duced under natural conditions, that the greater part of the crop must 
be left on the ground. Further, it prevents putting into effect the very 
measures (thinning and removal of weakened or undesirable trees) 
required to increase the quality of the crop, and at the same time to 
reduce the amount of waste or unusable material produced. It also 
materially lengthens the time necessary to produce high quality timbers, 
thus increasing the cost of production. 

This condition can only be improved by the discovery of new uses 
for such material, the invention of new and cheaper methods of log- 
ging, and the opening up of new markets. Such changes can come 
about only very slowly, and, timber being largely controlled by private 
capital anxious for increased profits, no doubt advantage will be taken 
of every chance to utilize a larger proportion of the forest product. 

In the meantime, however, timber owners, both private and govern- 
mental, are confronted with the many problems resulting from this 
condition. The most important of these problems are, first, the great 
increase in the fire hazard occasioned by large amounts of combustible 
material left on the ground and exposed to the sun; and, second, the 
unfavourable conditions for regeneration of the forest, the result of 
the soil being covered by the piles of slash, brush, tops and logs. The 
effect of the slash on the fire hazard and on regeneration varies with 
the character of the forest and with the nature of the logging opera- 
tions ; to understand the condition in British Columbia surrounding the 
problem of slash disposal, a brief description of the forest regions and 
methods of logging must be given. 

.„ .^ . The climatic conditions of British Columbia include 

Forest Regions . . a a 

of British a nt2ivy ram fall and an extended growmg season 

Columbia along the coast, and, in the interior, long winters, with 

consequent conservation of the snowfall, and moderate rainfall in the 

summer, in conjunction with a short but vigorous growing season. 

These conditions insure, throughout almost the whole of the province, 

a dense forest growth with rank undergrowth. Only at low altitudes, 

in the dry belt — which is the term applied to the section lying between 

the Cascade range and the foothills of the Gold and Cariboo mountain 

ranges — and in the lower portions of the Kettle, Columbia and Koote- 

nay valleys, do long, hot summers and light rainfall restrict the forest 

growth to arid types or prevent it altogether. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAI. 103 

Using climatic factors as the basis of forest classification, seven 
broad regions may be distinguished as follows.* 

An annual precipitation of over 50 inches, a mean 
Douglas Fir temperature of 45 degrees, with an absence of ex- 

tremes, a humid atmosphere and long growing season, 
which characterize the climate of the southern coast and the greater 
portion of Vancouver Island, produce a coniferous forest which is only 
equalled for density, rapidity of growth, yield and individual tree 
development, in the coast regions of Oregon and Washington, where 
the same climatic conditions prevail. 

The typical stand in this region is of even-age origin, dating from 
a fire, and is made up of varying proportions of Douglas fir, hemlock 
and cedar, with occasional admixture of spruce, white fir, lovely fir, and 
white pine. Where this typical stand escapes fire for a period of 400 
years, the Douglas fir drops out, and, thereafter, the forest continues as 
an uneven-aged stand, the blanks being filled by reproduction of hem- 
lock, cedar and lovely fir. Pure stands of hemlock are of frequent 
occurrence, and, occasionally, nearly pure stands of cedar are found. 

The forest is everywhere very dense, regardless of age, with a 
very rank undergrowth of shrubs and hemlock seedlings, and a heavy 
deposit of dead leaves, branches and dov^^n trees, all covered with a 
thick layer of moss. The mature stands bear from 10,000 to 100,000 
feet, board measure, per acre, with an average of 20,000 feet. 

Commercially, Douglas fir is the most important forest type in 
British Columbia, furnishing at the present time over 1,000,000,000 
board feet annually, or two-thirds of the lumber cut of the province. 

Owing to the density of the stand, the great size of the individual 
trees, the heavy undergrowth, the large amount of dead vegetable 
material on the ground, the destructiveness of the methods of logging 
(donkey engines and wire cable being used almost exclusively), and 
the high standard of merchantability, the amount of debris left on the 
ground is really stupendous, and the damage to the remaining trees is 
generally so great as to destroy their further usefulness. 

The heavy deposits of debris, besides rendering the conditions ex- 
tremely unfavourable to re-seeding, constitutes a fire hazard so great 
that any attempt to use the remnants of the stand as a basis for a 
second crop would be altogether impracticable. Again, Douglas fir is 
undoubtedly the most rapidly growing and commercially valuable 
species, and, unless the debris is removed, this tree will form only a very 
small proportion of the new stand, hemlock becoming the predominant 
species. 



For situation of regions see accompanying map. 



104 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

All the facts therefore point to the uneven-aged Douglas fir stand 
as the most suitable forest for this region; this means that the debris 
must be disposed of to allow the fir to reseed, and the extreme fire 
hazard, created by the debris, to be thus removed. 

Rainfall, averas:ing more than one hundred inches 
Northern , ' "^ '=' , , -- 

Coast annually, an average annual temperature under 4p 

Region degrees, severer winters with heavy snowfall, a shorter 

growing season and an absence of sunshine, with its important influence 

in assisting decomposition of vegetable matter, and the creation of 

healthful soil conditions, occurring in conjunction with a rugged and 

rocky topography devoid of soil deposits, produce a forest along the 

northern coast of British Columbia very different from that in the 

Douglas fir coast region. 

Hemlock is a universal constituent of the stand, mixed with cedar 
and spruce, and occasionalh^ with yellow cedar. The forest is dense, 
although the trees, except in the best situations, are short and extremely 
defective, the hemlock rarely being of a merchantable character. The 
undergrowth consists almost wholly of hemlock and cedar brush, and 
is fairly dense. The most characteristic feature of this forest region 
is the deep accumulation of vegetable material, consisting of down 
trees, branches, leaves, moss, roots, etc. This layer, which is often 
many feet deep, is saturated with water practically throughout the 
year and consequently assumes the nature of a muskeg. 

In the interior, the rainfall becomes less, and the summer tempera- 
ture higher, while on the watersheds of streams like the Bella Coola, 
Dean, Skeena and Nass rivers, which cut through the Coast range, the 
conditions as regards climate and soil are so much different from those 
of the coast and coastal islands, as to produce a marked improvement 
in the forest. On the Bella Coola and Dean rivers the Douglas fir 
coast type reappears, and, on the Skeena and Nass, there are extensive 
areas of merchantable forest in which spruce is the dominant species. 
On the map, the forest on the Bella Coola and on Dean channel is pro- 
perly classed with the Douglas fir coast type, but the dense spruce and 
hemlock forests of the Nass and Skeena watersheds can be considered 
only as a variation of the northern coast type. 

In this region also belong the forests of Queen Charlotte islands, 
although here the better soil results in an increase in the proportion of 
spruce and in a better development of the trees. Everywhere in the 
region, however, there are found very marked accumulations of unde- 
composed vegetable material which, as has been said, can be considered 
a distinguishing feature of the region. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAE lOS 

From a merchantable standpoint, the forests covering the rugged 
islands which dot the coast and the western slopes of the coastal moun- 
tains are not of great present value, the merchantable stands being 
Hmited to isolated tracts where soil conditions are favourable. On 
the northern end of Vancouver Island, on the mainland opposite, and 
on Queen Charlotte islands, the necessary soil conditions are present 
and, here, there are extensive areas of hemlock, cedar and spruce fit for 
lumber. Speaking generally, however, a large portion of the stand in 
this section is not suitable for manufacture into lumber, although prob- 
ably large areas will be used for pulp. This is also true of the dense 
spruce and hemlock forests of the Nass and Skeena watersheds. The 
spruce here, however, is suitable for lumber and will be used for this 
purpose to an extent sufficient to supply the small local market. 

It is evident that under the conditions, — a dense stand of low-grade 
timber and an excessive accumulation of undecomposed vegetable 
material, — Httle can be done to assist regeneration and promote the 
rate of growth, where only saw-timber is removed. Fortunately, the 
lire hazard, though present for short periods in July and August, is 
not high, consequently the fire danger may, for the present at least, be 
neglected. The only places where the removal of debris might be 
justified are those where logging has totally destroyed the stand and 
where the soil is of sufficient depth to insure an immediate new growth. 
Where rock underlies the layer of dead vegetable material, efforts at 
disposal of logging debris will not be advisable. 

In the spruce and hemlock forests on the Nass, Skeena and other 
rivers, where there is a deposit of soil, destructive logging methods will 
be indulged in, and an excessive amount of debris produced. The trees- 
remaining after logging will consist of undesirable species, and regen- 
eration will be impossible without the removal of the slash and layer of 
dead material. Undoubtedly, however, there will be large areas on 
the upper slopes on which the conditions will be similar to those on the 
coast, and consequently it will be inadvisable to attempt to dispose of 
the debris. 

Summarizing, it may be said that, in the northern coast region, there 
will be extensive areas of forest in which, on account of absence of 
real soil, removal of the slash and dead vegetable material should not 
be attempted. The forest on these areas, however, is of small 
merchantable value at present, and logging operations in it will be 
very restricted. The merchantable forests of the region, which are situ- 
ated in the north end of Vancouver Island, on the mainland opposite. 
on the upper reaches of the rivers which cut through the coastal moun- 
tains, and on Queen Charlotte islands, are everywhere very dense, with 



106 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

a heavy accumulation of dead vegetable material, and, to insure prompt 
re-stocking of the most suitable species and to promote the rate of 
growth, the slash resulting from logging and the dead vegetable 
material must first be removed. 

Paralleling the Coast range, at a distance of about 
Wet Belt a hundred miles, and separated from it by a broken or 

Region rolling plateau averaging 3,000 to 4,000 feet in altitude, 

though intersected by several deep valleys, the Gold and Cariboo moun- 
tain ranges rise to a height of 5,000 to 8,000 feet, and maintain this 
altitude for a length of 350 miles north of the International boundary. 
The Gold range is paralleled again for a length of 250 miles — at a dis- 
tance of 80 miles further east — by the Selkirk range, the deep valley of 
the Columbia lying between the two ranges. Northward of the term- 
ination of the Selkirk range, the Rocky mountains continue in the same 
direction as the Gold and Cariboo ranges for a distance of 200 miles, 
and separated from them by the deep valleys of the Canoe and Fraser 
rivers. This region of parallel mountain ranges and their many peaks, 
all separated by deep valleys, is characterized by a climate which par- 
takes somewhat of the nature of those of both the coast and dry belts. 

The annual precipitation amounts to between 30 and 40 inches, the 
average annual temperature is in the neighbourhood of 40 degrees, 
with warm summers, and winters which, though cold, are free from 
long periods of extreme low temperatures. The growing season is 
long, considering the latitude and altitude, with a comparatively humid 
atmosphere. The heavy snowfall insures plenty of moisture in the 
beginning of the growing season and, generally, there is sufficient rain- 
fall in July and August to maintain most favourable growing conditions 
throughout the summer. Locally, this region is known as the second, 
or interior, wet belt, and the term has been applied to the very distinc- 
tive forest which the favourable climatic and soil conditions produce. 

While many sub- forest types are found in the region, the forest 
generally is characterized by great density, rapid growth, a large yield 
and excellent individual tree development, although, of course, it does 
not equal that found in the Douglas fir coast region. 

Cedar, hemlock, Douglas fir, lodgepole pine and spruce are found 
over nearly the whole region, while western white pine is a constitutent 
of the stand on the Columbia and North Thompson watersheds. Larch 
is found on the slopes surrounding the Arrow and Kootenay lakes, and 
yellow pine in a narrow fringe along the Columbia, Pend d'Oreille 
and Kootenay rivers. Lower Arrow lake and the south arm of Koote- 
nay lake. Northward, on the Clearwater river, on Quesnel lake and 
along the main stream of the Fraser river, hemlock, cedar and Douglas 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAI. 107 

fir, while they still occur, form a less important component of the 
merchantable stand, which consists largely of spruce. 

Probably no equally extensive forest region on the continent has 
suffered so severely from fire as has this district, it being estimated that 
75 per cent of the forest has been burned over at least once during the 
last 50 years, destroying 100,000,000,000 feet of timber. The burns, 
however, all promptly re-stocked, showing that fire, by the removal of 
the dead vegetable covering, creates the conditions necessary to 
regeneration. 

The forest of this region differs but little from the Douglas fir coast 
region, so far as conditions resulting from logging are concerned, and 
the only possible method of ensuring a good second growth of the most 
desirable species, is by destructive, clean logging, and disposal of the 
resultant slash and layer of dead vegetable material. Areas do occur, 
liowever, in which the amount of merchantable material consists of 
scattered trees, and here it will pay to make use of the remaining trees 
as a basis for a second crop. 

Commercially, this region is second in importance only to the coast 
fir region, yielding about 300,000,000 feet in 1913. In the possibiHties 
of future production, it probably excels the coast fir region, owing to its 
greater area of productive land, most of which is covered with an 
excellent young growth. 

Between the Coast range and the Gold and Cariboo 
Pine mountain ranges lies a plateau, having a general ele- 

Tiegion vation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet, cut through by the deep 

valleys of the Fraser, North Thompson, Okanagan, Nicola and Simil- 
kameen rivers, over which semi-arid conditions prevail. Similar con- 
ditions are found along the International boundary in the low valleys 
of the Kettle, Columbia and Pend d'Oreille rivers, and the two valleys 
■of the Kootenay. 

These valleys and the lower portions of the plateau possess a long 
growing season and very hot summers, which, with the limited pre- 
cipitation (10 to 20 inches annually) effectually prevent the formation 
of denser forest types and restrict individual development. 

On the valley floors and benches and lower slopes, in these districts, 
occur the only timberless lands in the province below timber line, not 
due to excessive moisture. These lands bear a good growth of 
nutritious grasses and a small amount of sage brush. They are not, 
however, extensive in area. On moist, bottom lands, on poor-soiled 
"benches, and on the slopes, they yield an open to fairly dense stand of 
yellow pine, Douglas fir, tamarack and lodgepole pine, with a ground 



108 . COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

cover of grass and weeds. There is a general absence of brush and 
thickets of second growth. 

The greater portion of this forest region is, at present, of little com- 
mercial value, owing to the scrubby nature of the trees. The only 
considerable tracts of merchantable timber occur in the Kettle and 
east and west Kootenay valleys. Here the forest is fairly dense and 
is composed of a .mixture of yellow pine, Douglas fir and larch, and 
logging operations are being carried on at a number of points. 
Although more of the timber in these stands is being utilized tfian is the 
case in any other type, and although there is an almost entire absence of 
down timber or other dead material, the slash resulting from logging is 
still considerable and the fire hazard great, owing to the dryness and hot 
weather. However, the mature and young growth trees remaining 
after logging are all needed for seeding purposes and protection of the 
moisture supply, so that, in many places, the slash would prove of 
benefit if it could be left without increasing the fire risk. 

Altogether, the situation as regards the disposal of the slash in this 

type of forest is complicated by a number of opposing factors. It may 

be said, however, that, if the fire hazard can be overcome in some other 

way — as, for instance, by the construction of effective fire breaks — the 

slash should be allowed to remain on the ground. 

.D 1 ,»■ ^ . As previously stated, semi-arid conditions prevail on 
Rocky Mountain ^ •', '.,,. , , r^ ^ 

and Plateau the uneven plateau which lies between the Loast 

Region range and the Gold and Cariboo ranges. The general 

altitude of this plateau is between 3,000 and 4,000 feet, but, towards its 

northern limits, at the foot of the Babine mountains, and, of course, 

where streams have cut into it, elevations of 2,500 feet, and even lower, 

are to be found. 

The climate is typical of the eastern slope of the Coast range 
throughout its length, and also of the Rocky Mountain region in the 
states of Montana, Idaho, Wyoming and Colorado. A precipitation 
ranging from 10 inches to 20 inches, long, cold winters and warm, dry 
summers, with cool nights, do not constitute conditions favourable to 
tree growth, and forest growth would not be possible, were it not for 
the accumulation of the snowfall in winter, the melting of which leaves 
the ground saturated at the beginning of the growing season. On good 
soil, and on protected slopes, however, the available moisture is con- 
served, and permits the formation of dense though slow-growing 
forests. 

The same climatic conditions are found on the western slope of the 
Rocky mountains, from the International boundary to Yellowhead 
pass, and, since the forest is of identical character, the whole region 
is included. The distinguishing species throughout the immense 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 109 

interior plateau and the long though narrow slope of the Rockies, is 
lodgepole pine. Over extensive areas, it forms practically pure forests, 
especially on the higher elevations with poor soil conditions. The stand 
is everywhere dense and the timber small, the trees rarely being of 
sawlog size. Practically the only use now made of lodgepole pine is 
for railway ties, but it is probable that it will be utihzed for pulp-wood 
in the near future. Spruce is common along all the streams and on 
most good soils. On good sites at high elevations it frequently forms 
almost pure stands, balsam being the only other component. Douglas 
fir occurs at elevations below 2,500 feet throughout all but the north- 
western portion of the plateau region and over the whole length of the 
Rockies to Yellowhead pass. In the southern portion of the region it 
is found as high up as 4,000 feet. Along the Fraser and the North 
Thompson it is found in almost pure stands on limited areas. Gener- 
ally, however, it occurs in mixture with lodgepole pine. The timber, 
though rough and often defective, will make rough lumber and rail- 
way ties. In the aggregate, considerable quantities are available and 
will, eventually, be used. Up to the present, however, only a few 
portable mills are using it. Yellow pine creeps into the type south of 
Bridge river and the North Thompson, but has no commercial 
significance. 

Like the wet belt region, this forest region has, both in the plateau 
and Rocky mountain sections, suffered severely from fires. Scarcely 
any considerable areas are without traces of old fires, and vast tracts 
have been almost completely denuded. Regeneration, however, follows 
quickly and most of the severely burned lands are covered with a dense 
second growth. After a fire, poplar is a universal component of the 
stand, but is of commercial importance only on moist soils at low 
altitudes. Here, it attains a diameter of six inches to twelve inches and 
a height of 50 feet. Until the pulpwood industry can make use of it, 
its only value will be for cordwood, fences, etc. 

Throughout the forest of this immense region there is a considerable 
accumulation of dead, fallen timber, branches, leaves, moss and other 
vegetable material, which adds greatly to the fire risk and interferes 
with regeneration. The timber also is small, with a relatively large 
crown, and logging operations will result in a large amount of slash. 
Owing to poor soil fertility and the small supply of moisture which 
exists in this region, and the resultant slow rate of growth, any prac- 
tical plan for management must include measures to preserve and 
improve these most important factors of growth. Since the logging 
slash and dead material are also an obstacle to regeneration, a cautious 
policy must be adopted as regards the removal of the debris. Appar- 
ently, no general rule can be followed, each case requiring measures to 



110 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

fit the conditibns. Where removal of the debris is undertaken, how- 
ever, it must be carefully done, the so-called broadcast method of burn- 
ing usually being out of the question. 

That portion of the great interior plateau, which takes. 
Kraser , , , . . , _^ 

Basin m the secondary dramage system of the Eraser river, 

Region between Alexandria and Prince George, those of the- 

Nechako below Fort Fraser, Stuart river below Tacla lake, and the 

entire drainage basin of the Fraser between Prince George and the Bear 

river, has, generally, a lower elevation than the western and southern 

portion of the plateau, and possesses also better soil conditions and a 

heavier precipitation. These conditions also extend over the upper 

portion of Babine lake and the drainage basin of the Parsnip river, 

above and including the Nation river. While there are drainage 

divides and isolated hills, having an elevation of over 3,000 feet, the 

general elevation of these basins is less than 3,000. 

While dependable records are not available, it is believed that the 
annual precipitation is everywhere over 20 inches and, in places, reaches 
30 inches. The winters are long and cold, and the snowfall heavy, but 
the long days of this northern latitude apparently make the growing 
season as favourable to forest growth as the climates of more southern 
latitudes. The favourable climatic conditions, taken in connection with 
the deep soil, result in the formation of a very dense forest with a 
remarkable yield, considering the latitude. As in all the dense forests 
of the province, there is a very heavy accumulation of dead vegetable 
material, which effectually prevents regeneration of the most desirable 
species. 

The forest of the region is made up of a number of sub-types. 
Spruce occurs everywhere in admixture, and frequently in nearly pure 
stands, the only other species appearing with it being balsam. On good 
areas these spruce stands run as high as 20,000 feet per acre, 10,000 
feet being common. Lodgepole pine is found over the entire region, 
either in pure stands or in admixture with spruce, balsam and fir. Its 
presence, however, on all but the drier soils is due to fire, since it 
reseeds immediately and forms a reserve crop for the spruce. 

Douglas fir is, or once was, a constituent of the stand on all well 
drained lands below an elevation of 2,500 feet, but fires have removed 
it from all but the drier sites. The individual development of all species 
is excellent, spruce and Douglas fir frequently reaching 30 inches 
diameter and 100 feet in height. Stands of 10,000 and 20,000 feet per 
acre are not rare, and, as an annual yield of 100 feet per acre can be 
expected on the good soiled lands below 2,500 feet altitude, the region- 
is an important and valuable one for the production of timber. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 111 

Probably 75 per cent of the area has been burned over since the 
advent of the white man, about 1860, the timber destroyed amount- 
ing to approximately 50,000,000,000 board feet. Except in a very 
limited way, logging has not yet commenced in the region, but it is evi- 
dent that, owing to the density of the forest and high percentage of 
merchantable timber in the stand, the great amount of slash produced 
will constitute a highly dangerous fire hazard and a serious obstacle to 
regeneration. In this forest, the removal of the slash and of the 
deposit of old material is therefore plainly necessary. 
Northern The portion of the province north of the Fraser drain- 

Interior age basin is essentially mountainous, with narrow,. 

^^^°^ separating valleys. This is true of at least that por- 

tion included within the Peace, Skeena and Nass watersheds. The 
only considerable areas of level land in this great region are found on 
the Peace river within the " Peace River Block " and in the valleys of 
the Finlay, Parsnip and Bulkley rivers. 

The climatic conditions include a precipitation of over 20 inches,, 
mostly in the form of snow, long cold winters, and a short growing 
season with frequent summer frosts. These conditions permit the 
growth of only sub-alpine species, and the forest of the region contains 
only spruce, lodgepole pine and balsam. 

The mature forest is everywhere dense, its composition ranging 
from nearly pure stands of either of the three species to varying admix- 
tures of the three. In the valley lands, good merchantable stands of 
spruce occur, which will be utiHzed for both lumber and pulp on the 
completion of projected railways. 

The forest floor is covered with the same heavy deposit of unde- 
composed vegetable material which marks nearly all the forests of the 
province, and the removal of this material and of the large amount of 
slash which will result from logging operations, will be necessary to 
prevent devastating fires and to prepare favourable conditions for 
regeneration. 

The area of the different forest regions described 
T?mbS Arels ^^^^^" ^^^ portion of the province under administra- 
tion, estimated at 160,000,000 acres, is, after allowing 
for barren areas, approximately 120,000,000 acres, divided as follows :- 

T^ , _. _ . Acres 

Douglas Fir Coast region 18,000,000 

Northern Coast region 20000000 

Interior Wet Belt region ][ 22,000,000 

Yellow Pine region 5,000,000 

r lateau and Rocky Mountain region 26 000 000 

Fraser Basin region .' .' .' 14,'000,'000 

JNIorthern Interior region 15 000 000 

'^^^^^ 120,000,000 



112 COMMISSION OF COXSERVATIOX 

Eliminating the land capable of agricultural development, which is 
estimated at 15,000,000 acres, there are left 105,000,000 acres of land 
whose only value to the province (outside of the grazing value of 
20,000,000 acres) is its adaptabiHty to the production of timber. The 
province is truly a forest country, and, with agricultural land occupying 
less than 10 per cent of its area, it is evident that its future is insep- 
arably bound up with the crop of timber which can be grown on this 
105,000,000 acres. The climatic and soil conditions are, for the most 
part, excellent, and it is believed that the annual cut, which already 
amounts to nearly 2.000.000.000 board feet and makes the lumber 
industry the leading one of the province, can be increased by four 
times without overtaxing the productivity of the forest growth. But, 
to accomplish this, measures must be adopted to ensure prompt 
regeneration of the forest, to aflford the most favourable conditions for 
rapid growth, and to protect the growing crop from destruction by 
fire. The chief obstacle to the attainment of all these conditions is 
the presence, in the most valuable and productive forest areas, of a 
"heav\' layer of undecomposed vegetable material, made up of leaves, 
twigs, branches, fallen trees, grass and weeds, which accumulate in the 
100 years or more during which the forest is growing to maturity, as 
well as the immense amount of slash, consisting of the crowns of cut 
trees, and of unusable trees, young growth and brush, which is pro- 
duced in removing the merchantable material. Undoubtedly, as the 
value of timber increases and as new uses are found for wood, the 
amount of slash will be lessened to some extent, but no material 
improvement in conditions will take place for many years. 

The removal of the deposit of old vegetable material 

Forest Problem ^^^ ^^^ slash resulting from logging becomes then the 

most important forest problem of the province, and 

one which demands and will repay the most careful investigation into 

conditions, methods and results. 

Considering the problem broadly in connection with the conditions 
found in the regions described, it may be said that, on the 5,000,000 
acres covered by the yellow pine region, the removal of the slash result- 
ing from logging (the deposit of old vegetable material being absent, 
or ver)^ slight) is not a silvicultural requirement; on the contrary, 
leaving it on the ground will improve soil conditions. The removal of 
the slash in this region, therefore, is purely a fire protective measure, 
and should be carried out only where the excessive risk demands it. 
In most cases, the only action necessary would be measures to insure 
rapid decomposition, such as lopping the tops, so that the larger pieces 
could be in contact with the ground. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAE 113 

Much the same conditions exist on extensive areas of the plateau 
and Rocky Mountain regions, wherever warm, bright, growing seasons 
and a Hght rainfall create conditions favourable to decomposition, 
though not for rapid growth. It is believed that such conditions pre- 
vail on one-half of this type, or on an area of 13,000,000 acres. Here, 
as in the yellow pine region, disposal of logging debris should be treated 
solely as a fire protective measure, and, if the fire hazard is not great, 
the only action necessary is such disposition of the slash as will result 
in rapid decomposition. 

On about 10,000,000 acres of the northern coast region the soil con- 
sists almost entirely of partially decomposed vegetable material, the 
accumulation of centuries of growth, lying on a rock surface. The 
destruction of this layer, besides being practically impossible on account 
of its saturation with water, would prevent further forest growth. 
As the forest growth on this area is not commercially valuable, it 
need not be considered. Altogether, then, the area of forest land from 
which the removal of the logging slash is either not necessary or not 
possible as a sylvicultural measure, amounts to approximately 28,000,000 
acres. On the remaining 77,000,000 acres— which includes practically 
all the valuable timber-producing lands, and by far the most produc- 
tive forest lands — the accumulation of dead vegetable material during a 
single rotation is so great as to materially reduce the fertility and pro- 
ductivity of the soil, prevent or hinder the regeneration of desirable 
species and greatly increase the fire hazard. When to this layer is 
added the immense amount of slash resulting from logging the heavy 
stands of timber which characterize these lands, a condition is pro- 
duced which effectually prevents the regeneration of the forest and the 
utiHzation of the full productivity of the soil, and creates a fire hazard 
which it is hopeless to attempt to overcome. Further profitable use 
of the land for the production of timber is therefore necessarily con- 
tingent on the removal of the layer of undecomposed vegetable material 
and the slash resulting from logging. 

The removal of debris can, of course, only be accomplished by the 
use of fire, and, owing to the danger of its escaping to surrounding 
timber, destroying seed trees and injuring the soil, burning must be 
undertaken only under conditions which make its control certain. To 
do this is often expensive, the cost ranging from a fraction of a cent, 
in the case of broadcast burning under the most favourable conditions, 
up to as high as fifty cents and one dollar per thousand feet of timber 
removed. This constitutes a serious tax on an industry subject to 
such severely competitive conditions as is the logging and lumber 
industry, and its universal application can only be obtained gradually. 
8— c. c. 



114 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

As has been said, however, the success of forest management in British 
Cohimbia is absokitely dependent on the removal of debris from cut- 
over lands, and the government must work consistently toward this end. 

Since the establishment of a Forest Branch in the 

Government Lands Department of the Government of British 

Forest Policy „,,.,,. . . 

Columbia, and the mcorporation m its statutes of a 

comprehensive Forest Act, a material advance in the matter of dis- 
posal of debris has been made, although some of the larger aspects of 
the problem still remain to be worked out. 

Among the first of the steps taken by the Forest Branch was the 
removal of debris caused by road and railway construction; this, of 
course, constitutes merely a fire protective measure and has no relation 
to the larger problem. 

The rights-of-way of 1,800 miles of railway constructed in the 
province during the last three seasons have been satisfactorily cleared 
of debris, as a result of the supervision given by the Forest Branch, 
under the authority of both the Provincial and Dominion Statutes. 

In the clearing of slash, caused by the building of public roads, less 
progress has been made, owing to the tremendous demand made on the 
province for new roads, due to the rapid settlement of the country. 
However, the burning of the slash is an established poHcy of the gov- 
ernment, and, where the heavy expense and popular pressure for rapid 
extension of roads prevents the destruction of the debris at the time 
of construction, the work will be undertaken later and, within ten years 
or less, it is thought that all the dangerous slash will be disposed of. 

_. , „ Complete power is held by the government in the fix- 

and Railway ing of conditions for timber sales and permits to rail- 
Permits ^ya^y companies to cut timber free of charge for con- 
struction purposes, and the disposal of slash has been made a con- 
dition of purchase or grant of every timber sale and railway permit. 
In all, 59 timber sales, covering 22,775 acres, which have been adver- 
tised for sale, have included stipulations requiring the disposal of 
debris, and, on the fifteen sales on which operations are being con- 
ducted, the regulations are being carried out. 

Ninety railway permits, covering an area of 138,376 acres, have 
been granted during the last two years, and timber has been cut on 
approximately 50,000 acres of this area. Disposal of the debris, by 
burning or by piling the brush, has been required on all portions of 
these lands except those occupied by the yellow pine type, or where the 
trees cut were scattered and the slash inconsiderable. 




Brush Piled on Timber Sale 
Under direction of B. C. Forest Branch. Lillooet district. Douglas fir. 




Tie Piles and Slash Resulting from Tie-Cutting Operations 

Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. Tete Jaune district. Cutting area later under the 
direction of the B. C. Forest Branch. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH D I S P O S A I, 115 

Slash Disposal The disposal of slash resulting from logging on timber 
Leases and leases and licenses is not made a special requirement in 

Licenses the fire protection section of the Forest Act, but 

authority to do so is provided under sections 13 and 26 pertaining to 
the renewal of leases and licenses by means of orders in council. 

Owing to the unsatisfactory condition of the lumber industry dur- 
ing the last year or two, it has not been thought advisable to adopt 
compulsory measures for the disposal of slash. Another reason is the 
fact that sufficient information in regard to the best methods of dis- 
posal, on which to base regulations covering the whole province, is not 
yet at hand. Therefore, it has been necessary to make a careful study of 
the methods and cost of slash disposal in the various forest types and 
to determine whether or not the cost can be borne by the industry 
without injury. It must be remembered that the lumber industry of 
British Columbia has to meet the competition of Washington, Oregon, 
Idaho and Montana mills, which have the advantage of a generally 
higher quality of timber and cheaper labour and machinery. The 
seriousness of this competition is evidenced by the fact that, in 1912, 
these mills shipped nearly 300,000,000 feet of lumber into Alberta and 
Saskatchewan, which is the chief market for British Columbia forest 
products. Investigation of the problem is being carried on and action 
will be promptly taken on the results shown. 

In the meantime, however, the fire hazard created by logging slash 
is so serious that operators in the coast fir type are generally convinced 
of the advisability of burning their slash, and such action has been 
encouraged in every way possible. 

The following letter, sent to all the operators on the coast, has 
induced some of them to burn their slash. Data in regard to the 
actual area burned over are lacking, but it is thought to have amounted 
to nearly 10,000 acres. With the larger field force -which will be put 
on duty on the coast in the spring of 1914, and, with the accumulation 
of experience as to the best seasons and methods of burning, it is con- 
fidently expected that, in a few years, the slash on the area cut over in 
this type will be burned each year. 

The Government of the Province of British Columbia, Forest Branch 
{Lands Dept.), May 1st, 1913 

Dear Sir: — I wish to request, for the Forest Branch, your earnest 
co-operation in an effort to solve the problem of the disposal of the 
slash resulting from logging operations. 

Owing to the great density of the timber stands on the coast and 
in portions of the interior of British Columbia, to the conditions 
surrounding the lumber industry, which permit of the removal from 



116 COMMISSION OF COXSERVATIOX 

the woods of only a very small proportion of the stand, and to the 
methods of logging, the amount of slash remaining after logging is 
excessive. Generally, also, the timber remaining after logging is 
without further value, and, since the slash effectually prevents the 
growth of a valuable second crop, slash must be removed first if the 
land is to be utilized in producing another crop of timber. 

I need not point out that by far the greater portion of the land 
in British Columbia is, owing to its roughness and lack of soil, un- 
suited for agriculture, and the only possible way it can be made a 
steady source of wealth is by the growing of timber. Besides its 
effect in preventing the production of a second crop of timber, slash 
is universally recognized as the most serious of all fire hazards, and 
that it is only a question of time before every slash-area will be set 
on fire. This being the case, the evident thing to do is to burn the 
slash at such a time and under such conditions as will, so far as is 
humanly possible to determine, render it certain that the fire does not 
spread to adjoining timber. 

The Forest Act of British Columbia does not make the burning 
of slash compulsor}% although in the States of Oregon and Washing- 
ton, where the conditions are identical, such laws are in effect. The 
Forest Act does, however, empower the Minister of Lands or the 
Forest Board to require owners to construct a safe fire-break about 
any area of slash, and where necessary to protect valuable timber, 
this provision of the Act will be enforced. 

To be at all safe or effective against July or August fires, fire- 
breaks must consist of a strip, five to ten feet wide, cleared to mineral 
earth, and a strip ten to thirty feet wide cleared of brush, inside which 
all dead snags standing within a distance of 100 feet must be felled. 

As long as the slash remains, however, the danger from fire is 
serious, and it is felt that it would be far better to burn the slash 
itself than to construct such fire-breaks, the cost of which is as much 
or more than that of slash-burning. 

A number of loggers in British Columbia have already adopted 
the practice of burning their slash every year, either in the spring 
or in the fall, and I hope that you will decide to apply the plan to 
your operations and take up the matter immediately with your 
superintendent. The present spring is backward, and, except in high 
winds, slash burning may be safely carried on until the first or second 
week in June. During April no permit to burn is required, and after 
May 1, permits can be obtained from the local forest officers. While 
it is impossible to specify the conditions as to weather when burning 
can be safely done, or the methods by which the burning can be most 
effectively accomplished, these matters being best determined by your 
superintendent, the following general rules may be of assistance: 

(1) Always construct a trail or a light fire-break around the 
slashed area before starting fires. This will serve to confine the fire 
and also permit men to get around the fire quickly. 

(2) Be sure to have enough men on hand when you start a fire 
to control the fire if it threatens to spread beyond the slash. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 117 

(3) Never start a fire in the morning unless you feel certain a 
strong wind will not arise. The best time to start a fire is after 4 
o'clock in the afternoon on a calm day; if the weather is warm and 
the slash dry, all the better. 

(4) If the slash-area is surrounded by timber, start fire first 
on the leeward side if there is a breeze, or on the uphill side if on 
a slope. When the danger of fire spreading beyond the area to be 
burned is past, set fire on the windward side or at the base of the 
slope; also, whenever possible, take advantage of a breeze blowing 
away from green timber. 

(5) Burn over the area as quickly as possible. This can be done 
by starting fires in a large number of places. 

(6) Keep a watchman on the area burned until all fires are out. 
Cut down any snags which may be burning. All fires should be 
completely out before June 15. 

Experience has shown that slash can be burned safely at the cost 
of five to twenty cents an acre, and that this expense is fully repaid 
by the resulting added safety of the camps, equipment, and surround- 
ing timber. 

The cost can be materially reduced if the policy of annual burning 
is definitely adopted, since by a little forethought the superintendent 
and foreman can arrange to have drag and skid roads serve as fire- 
breaks. When it is known where the boundary of an area to be 
burned will lie, it is also a material help to have the trees felled 
away from the green timber. 

Yours very truly, 

H. R. MA0M11.1.AN 

Chief Forester- 

REMOVAI. 0? Sl^ASH TO REDUCE FiRE HAZARD 

The Forest Act provides authority for disposing of slash where 
it creates a dangerous hazard, and, since these provisions have a general 
bearing on the subject of slash disposal, the instructions governing 
their enforcement issued by the Forest Branch to the field force will 
probably be of interest. These instructions also include the regulations 
governing the hazard caused by the use of fire in industrial operations. 

Section 123 of the Forest Act provides that: — The 

Reports on Minister or the Provincial Forest Board shall have 

Fire Dangers. . , , . , 

power to declare any mnammable material, which en- 
dangers life or property, a public nuisance, and upon receipt of notice 
to this effect the owner or occupier of, or the person conducting any 
operations for the cutting and removal of forest material from the 
land upon which any such nuisance exists, shall immediately remove 
or abate such nuisance to the satisfaction of the Minister or the 
Provincial Forest Board. 



118 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Paragraph 1 of section 124 provides that : — \\'hen the safety of 
any forest or woodland or cut timber is endangered by the debris 
caused by any lumbering or other industrial operation, the Minister 
or the Provincial Forest Board may require the person or corporation 
conducting such operations, or the owner or occupier of the land on 
which such debris exists, to cut down dead trees and stubs within such 
area, and to establish a safe fire line around the area or areas covered 
by such debris. Said fire line to be cleared of inflammable material 
and to be of a width and character satisfactor}- to the Minister or to 
the Provincial Forest Board. 

Paragraph 3 provides that : — Every person, persons or corporation 
clearing rights-of-way for any road, trail, telephone, telegraph, power 
or pipe line, tote road, ditch, or flume shall pile and burn on such 
right-of-way all refuse, timber, slashings, choppings and brush cut 
thereon as rapidly as the clearing or cutting progresses, and the weather 
conditions permit, or at such times as the Provincial Forest Board 
may direct. 

Paragraph 4 provides that: — Xo one slashing brush or burning 
timber for the purpose of clearing land, or in the conduct of any 
lumbering operation, or in the cutting of any road or right-of-way, 
shall fell or permit to be felled trees or brush in such a manner that 
said trees or brush shall fall and remain on land not owned by the 
one felling or permitting the felling of such trees or brush. 

Paragraph 5 provides that: — Any person who, within 200 feet 
of the right-of-way of any railway, causes any accumulation of 
inflammable debris shall immediately pile, and, subject to the require- 
ments of this Act covering permits, burn the same. 

The above extracts from the Forest Act relate to slashings and 

accumulations of inflammable material which constitute a dangerous 

fire hazard. The following relate to the unsafe use of fire in industrial 

operations : 

Section 120: — During the close season a watchman 
Fire in Industrial , ,, , • , • i . i • i 

Operations. shall be mamtamed at the pomt where any stationary 

or portable engine is located in or near any forest or 

woodland for at least two hours following any time when said engine 

shall have ceased operation, to prevent the escape of fire therefrom. 

•Section 121 provides that: — (1) During the close season in each 
year it shall be unlawful for any person or corporation 

(a) To use or operate any locomotive, logging engine, portable 
engine, traction engine, or stationary engine, using fuel other than 
oil. within a quarter of a mile of any forest slashings or brush land, 
which is not provided with a practical and efficient device for arresting 
sparks, together with an adequate device for preventing the escape of 




Logging Si.ash Before Burning 
Crowsnest district, B. C. Fire danger extreme. Mclnnes limit. 




A Portion of the Same Tract After Broadcast Slash-burning 
All small debris completely consumed and fire hazard greatly reduced 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 119 

fire or live coals from all ash-pans and fire-boxes, and which does not 
•comply in every respect with any regulations for the time being made 
and in force under and by virtue of the provisions of this Act; 

(&) To operate any river steamboat using fuel other than oil on 
.any of the rivers or lakes within the province of British Columbia 
which is not provided with a safe and suitable device for the arrest 
of sparks from the smoke-stack thereof, complying in all respects 
with any regulations for the time being made and in force under and 
by virtue of the provisions of this Act; 

(c) To destroy any wood-waste material by fire within any burner 
or destructor operated at or near any mill or manufactory, or to 
operate any power-producing plant using in connection therewith 
any smoke-stack, chimney, or other spark-emitting outlet, without 
installing and maintaining on such burner or destroyer or on such 
smoke-stack, chimney, or other spark-emitting outlet, a safe and 
suitable device for arresting sparks, complying in all respects with 
any regulations for the time being made and in force under and by 
virtue of the provisions of this Act; 

(d) Being engaged in the manufacture of lumber, or shingles, or 
other forest products, to destroy wood-waste material by burning the 
same at or near any mill without properly confining the place of said 
laurning, and without further safeguarding the surrounding property 
against danger from said burning by such additional devices as may 
be requisite in order to comply in every respect with any regulations 
for the time being made and in force under and by virtue of the 
provisions of this Act. 

Paragraph 2 provides that: — It shall be the duty of every person 
or corporation operating any engine referred to in this section to 
provide equipment in the way of tools, hose, and other fire-fighting 
appliances in accordance with any regulations for the time being 
made and in force under and by virtue of the provisions of this Act. 

Paragraph 3 provides that: — During the close season no deposit 
of fire or live coals shall be made from any locomotive or engine 
within one-quarter of a mile of any forest, woodland, or hay land 
upon any railway right-of-way outside of yard limits, unless said 
■deposit be immediately extinguished. 

Paiagraph 2 of section 124 provides that: — Every camp, mine, 
sawmill, portable or stationary engine, using any fuel other than oil, 
and located within a quarter of a mile of any forest or woodland, 
shall, by person in charge thereof, have such space surrounding said 
camp, mine, sawmill, or engine, cleared of inflammable material as 
the Minister or the Provincial Forest Board may direct. Any person 
■neglecting or refusing to perform and fulfil any duty imposed upon 



120 COMMISSION OF C O X S E R V A T I O N 

him by or pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be guilt)- 
of an offence against this Act. 

, , One of the important duties of district foresters 

Inspections by ^ _ 

District will be the collection of complete information about 

Foresters. dangerous debris and sources of fire, so that the pro- 

visions of the Forest Act may be enforced. This work will, so far as 
possible, be done by the members of the permanent force, but forest 
guards who are known to be competent for such work, may also be 
assigned by the district forester to make inspections. 

The district forester will be held responsible for seeing that all 
cases of dangerous debris and dangerous industrial uses of fire in 
his district are reported on as early as possible in the season. 

Procedure — The above reports must be made on the forms pro- 
vided in duplicate. All information called for by the instructions in 
the form must be supplied. In all cases of dangerous debris, and, 
wherever necessary in cases of dangerous uses of fire, a sketch should 
be made on the back of the form. 

The following should be the standard descriptions, and a legend 
describing the symbols used should be placed on the border of the 
map sheet: — 

1. Grass, weeds or brush not over two feet or three feet high. 

2. Bare ground, cliffs, rocks, etc. 

3. Water. Show all ponds, streams, or other body of water. 

4. Cultivated lands. Show whether garden, field or grain crop, 
pasture, hayland. or orchard. 

5. Swamp, muskeg, or peaty land. 

6. Cut-over land, slash on which has not been burned. 

7. Cut-over land, slash on which has been burned. 

8. Second growth from four feet to five feet high to tie size. 

9. Merchantable forest, whether or not fire has run through it. 

10. Land covered with timber, which is unmerchantable on account 
of poor quality, injury by fire, or difficulty of logging. 

All surveyed lines, buildings, roads, trails, and other works should 
be shown as well as the topography. 

Scale should not be less than two inches to the mile, nor greater 
than one inch to 100 feet. 

Every effort should be made to examine slash or fire-using struc- 
ture in company with the owner, and the matter should be thoroughly 
discussed with him. If the conditions are such that immediate action 
is necessary to reduce the fire risk, the way in which the slash can be 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 121 

got rid of should be discussed with the owner; a plan of fire-breaks,, 
brush piling, time of burning, or the installation of protective devices 
and measures agreed upon; and a promise obtained from the owner, if 
possible, to carry out the work. If necessary a forest officer should 
be present to supervise the work. 

On receipt of a report on a dangerous slash or dangerous use of 
fire the district forester will forward the original to the chief forester 
with his recommendations, retaining the duplicate for his files. 



The following statements by District Foresters Gilmour, Andrews, 
Caverhill and MacFayden contain detailed information relative to- 
the results secured in their respective districts : 

CRANBROOK DISTRICT 

By J. D. Gilmour, District Forester, British Columbia Forest Branch 

It has been demonstrated that the burning of slash is practicable, 
from the standpoint of cost as well as of safety. It has been proven^ 
a good form of insurance, protecting the future of the logging opera- 
tion until the timber is all logged, as well as equipment, camps and 
men employed in logging. 

To obtain some practical experience in costs and methods in the 
interior, and also to safeguard a large body of timber in which the 
government has a considerable financial interest, the Provincial Forest 
Branch undertook, late in the spring of 1913, to demonstrate the 
cheapness and safeness of slash burning in the heavily timbered 
valleys of British Columbia. The area selected for slash burning 
comprised 300 acres of the limits of the Mclnnes Lumber Company, 
eight miles from Crowsnest station, on the North fork of Michel river. 

Logging had been carried on for several years, with the result 
that several hundred acres of heavy slash constituted a menace 
throughout each summer. It seemed likely that a little carelessness 
on the part of someone would, one day, start a fire which might wipe 
out all the timber remaining in the valley, estimated at several hundred 
million feet. 

The type was spruce-jack pine, the stand running from twelve to 
twenty thousand feet per acre on the best timbered portions close to 
the river. The stand was thrifty and mature at the time of logging, 
the understory consisting of suppressed spruce. The resultant slash 
was, therefore, very heavy for the interior, lying from three to six 
feet deep. The trees left after logging, being suppressed, shallow- 
rooted spruce, were not windfirm, so that after everything merchant- 
able was removed, the balance in a short time blew down, adding to 



122 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

the already dangerous debris. Xo care was therefore taken to prevent 
destruction of the standing small trees, and, indeed, in such a heavy 
slash, to do so would render the cost prohibitive; also, brush piling 
was not necessary to insure a clean burn. 

The area has an elevation of about 4,800 feet, and consists of a 
flat valley some half mile wide along the river, with steep slopes run- 
ning up to beyond timber hne. Due to the configuration of the country, 
there is almost constantly a wind blowing up or down the valley, 
increasing the danger of disastrous fire. 

Owing to the elevation the snowfall is heavy, and, in the timber, 
it remains late in the spring. The snow is gone from the open logged- 
off area a couple of weeks before it is gone from the standing timber. 
It was therefore a question only of awaiting an opportunity when the 
melting snow will protect the standing timber, but has gone from the 
slashed area. The melting snow also drains toward the river, and the 
duff under the slash contains so much water that no danger to the 
soil cover was to be feared. The spring of 1913 was wet and back- 
ward, so that the conditions for slash-burning were not favourable until 
about June 1st. The fire was started on the evening of June 9th, 
about a week later than it should have been to obtain the cheapest 
results. However, it was soon found that fire would not run in 
standing timber, although a ver}- fierce fire resulted in the slash. The 
m.ethod employed was backfiring along the edge of standing timber, 
and along cross roads. After backfiring, all parts along the edge were 
lit as soon as possible, so that fires ran towards each other and met 
in the middle of the slash away from green timber. 

A gang of river drivers was available when required. About 
twenty men were employed on June 11 to work around the edges, 
putting out all fires, as it was too late in the season to allow any fire 
to remain in stumps and rotting logs. The total cost was therefore 
somewhat increased, compared to what it would have have been about 
a week earlier. 

The cost was $132.00. Area burned, 300 acres. Cost per acre, 44 
cents. The cost, reckoned on a per thousand basis for timber esti- 
mated to have been cut from this area, was less than three cents per 
thousand feet. 

All the most dangerous slash, caused by several years' operations, 
was disposed of practically in one day. No damage was done to 
merchantable timber, nor was the duff burned off the ground. A 
clean burn was made at a cost by no means excessive, when the 
amount of timber and logging equipment protected by it are considered. 
There should follow on the burned area a full stand of jack pine 
and a considerable percentage of spruce. Spruce may naturally be 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 123 

expected to form a noticeable part of the reproduction, on account 
of the forest soil cover being preserved; also, the burned strip is 
not too wide for seeding from the edges and from spruce seed trees 
remaining along the river inside the burn. 

It was demonstrated that slash burning may be undertaken with 
safety if advantage is taken of a favourable opportunity. It would 
seem that, between the time when slash will not burn because it is 
too wet and the season in which it is too dry to attempt burning 
it, there must be a period when fires can easily be controlled, when 
a sufficiently clean burn can be made, and when the soil cover will 
not be injured. Especially when spruce reproduction is desired, the 
soil cover should be preserved. When fir and yellow pine comprise 
the type, probably a more severe ground fire would be beneficial if 
sufficient seed trees could be protected. Broadcast burning would 
appear to be indicated in heavy stands, where small timber remaining 
after logging is of little use; but, in more open stands, characteristic 
in other parts of the interior, the young timber is worth preserving. 
In order to obtain a clean burn and to protect such small timber, 
rough piling would be necessary before burning. 

VERNON DISTRICT 
By L. R. Andrews, District Forester, British Columbia Porest Branch 

Construction of the Kettle Valley railway across the Hydraulic 
summit in the Vernon forest district was commenced in late autumn 
and early winter of 1912 and 1913. The grade at this point is at an 
elevation of about 4,000 feet above sea level. It traverses the water- 
shed and within a few miles of the source of the tributaries of Mission 
creek, and close to the catchment areas and reservoirs of two large 
irrigation projects which supply much needed water to about 10,000 
acres of irrigated land under fruit in the Kelowna district. 

Owing to the highly inflammable nature of the watershed, which 
is largely covered by dense second growth pine and down timber, with 
patchy stands of fir, tamarack and spruce, an acute fire hazard was 
created. Large amounts of slash and other debris were left on the 
ground. This hazard was greatly intensified by the usual carelessness 
of labourers and travellers with camp fires, cigarettes, pipes, etc., 
as well as by the danger of sparks from stationary engines. 

The situation was keenly felt by the irrigation interests and the 
Forest Branch, as well as by the contractors, who had some $50,000 
worth of equipment at stake. Spring burning of the debris, therefore, 
recommended itself as essential, to get rid of the slashings early, and 
thus reduce to a great extent the danger during the fire season.. 



124 COMMISSION OF C O X S E R V A T I O X 

The problem was attacked in the spring so soon as conditions- 
permitted, and most of the work was finished before the surrounding 
vegetation had become excessively dry. In three instances fires, 
were started as a result of the brush-burning operations, but, in each 
case, the fire was controlled before any damage was done. 

The slash resulting from the cutting of roads and right-of-way had 
been banked in continuous windrows along both edges and presented a 
fine trap for catching sparks, matches or cigarettes dropped along the 
edge. On the tie permit, close to the grade, the slash had been left 
scattered over about 400 acres. 

In order to complete the burning in the shortest possible time, a 
special force of ten men was organized by the contractor, under a. 
competent foreman. The work was directed by the two forest 
officers on patrol work, who also rendered assistance in the burning. 

Work was commenced by spreading the men along the road and 
right-of-way, about 40 to 50 yards apart, according to the amount 
of slash along the edges to be burned. Each man then pulled the 
slash in towards the centre of the road or right-of-way, clear of the 
timber, cutting it roughly into lengths of less than 16 feet. It was 
stacked into compact piles, three to four feet high and ten to fifteen 
feet apart. These piles were fired, each man tending from ten to 
twenty small fires, and piling on the slash as it burned, until all had 
been removed from the edge of the timber. Ten men therefore 
watched and tended ninety to one hundred small fires burning at the 
same time, and kept the fires going until the slash was consumed. 
According to the amount of brush and the difficulty of handling, from 
one-half to two miles of right-of-way was cleared per day. As 
soon as the slash was burned at one place, the men were moved ahead 
to start fresh piles. The foreman and fire patrolman kept things 
going, and care was taken to keep the fires small and continuous 
and watch that they did not spread. 

The essentials of this method, which proved efficient, are good 
axemen and an experienced foreman, with the supervision of at least 
one man for each half mile of burning. The advantages are : That it 
is quick, efficient and cheap. The small fires are always under control, 
and do not create enough heat to necessitate moving the slash more 
than a short distance from the edge of the road or right-of-wav. 
Scorching of the standing timber is avoided, and handHng of the 
slash, which is the big item in cost, is reduced to a minimum. The 
fires are fed continuously and burn themselves out quickly, and, there- 
fore, do not have to be watched at night. No piles were fired later 
than an hour before quitting time, and all fires were practically 
out by dusk. Freighting along the roads was held up for only short 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 125 

:periods, as it was possible to get past the small fires. On the grade, 
no work was interfered with in any way. 

On the tie permit area, close to the grade, fir trees had been 
felled and ties hewn in considerable confusion on the snow. The 
slashings here presented a more difficult proposition, as only tht 
smaller fir had been taken, leaving the larger trees standing. Thick 
masses of tops, limbs, butt logs and chips were left on ten to thirty 
acre patches throughout the area. The slash was piled in larger 
piles, as far as possible out of range of the standing timber, so as not 
to injure it. All tops were lopped, and the limbs and debris piled. 
Butt logs and large tops were not burned, as the disposal of only the 
highly inflammable material was considered necessary. These piles 
were made six to eight feet high, and ten to twelve feet in diameter. 
'Two men tended from eight to ten piles, gathering and throwing the 
slash continuously on the burning piles. The force of ten men averaged 
about fifteen acres per day in this way. A little over twelve days was 
required to clean up the whole area. 

The total cost of cleaning up the slashings along twenty-seven 
miles of roads and fifteen miles of right-of-way across the Hydraulic 
summit was approximately $1,200. On the 400 acres of logged-over 
tie permit, the cost of burning slash was $520.00; worked out on ?. 
mileage basis, the above shows: Roads, $25.00 per mile; right-of-way, 
$35.00 per mile; tie slashings, $1.25 per acre, or 2.7 cents per tie 
for 18,000 ties. 

The above figures are approximately correct, and might be con- 
sidered a basis for other work of a similar nature. In this instance, 
where there was no room for doubt as to the necessity of the under- 
taking, it was shown that such work can be handled at a cost which 
IS in fair proportion to the benefits derived in the form of reduced 
fire hazard. 

KAMLOOPS DISTRICT 
By P. Z. Caverhill, District Forester, British Columbia Forest Branch 

Broadcast burning was tried on an area of slash, comprising 350 
acres, situated on a gentle southern slope on the North Thompson river. 
The slash extended along the slope for three and one-half miles, and 
was from 650 to 1,000 feet wide. The stand was open fir, with 
little or no underbrush. The soil cover was mostly grass, with a very 
thin coat of humus, and the soil was gravelly. The stand would aver- 
age 3,500 feet board measure per acre, the trees being ten to fourteen 
inches in diameter and sixty to seventy feet high. Patches of volunteer 
fir reproduction were common among the older trees. Logging opera- 



126 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

tions had been carried on during the winter, the cut being 210,209 
feet board measure and 31,913 ties. 

The snow disappeared from the area late in March and early in 
April. While the crew was waiting for driving the men were set 
at burning, and about twenty men were employed for three days. The 
work was done by setting out fires at the lower edge of the slope and 
allowing it to run up the hill to the public road, which formed an effec- 
tive fire-break. Where the cutting had crossed the road the burning 
was carried on under a careful guard. The debris was comparatively 
heavy, owing to the small size of the timber and the heavy, open tops.. 

A detailed record of the cost was not kept by the company, but 
twenty men were employed for three days. The total cost was thus 
approximately $210.00, amounting to sixty cents per acre or seventeen 
cents per thousand feet, for both saw-timber and ties. 

Burning was also done on an area of about 500 acres on the Barrier 
river. This slashing lay approximately one mile along the slope and 
was three-quarters of a mile wide. The stand was open fir similar to 
the above. Logging operations had been carried on during the previous 
winter, approximately 634,000 feet being cut. 

Fire was started accidentally on May 31, but, as the operator had 
intended burning at least part of the brush, this fire was allowed to do 
the work. Eighteen men were detailed for three days to hold the 
fire in check and to light piles not fired by the general conflagration. 
Later, two men were detailed to watch it for a couple of days till the 
fire was out. 

The total cost was approximately $160.00, but no detailed record 
was kept. This is approximately thirty-two cents per acre or twenty- 
five cents per thousand feet. 

From a protective standpoint the result was excellent. Small 
debris and limbs up to one and one-half inches in diameter were con- 
sumed and the danger from future fire was reduced to a negligible 
amount. Much of the volunteer growth was, however, destroyed. 
The fire had little effect on trees six inches and over in diameter, but 
all reproduction ten feet high and under was destroyed, while larger 
poles up to six inches diameter were often so burned that they died 
later. 

It seems, therefore, that broadcast burning would be satisfactory 
on agricultural land and where the volunteer crop need not be consid- 
ered in connection with the future crop ; but, where planting cannot be 
resorted to, and where the volunteer crop is composed of the desired 
species, piling and burning for the protection of the young growth is 
to be preferred, where financial considerations will permit. 




Slash Burning by Se'TTLERS under Permit, Immediately Following a Rain. 

Kamloops District 




The Burning of Piles of Brush Resulting from Wagon Road Construction. 

Vernon District 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAI. 127 

On another area of about 500 acres, on an easterly slope, the brush 
was piled but not burned. Here the stand was of dense young Douglas 
fir, running 150 to 200 trees to the acre, ranging from six to twelve 
inches in diameter. The soil was gravelly clay, and the cover mostly 
grass, with little underbrush. Logging operations were carried on 
during the winter of 1912 and 1913 for ties, 43,564 ties and 27,000 
feet of saw-timber being cut. 

The brush was piled the following October, having been on the 
ground during the summer, so that, in many cases, it became matted 
down with a rank growth of weeds and grass. 

The trees had been felled with the tops more or less in clusters. 
The limbs were lopped off up to a diameter of about four inches, where 
the top was again cut off and all loose limbs piled on top as compactly 
as possible. 

The company kept no special cost account for the operation, but 
gave $700.00 as the probable total figure, or fifty cents per thousand 
feet. The cost was high because the brush had lain all summer and had 
become embedded in weeds and grass, and also because the labourers 
used were not accustomed to the work and consequently were not as 
efficient as if they had been employed at this class of work before. 

While the piling without burning did not eliminate the fire hazard 
altogether, it greatly reduced it by making it much easier to control a 
fire should one occur accidentally. 

TETE JAUNE DISTRICT 

By C. MacFayden, District Forester, British Columbia Forest Branch 

In connection with the construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific 
and Canadian Northern Pacific railways, the British Columbia govern- 
ment granted free permits for timber for ties and other purposes inci- 
dent to railway construction. It was at first a condition in each of 
these timber permits that all the debris caused by logging operations 
should be piled in such a way that it could be burned without danger to 
the remaining timber. This was a complete innovation to the contrac- 
tors who had always previously left their slash as they wished, and the 
requirement was consequently hard to enforce. At the outset, all con- 
tracts contained only the blanket cause, " Subject to the regulations of 
the Forest Branch." This was looked upon by the sub-contractors 
as a mere matter of form and not to be taken into consideration in 
arriving at prices, so that, later, when these regulations were enforced, 
they, without exception, claimed they could not possibly fulfil them at 
the prices they were getting from the company or the contractor above 
them, as the case happened to be. During the first winter's operation,. 



128 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

very few of the sub-contractors were making even wages, and, in many 
cases, were losing money; so that, rather than see the burden fall on 
the working man, leniency was shown in every case, thus leaving it 
"hard to judge of the beneficial results of the regulations had they been 
carried out as originally intended. 

In every case the contractor made the mistake of letting the piling 
lag behind his other work until a heavy snowfall made it impossible 
to do anything further with it until spring. He then experienced 
trouble in getting men to do the work, as the average " tie hack " con- 
sidered it beneath his dignity to handle brush. These difficulties will 
be overcome, however, when the contract price given to men working 
Tjy the piece includes the piling of the brush; they will then do it the 
cheapest way, which, it is agreed, is at the time of cutting. The con- 
tractors all agree that the additional price to be allowed should be 
between three and four cents per tie, or between fifty and seventy 
cents per thousand feet for saw-timber, depending on the size of. the 
average tree in the stand. The rate per thousand feet for saw-timber 
would be below this where the operation is in a stand of large timber, 
since practically the same amount of brush has to be handled for a 
tree cutting out 600 feet as for one cutting 1,000 feet. 

The work done during the first winter's operations showed that, 
where there is a lot of debris already on the ground, due to natural 
causes, the labour and expense of piling only the brush that results from 
logging operations is almost wholly lost. In many stands of spruce 
and cedar, an operator may faithfully pile all the debris caused by his 
operations, and yet the efifect of this work may be lost entirely, owing 
to the large amount of debris previously on the ground, for which he is 
not responsible, and which he cannot reasonably be required to pile 
and burn. In the case of a jack pine stand, where the ground is abso- 
lutely clean, piling the brush will go a long way towards absolute fire 
protection and is a cheap form of insurance. 

A case in point is a " tote " road cut south from Henningville by 
Palmer Bros. & Henning, largely through a jack pine stand. The brush 
from this cutting has been piled by these contractors in such a way 
that it creates absolutely no fire hazard. I believe these people can 
claim to have made the most satisfactory job of brush piling that has 
to date been done in the Dominion. In this last instance, the cost, as 
nearly as I can ascertain, was about $50 per mile. 

After noting the effect of a regulation requiring that only the 
brush caused by the logging operations be piled over the whole area, 
I decided it would be of more practical value to limit the piling to a 
300-feet strip around the outside, but to require that all debris, whether 
due to natural causes or to the contractors' operations, be piled in the 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 129 

same way. Where this was done, the result was a tolerably safe fire- 
guard. The best figures of cost I have on this work show an expense 
of $14 per acre of fire guard. The cost, figured on the area afforded 
protection, would of course be very much smaller. 

In conclusion, it is my opinion that, except in the case of clean- 
bottomed stands, piling only the brush caused by logging operations 
affords but little protection for the expenditure, and simply lopping 
the tops would give practically the same protection at less cost. Better 
than either of these is, I believe, a wide strip encircling the cut-over 
area and cleared of all debris. This seems the most practical method 
of doing away with the danger from old slashings, especially where the 
dansrer is limited to one or two sides of the cut-over area. 



The following supplemental statement, by District Forester H. B. 
Murray, shows the further developments in the Tete Jaune district 
since the resignation of Mr. MacFayden: 

" During the past year, 1914, the areas covered by permits which 
had been granted to the Canadian Northern Pacific and to the Grand 
Trunk Pacific railways were examined by the Forest Branch, and in 
any case where the amount of timber left standing warranted, a timber 
sale was made on such permit area. It is the intention of the Forest 
Branch to dispose of all timber left standing on the different permit 
areas in this manner, and then a slash fire can be run over the area 
at a safe time and the hazard removed. This course is absolutely 
necessary, owing to the proximity of the railways to the permit areas, 
and the constant danger of fire getting into the slashings during a 
dangerous fire period." 

BRUSH DISPOSAL IN THE RAILWAY BELT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 

D. Roy Cameron, District Inspector of Forest Reserves, Dominion 
Forestry Branch, Railway Belt District 

The slash menace on forest reserves in the railway belt of British 
Columbia, is, at the present time, a comparatively unimportant feature 
of the fire hazard, due to two factors. First, there has been practi- 
cally no timber cut on forest reserves, in quantity sufficient to make 
any considerable area of slash; second, the merchantable timber on 
these forest reserves, as at present constituted, is of the dry belt type 
— scattered, open, park-like stands — so that the debris resulting from 
lumbering operations would be largely scattered in the natural process 
of logging. 

The only cutting of timber since the inauguration of administra- 
tion of the forest reserves has been under settlers' permits. These 
9— c.c. 



130 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

permits have required in every case the piling of slash. Burning is 
carried on at convenient times by the forest officer. Satisfactory data 
as to the cost of piling per thousand can not be given, owing to the 
fact that each separate operation is of so small a character that figures 
obtained from them would be inaccurate as applied to an operation of 
any size. Settlers are, in most cases, willing to carry out any brush 
disposal regulations required. 

The proposed extension of forest reserves in the railway belt, to 
include large areas within timbered regions, where logging operations 
of considerable size have been, and will be, carried on, will cause 
this question to assume much greater importance in the near future. 

The debris resulting from lumbering or clearing operations outside 
the present forest reserves constitutes the greatest source of fire danger 
with which the Dominion fire protection service has to contend. It 
is safe to say that 90 per cent of all the fires which do damage have 
their origin in slash. The solution of this question is the greatest 
problem before the Forest Branch at the present time. The slash, 
besides being a source of great and ever increasing danger to adjoining 
timber or other property, is in most cases the greatest obstacle to 
regeneration, and must be removed before a second crop of timber 
can get a permanent start. 

Until 1914, except in a few isolated cases, no consistent attempt 
was ever made in this district on the part of either the lumbermen or 
the Government to deal with this question. This negative attitude on 
the part of the lumbermen was the result of, first, exaggerated ideas as 
to the cost of burning; and, second, a natural aversion to taking the 
responsibility for carrying out burning operations, which might con- 
ceivably result in the spread of the fire beyond control, with resulting 
damage to timber and property for which the lumberman would be 
liable. 

The inaction of the Government was due to lack of organization 
and lack of the necessary funds for the carrying out of such work; 
and also, to some extent, to lack of appreciation of the fact that any 
remedy was possible. 

When the Dominion Forestry Branch administration in the railway 
belt of British Columbia was reorganized in 1912, the question of slash 
disposal was taken up and studied by various forest officers. The 
possibilities of action were discussed at ranger meetings and elsewhere, 
and the appointment of a special officer to deal with the question was 
urged upon the Government. The result of this was that during the 
spring of 1914 the Dominion Forestry Branch appointed one of the 
most experienced fire rangers in its employ to the position of slash 
burner for the railway belt. This officer made detailed studies of the 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 131 

slash situation in the Fraser valley on the coast, and in the Columbia 
valley, in the vicinity of Revelstoke, in the interior, and drew up plans 
for the burning of certain typical slash areas. The intention was to 
burn these areas at Government expense as an experiment, to obtain 
reliable cost data which could be advanced to the lumbermen as proof 
that it would be good business for them, figured on an insurance basis, 
to take up the question of slash disposal during lumbering operations, 
and to charge the expenses incurred against the cost of logging. 

If it could be proved to the lumbermen that burning could be done 
quite reasonably as regards cost, the question of responsibility of burn- 
ing would be the only hindrance to slash disposal. The appointment 
of a slash burner was designed to take care of this part of the situation ; 
this officer was also given authority to take over, on behalf of the 
Government, the responsibility of handling burning operations, pro- 
vided the lumber companies would supply the necessary help and 
pay all legitimate expenses in connection therewith. 

Unfortunately the fire season of 1914 set in early and very badly, 
so that, when plans for burning were completed, the fire hazard 
was prohibitive. During the summer, forest fires effectually cleaned up 
the type areas chosen, together with other large areas of both slash 
and timber. 

During the autumn other areas were selected, but, again, natural 
obstacles intervened. This time, continual rains prevented the possi- 
bility of getting a fire started at all. 

These unforeseen occurrences show that there is only from one to 
two weeks in spring and autumn when slash burning can be successfully 
undertaken, and emphasize the necessity of careful planning and' 
organization beforehand in order to take the fullest advantage of nat- 
ural conditions when they do prove favourable. Although no actual 
burning was done last season, it is certain that the work done was 
not wasted, because the studies made served to interest lumbermen,, 
particularly in the coast district, in the importance to them of slash 
disposal. It is expected that the work will be pressed forward vigor- 
ously in the spring of 1915, and it is hoped that the experience gained 
this year will enable the Forestry Branch to carry experimental burn- 
ings to a successful conclusion. 

In the dense forests which cover the areas in which lumbering 
operations are being carried on, brush piling is out of the question. 
The only possible method of brush disposal will be broadcast burning, 
which entails the construction of fire guards around the slash. The 
lands on which these conditions obtain are not, as above noted, included 
within forest reserves at the present time. Nor are the licensed timber 



132 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

berths in any case legally a part of the forest reserves, even though 
included within their exterior boundaries. 

It is probable, however, that a few minor changes in the methods 
of logging, such as attention to the location of skid roads, etc., and 
the felling of trees with their tops together, so far as possible, will 
greatly facihtate the ease and safety of broadcast burning. 

It is impossible, at the present time, to give any authoritative data 
regarding the additional cost to operators on account of brush disposal. 
This is the main point towards which the work we propose to under- 
take will be directed. The advantages to the operator are self-evident, 
including reduced fire hazard, the elimination of property loss, and 
increased faciHties in financing operations due to the greater safety 
of the raw product from destruction by fire. 

The question of brush disposal on the right-of-way of roads con- 
structed by the Public Works Department of the British Columbia 
government is also very important from a fire protection standpoint. 
Until the last year or two, absolutely no attention was paid to this 
point by them. There existed, therefore, the anomalous condition of 
one department of a government preaching the necessity of slash dis- 
posal and enforcing regulations against railways, and at the same time 
another department doing construction w^ork of somewhat the same 
character and paying no heed to brush disposal at all. Within the last 
two years, however, strong representations have been made to the 
Provincial" Department of Public Works by both the Provincial and 
Dominion Forestry Branches. As a result of these, the Minister of 
Public Works in the British Columbia government issued a general 
order to all road superintendents that the debris resulting from road 
construction was to be burned. Unfortunately, the strong pressure of 
public opinion for new roads and the limited funds at the disposal of 
road superintendents militated against the eflFectiveness of this order, 
and the present state of affairs, while showing some improvement, still 
leaves much to be desired. In many localities, roads are still being 
constructed without any attention to brush disposal. 

ALBERTA 

By U\ N. Millar, District Inspector of Forest Reserves, Dominion 
Forestry Branch, Alberta District 

It is possible for me to make only a brief and general statement 
in regard to slash disposal in the Alberta district, as the question 
has never been taken up on a very definite basis or with a well- 
defined policy in view. \Yh\\e the seriousness of the slash menace 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 133 

in the future is recognized, its present importance is not unusually 
great, because of the comparatively small amount of cutting that is 
taking place within the reserves. Both for this reason and because 
there are many other more pressing and more immediately important 
problems on hand, the question of slash disposal has been dealt with 
in only a very cursory manner. Slash in the reserves in the Alberta 
district results from four classes of operations. These are: Settlers' 
permits, involving some 600 or 800 permits a year; Forestry Branch 
timber sales; railroad tie-cutting permits; and the operations on 
licensed berths within the reserves. 

The settlers v/ho obtain timber on permit are all required to dis- 
pose of their slash by piling and burning, but, in the reserve, where 
the majority of such permits are issued, the permits are confined 
almost exclusively to dead timber, which produces very little slash, 
and therefore does not constitute a menace nor give opportunity 
for securing figures that would be of any value in arriving at the cost 
of such brush disposal. 

The bulk of the Forestry Branch timber sales, and all of the tie- 
cutting permits within the forest reser^^e, have operated so recently 
that no work of slash disposal has been undertaken as yet. A number 
of operators are due to burn their slash at the end of the present fire 
season, but a great deal of opposition to this action has developed 
and is based upon grounds that are hard to controvert. 

No slash disposal of any kind is undertaken on the licensed berths 
within the reserves, where the bulk of the timber cutting in this 
district goes on. These berths, of course, are not under the control 
of the Forestry Branch, even though located within the reserves, so 
that, so far as this office is concerned, the largest and most serious 
slash disposal question is entirely beyond our control. The licensed 
timber, of course, includes the bulk of the merchantable timber and 
practically all of that which at the present time can be logged and 
manufactured at a profit. 

So long as slash is left undisposed of on the licensed timber berths, 
the disposal of it at the expense of the operator on areas covered by 
Forestry Branch sales will be attended with many difficulties, if not 
rendered entirely impossible. The timber on these tracts is now sold 
at rates many times the price charged on licensed berths, and the oper- 
ators object strenuously to increasing their logging costs by being 
required to dispose of slash while the berth holders, who are in some 
cases their competitors, escape this expense. They also point to the 
fact that the quantity of slash on the timber sale areas is so insig- 
nificant when compared to the vast amounts of slash being produced 



134 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

and left on the licensed berths, often immediately adjacent to timber 
sale areas, that it seems unreasonable to compel an expenditure whose 
futility is only too evident. A more serious objection, however, and one 
which appeals not only to the smaller operators but also to the holders 
of berths, is a well-grounded doubt of the value of slash disposal as 
a fire protective measure. Although no one seriously denies the danger 
which accumulated coniferous slash gives rise to, and although it is 
generally agreed that a disproportionate number of fires occur in slash 
areas, and the cost of the control in such areas is unreasonably high, 
nevertheless, there are no figures available to support a claim that 
slash disposal is anything in the nature of a panacea for forest fires, 
and it is believed that before slash disposal of an effective kind, which 
necessarily means an increased logging cost, can be reasonably urged 
or enforced upon logging operators on Dominion lands, it will be 
necessary for the Dominion fire protective establishments to demon- 
strate an ability to control and suppress fires which originate wholly 
independent of any logging operation or slash area, and w^hich, at the 
present time, constitute by far the bulk of the fires in this district. 
Slash is not a result exclusively of logging operations. There are 
enormous areas of burnt-over reproduction lands and lands bearing 
timber of pole size where the accumulation of slash as the result of 
fire is almost as dangerous as is the slash produced on logging opera- 
tions. The acreage of such naturally produced slash is many times 
that of all the acreage of logging slash in the district, and operators 
have a very reasonable and almost incontrovertible argument against 
assuming the burden of slash disposal so long as the fire protective 
forces are incapable of handling the large proportion of fires which 
originate outside slash areas. 

The problem of slash disposal cannot be considered independently 
and separately from the general problem of fire protection, and it is 
my belief that the natural sequence is, first, to provide adequate fire 
protection outside logging operations — which means on all the tim- 
bered lands in the district except a very small fraction of the total 
area — and then attack the slash menace as an improvement on an effi- 
cient system already devised and in operation. I think it will be found 
that this is the sequence of development in all those lumbering districts 
where slash disposal by burning has become established as a recog- 
nized part of a logging operation. It is the only truly logical course of 
development, and, in view of the many complexities of timber owner- 
ship and timber land administration which prevail on both Dominion 
and provincial lands, a procedure which does not have incontrovertible 
logic to support it has a very small chance of success. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 135 

SASKATCHEWAN 

By G. A. Gutches, District Inspector of Forest Reserves, Dominion 
Forestry Branch, Saskatchewan District 

Instructions were issued early in October, 1913, to all rangers of 
forest reserves in this district that the brush was to be piled on all 
timber operations within the reserves. Results show that it is far 
easier and cheaper to pile and burn the brush in connection with the 
cutting than it is to make piles suitable for burning and then burn them 
at a later date. The following figures show the results on three areas 
within the Nesbit reserve. All are cord wood operations in jack pine. 
Labour was in each case paid at the rate of 25 cents per hour. 

Area 1. The cutting was done in 1913, and the brush left scattered 
according to the old method. The brush and all refuse on an area 
of 20 acres of this old cut was piled and burned. The average cut was 
twenty-two cords per acre. Total cut of 440 cords. Total cost $20.50. 
Cost per acre $1,025. Cost per cord 4.7 cents. 

Area 2. The timber was cut in the winter of 1913, and the brush 
was piled and burned as soon as cut. On an area of 18 acres the 
average cut was 20 cords per acre. Total cut of Z60 cords. Total cost 
$19.75. Cost per cord 5.4 cents. Cost per acre $1,097. 

Area 3. All brush was piled and burned. The area comprised 210 
acres, with average cut of 20 cords per acre. Total 4,200 cords. Total 
cost $208.00. Cost per acre $0.99. Cost per cord 4.9 cents. 

The average cost for above areas was $1.00 per acre, or 4.9 cents 
per cord. The brush was disposed of on these areas under practically 
the most difficult conditions, as the brush was as heavy as any in this 
locality ; the above figures are therefore a fair average. 

The areas cut over under permit on the Nesbit reserve have been 
well cleaned up, and the brush and refuse have been piled and burned 
by holders of permits on 58 acres, and piled on an additional 1,350 acres. 

The permittees at first felt that brush piHng would be a hardship, 
but, after they had tried it for a short time, they found it was far 
easier to get at the wood than under the old system, and this was 
especially true on areas where low stumps were cut. In former 
cuttings, the stumps were cut from two to four feet in height, and it 
was very difficult to get to the piles with sleighs without getting hung 
up on stumps. After a little experience the permittees found that 
the brush disposal and low cut stumps did not entail any extra cost 
on the wood delivered, as any extra expense caused by cutting low 
stumps, and piling and burning brush was saved by making the wood 
more accessible for haulino-. 



136 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Mr. Williscroft, an experienced woodman, reports that, when the 
cost of hauling is considered, the cutting of low stumps and piling 
the brush saves the extra cost of swamping. The swamping is usually 
done by the teamster, and means the cost of the team while the 
work is being done. The extra cost of cutting low stumps and 
piling and burning the brush is balanced by the reduced cost of 
hauling. Mr. Williscroft estimates that the cost of piling and burn- 
ing brush in connection with cutting will run from a minimum of 
five cents per cord to a maximum of fifteen cents per cord, but that 
all this will be saved in hauling, so that practically no extra cost will 
be attached to the wood when delivered. 

Mr. Vandine, another experienced woodman, reports, in part, as 
follows, on the cost of brush disposal; — "The cost of piling brush 
will be five per cent of the operation, and, if piled and burned as 
the timber is cut, seven per cent of operation. As the average cost 
for cutting cordwood in this district is one dollar per cord, this would 
mean that it would cost from five cents to seven cents per cord to 
pile and bum the brush." Mr. Vandine further states that it would 
cost more if the brush were piled and left to be burned at a later 
date, and he says that the best and cheapest way is to have the brush 
burned by the permittee at the time of cutting. 

Messrs. Williscroft and Vandine have both had experience in the 
bush in various parts of the country and have worked for the past 
few years as foremen for lumber companies throughout the northern 
part of Saskatchewan. Their judgment in this matter, therefore, is 
practically as good as any that can be obtained in this section of the 
province. 

The following is a statement of the cost of top-lopping on a tie- 
cutting operation on the south half of section 17, and the south-east 
quarter of section 18. township 45. range 3, west of second meridian. 
This was a heavy stand of spruce. All the trees were cut and the 
ties removed before the parties were notified that the tops were to be 
lopped, making the cost of the operation a maximum for this district. 
The area was visited when the operation was about half completed, 
and the tops were completely lopped, even to the smallest twigs. 
Approximately 300 acres were cut over and 16,178 ties were removed. 
The top-lopping cost $161.75, or approximately one cent per tie, or 
53.9 cents per acre. The statement as to cost per acre is not very 
satisfactory, as the entire 300 acres were not cut over, the timber 
being in various-sized bunches on the area, and. consequently, the cost 
per acre would be much increased if the figures had been derived 
from the area actually cut over. These ties were much above the 




Heavy IvUmbering Slash Before Piling and Burning 

Fire danger extreme. At left, area on which the debris has been piled and burned, 
thus greatly reducing the fire hazard. Nisbet forest reserve, Saskatchewan. 




Piling and Burning Slash on Logging Area 
Dominion Forestry branch crew at work. Nisbet forest reserve, Saskatchewan. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 137 

railroad standard insofar as size is concerned, and the operator esti- 
mates that the timber removed would have sawn 521,000 feet board 
measure, and, on this estimate, the top-lopping would have cost 31 
cents per thousand feet. 

The operator reports, in part, as follows : " I am of the opinion 
that had I had information of the intention of the Department to 
enforce top-lopping last autumn before starting in the work, I could 
have arranged with the tie-makers to do this lopping and have had 
it done for less money per tie. I am also confident that the cost per 
thousand feet would have been less for saw-logs than for ties, as 
generally the tops will run out smaller." 

The regulations concerning brush disposal have been enforced 
during 1914 with much success, and practically all complaints have 
disappeared on reserves where operations were in progress in 1913, 
showing that it is simply a matter of enforcing the regulations to 
secure proper brush disposal. 

I find also that practically all the lumbermen in the district will 
be willing to make proper brush disposal provided each lumberman in 
the district is compelled to do the same. The manager of the Prince 
Albert Lumber Co., Ltd., has stated publicly that the company 
would not mind having to cut according to forest reserve regulations, 
provided all the other lumber companies in the country were 
doing the same, so that one company would not be competing with 
another under any disadvantage. This is the opinion of practically 
all the lumbermen in the district, and it is obvious that it would be 
unfair to compel one company to dispose of the brush and permit 
another to cut according to old methods. It is the duty of the Gov- 
ernment to see that each and every lumberman makes proper brush 
disposal, as it is almost impossible to protect young growth on 
cut-over areas according to the present methods of logging. In the 
past two or three years valuable stands of young spruce have been 
destroyed simply because it was impossible to check the fire on 
account of the enormous amount of slash. 

MANITOBA 

By P. K. Herchmer, District Inspector of Forest Reserves. Dominion 
Forestry Branch, Manitoba District 

The extent of slash menace and its seriousness as a fire hazard 
are very general, more especially on those areas where timber limit 
holders have been operating for many years in the reserves, and also 
where settlers have been taking out permit timber. The danger is 
very great, and should fires break out in certain of the old cuttings 



138 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

when the woods are dry, water in the streams low, and vegetation, such 
as grass and pea-vine, rank, as was the case last autumn, it is feared 
it would be impossible to control them. 

Under present regulations, slash has to be disposed of by either 
piling and burning, or lopping and dropping to the ground. Though 
these regulations have been in force for some time, it has been 
found possible by many operators to evade compliance, but it is hoped 
that from now on matters will improve. 

As to methods of brush disposal found or considered most advis- 
able under specific conditions, where the timber is not cut clean or 
where a new growth would be in danger should burning be resorted 
to, lopping and dropping to the ground is recommended, so that 
debris may rot more readily or at least get so damp that it would 
not burn fiercely. 

Where a clean cut of all standing timber is made, and where there 
is no new growth to be endangered, piling and burning is the best 
method. 

The compensating advantages to the operator from brush dis- 
posal are additional security from fires, and, in the case of berth- 
holders, protection of their remaining standing timber; to the settler, 
an increased assurance that he and his successors may have a con- 
venient, cheap, and lasting supply of timber. 

The estimated cost of piling and burning, or lopping and dropping 
to ground of debris, is 50 cents per thousand feet. 

The past attitude of all classes of timber operators in my district, 
insofar as I have knowledge, has been marked opposition to doing 
anything whatever toward protection. I consider this feeling to be 
now somewhat relieved, due, I think, to the fact that fear of losses 
ty fires is getting more prevalent, the scarcity of timber being brought 
home to the people generally ; possibly, also, the activity of our forest 
officers, who are impressing the settlers with the importance of fire 
protection and prevention, and in many ways showing that they are 
now taking more interest in forest business. 

brush disposal in eastern provinces 
Ontario 

Nothing is being done in Ontario at the present time with regard 
to brush disposal in operations on Crown lands. It is not believed, 
in any event, that the work could be undertaken satisfactorily with 
the present organization. 

This matter was, however, considered tentatively, and, about two 
years ago, a clause providing for brush disposal was inserted in one 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 139 

•of the licenses on a saw-timber limit. This situation is explained in 
the following extract from a statement received from the Provincial 
Department of Lands, Forests and Mines: 

"There have been no brush disposal clauses inserted in timber 
sales in Ontario, except in the case of the Jocko limits. The Jocko 
hmits contain mature white pine, averaging some five trees to the 
acre, scattered amongst the hardwood growth. The manner of brush 
disposal was left to the discretion of the officers of the department, 
and it was felt that lopping of tops and burning of brush along roads 
and about camps would be all that was necessary to insure reasonable 
protection. 

" The lopping of tops was carried out satisfactorily the first 
season, but very severe wind-falls throughout the area have placed 
the limits in a very dirty condition. The amount of debris caused 
hy taking out the big pine was so small a factor that this season the 
clauses in regard to brush disposal have been withdrawn. At the 
present time, I do not think the government favours any brush dis- 
posal conditions in regard to timber sales, as the later sales have 
contained no clauses to this effect." 

Quebec 

Aside from a certain amount of experimental work carried on 
'by the Laurentide Company, upon selected portions of their pulp wood 
limits on the St. Maurice watershed, relatively little consideration has 
been given the matter of brush disposal in the Province of Quebec. 
So far as the provincial government is concerned, the following 
extract from a statement by Mr. G. C. Piche, chief of the Forest 
Service, Department of Lands and Forests, will explain the situation : 

"As to progress made in brush disposal, I must say that, to my 
"knowledge, nothing has been done except to induce the limit-holders 
to cut into the tops as much as possible, and the Minister has approved 
a proposal to allow them a rebate of 50 per cent on the stumpage 
dues for the logs less than six inches in diameter. In the St. Maurice 
district, out of 20,000,000 logs made during the last three years, about 
20 per cent were logs less than six inches, which volume represented 
some 33,000,000 feet board measure. A few years ago this material 
would have been Tost and would have increased the danger of fire. 
Therefore, I believe our action Is fully justified and will induce the 
lumbermen to be more and more economical and the province will 
benefit by increased revenue from timber previously wasted. Also, 
the forest will be conserved for a much longer period, as we gained 
:about 10 per cent by the removal of these small logs. I had expected 



140 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

to do something in the way of brush disposal on our township reserves, 
but the lack of men and of funds has, thus far, prevented any further 
action. It is hoped that these obstacles may be overcome in the near 
future." 

COST OF TOP-LOPPING 

Investigation on the Lands of the Laurentide Co., Ltd., by BIhvood 
Wilson and D. W. Lnsk 

Through the courtesy of Mr. M. C. Small, manager of the logging 
division of the Laurentide Company, Ltd., the authors were given 
every facility to make the following study on the lands of the com- 
pany in the St, Maurice watershed, Quebec. They were given a free 
hand with the jobbers, and Mr. Lusk was appointed an assistant 
scaler and inspector so that he could control the work. 

The object of the investigation was to ascertain, as nearly as 
possible, the actual cost of top-lopping and to determine its practica- 
bility and the resulting advantages. 

The disposal of lumbering waste and debris, either by top-lopping 
or otherwise, is one of the most important questions now under con- 
sideration by foresters and lumbermen. There are three possible 
methods, fire, decay and utilization. In some countries of Europe, 
where the forests are near the markets and firewood commands a 
high price, all the debris can be utilized as firewood, the smaller 
branches being tied up into bundles of faggots, and even the leaves 
and needles are used as bedding for animals. This method is impos- 
sible with us. Owing to the condition of our forest floor, it is inad- 
visable to burn the slash, as the soil is so shallow that fire burns oflf 
all the humus and is very difficult to keep under control. Burning 
would have to be done before the snow was entirely oflf the ground 
and would entail the piling of the brush, making the work so costly 
as to be out of the question. The only other method is that of decay, 
and it is to facilitate and hasten this that top-lopping is undertaken. 

The larger the top of a tree left by the loggers, the longer it takes 
to decay, chiefly because it has more large limbs, and these, holding 
it up higher of? the ground, allow it to dry out, and once dry it may 
last for many years. If the limbs are cut ofif, the trunk lies flat on 
the ground and the branches, being in constant contact with the moist 
soil, decay much more quickly; also being always wet they do not 
catch fire so readily or burn so quickly. Large tops left in the woods- 
catch fire very easily, and they burn so rapidly and with so much heat 
that a fire once started in a slashing is almost impossible to extin- 
guish until the whole cut-over area has been burnt, with the conse- 



FOREST FIRES AXD BRUSH DISPOSAE 141 

quent destruction of the trees left and of the future crop. Cut-over 
areas with large tops left on them are very difficult for surveyors, 
cruisers and fire-rangers to travel over and the cost of such work is 
increased by this condition. 

The second growth on cut-over lands is hindered to some extent 
by the presence of large tops, which shut out the light, cover the 
ground with decaying needles and make the young trees, which have 
to grow up through the old tops, crooked. 

The fire risk is increased fully one hundred per cent after lum- 
bering, but, if the tops are properly lopped, this is much reduced. 

In discussing this matter, there are two fundamental questions to 
be considered, the cost of logging and the cost of fire protection, the 
first of which is increased and the second decreased by top-lopping. 
Do these two items balance, and if not, do the advantages obtained by 
top-lopping compensate for the added cost? The present prices of 
lumber and pulp wood do not permit of any extra expenditure for 
logging, and unless top-lopping is made compulsory by law, so as 
to place all operators on the same basis, few of them would be willing 
to undertake it. Then too, it is a question which concerns the lumber- 
man more than the pulpwood man, as the latter takes out all logs 
down to three and a half inches in diameter, and all crooked and 
forked trees, as well as many logs which are partly unsound. When 
tops are taken to such a small diameter they lie close to the ground 
and rot fairly quickly. On the other hand, where trees are cut for 
lumber, all tops over eight inches in diam.eter, all forked and many 
crooked trees and all unsound ones are left in the woods, making 
the very worst possible conditions, from the standpoint of danger from 
fire. The amount and character of the material left in the woods are 
also dependent on the distance from the point of utilization and the 
difficulty and cost of transportation. It is axiomatic that material 
which would cost more to remove from the woods than the price 
which could be obtained for it must be left to decay. 

From the standpoint of the good of the forest and its better 
protection from fire there is no question but that top-lopping is 
beneficial, and one might almost say necessary, and, if made com- 
pulsory by a regulation binding on all timber operators in a province, 
so that the added charge would fall on all, and, if uniformly enforced 
so that there would be no favoritism or discrimination, it would be a 
wise measure. 

The cost of top-lopping is influenced by the following factors : 
Whether logging is done by company camps or jobbers, attitude of 
foremen and inspectors, character of labour, nature of the ground 



142 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

and the time of the year. If the work is done in company camps, the 
lopping is part of the routine work of felHng and is taken as a matter 
of course and will be better and more economically done. Jobbers 
working on contract feel that it is extra labour and expense, and will 
consequently slight the work and will demand more money per thous- 
and feet for doing it. 

If the foreman or inspector is in favour of lopping, he will endea- 
vour to have it done thoroughly and cheaply; if not, he will slight it, 
and make the cost higher if possible. 

As in every other class of work the character of the labourers 
employed is a very important factor in the cost of operation. We 
found that where boys or old men were used in top-lopping the cost 
was materially increased; the better the labour the cheaper the 
lopping could be done. 

On rough ground, the tops are harder to get at, and the cost is 
more than on level ground. Tops can be lopped cheaper before the 
snow comes than after, as it is easier to get around, and the branches 
are not frozen and covered with snow. 

The actual cost is shown by the following tables: Number one 
shows the number of logs made in each district and the average per 
man per day; number two shows amount of time spent on lopping; 
number three the actual cost, and number four shows the probable 
cost under thoroughly efficient crews and supervision. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 



145- 



TABLE NO. 1— STATISTICS ON LOGS MADE TO DEC. 19, 1913 
District No. 1 — ^Jobbers did lop 



Jobber 


No. log-s 


Working 
days 


No. men 
working 


Aver. No. 

logs per day 

per camp 


Aver. No. 

logs per day 

per man 


Probable 

log run 

B.F. 


1 


4,572 i 
4,902 i 
3,535 


18 
21 


12 
12 
11 


254 
234 
236 


21 


25 




13,009 


54 


34 


724 






2 


3,148 
1,843 


23 
15 


6 
51 


137 
123 


23 


27 




4,991 


38 


m 


260 






3 


1,069 
753 


19 
12 


2J 
2J 


56 
63 


24 


28. 




1,822 


31 


5 


119 






4 


1,871 
932 


23 
14 


3 
3 


81 
66J 


25 


28 




2,803 


37 


6 


147J 






5 


1,396 
837 


20 
13 


3 
3i 


70 
64i 


23 


27 




2,233 


33 


6i 


1341 






6 


1,817 
3,612 
2,304 


12 
24 
14 


6 
6 
6 


151J 
150i 
164J 


26 


28 




7,733 


50 


18 


466* 






7 


2,290 
751 


31 
14 


3 
2 


74 
53 


26 


31 




3,041 


45 


5 


127 






8 


1,577 


17 


4 


93 


23 


27 



144 COMMISSION OF COXSERVATIOX 

District No. 2 — ^Jobbers did not lop 



Jobber 


No. logs 


Working 
days 


No. men 
working 


Aver. No. Aver. No. Probable 
logs per day logs per day log run 
per camp j per man ' B. F. 


9 


1,741 
5,063 
3,078 


8 
16 
24 


7 
8 


2171 

211 

192 




28 30 




9,882 


48 


22i 


620J 






10 


308 
2,265 
1,719 


3 
22 
15 

40 


3 
3 
3 

9 


103 
103 
114 

320 




35 




4,292 






11 


2,620 
2,946 
2,046 


20 
24 

16 


4 

4 

4 


121 
123 
128 




31 


27 




7,612 


60 


12 


372 








12 


2,605 
2,545 

1,770 


17 
24 

16 


4 

4 

4 


153 
106 
111 




31 


31 




6,920 


57 


12 


370 









There is no accurate manner of obtaining data on the number of 
logs lost per day. Figuring backward from the cost of lopping per 
" No. feet," we find that it means the loss of four to twelve logs per 
horse per day, or from one to two logs per man per day. 

The average number of logs per day per man in District No. 1 is 
eight below that in District No. 2. With the liberal allowance of 
two logs for the added work of top-lopping, there still remains a dififer- 
ence of six logs. This is explained by the inferior quality of the 
labour employed on District No. 1. On District No. 2 the jobbers 
and their men are old, experienced hands. Many of the sawyers have 
themselves been jobbers in previous years, and they thoroughly under- 
stand their work. On the other hand the jobbers in District No. 1 are 
many of them new at the work and their men are, with a few excep- 
tions, entirely unaccustomed to woods work. In many instances boys 
from the larger towns are employed. This class has had no previous 
experience in logging or with horses. Generally speaking the men 
working in District No. 1 are but two-thirds to three-quarters as efifi- 
cient as those in District No. 2. The wages are not correspondingly 
low, hence costs are high. 

The log run in District No. 2 is estimated to be higher than that in 
District No. 1. This is due to the large number of white pine and big 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 



145 



balsam in District No. 2, considerable area of one to two log balsam in 
District No. 1 and lack of white pine in District No. 1. 

Nos. 1 and 5 show fewer logs per man per day than their associates, 
due to the presence of boys and cheap labour on the pay roll. 

TABLE NO. 2— ACTUAL TIME CONSUMED IN LOPPING AT 
VARIOUS CAMPS 



Jobber 


Trees pei 

crew pel 

day 


Aver. No. 

trees per 

camp per 

day 


Lopping 

time in 

hours 


Loaf- 
ing and 
smok- 
ing 
time 


Other 
work 


Time charged to 
lopping 


No. trees 
lopped 




Hours 


Days 


per hour 


1 


50 
46 


96 


6 
6 


2 
2 


1 

1 


8 
8 


8 
9 


8+ 
8- 


2 


28 
24 


52 


3J 
21 


1 


41 
6| 


41 
2J 


1 


8 
10+ 


3 


24 


24 


2i 





61 


21 


1 


10+ 


4 


28 


30 


3 





6 


3 


i 


9+ 


5 


28 


27 


31 


1 


41 


4i 


i 


8 


6 


30 
28 


62 


3 
3 










6 
6 


i 

i 


10 
9+ 


7 


27 


25 


21 





61 


21 


i 


12 


8 


36 


37 


35 





Si 


31 


i 


10+ 



TABLE NO. 3— ACTUAL COST OF LOPPING 



Jobber 


Feet skid- 
ded per 
day 


Time 
used in 
lopp- 
ing in 
days 


Wages 

of 
lopper 


Cost of 
food 


Horse 
time lost 


Cost per 
day per 
crew for 

top- 
lopping 


Cost per 
M.B.F. 

for 
lopping 


Character 
of labour 
for top- 
lopping 


1 


3,012 
3,012 


s 

9 
f 


100 
100 


70 
70 


none 
none 


$1.51 
1.51 


.50 
.50 


small boy 
small boy 


2 


1,788 
1,788 


i 

3 
i 


100 
154 


70 
70 


1 hour 
1 hour 


.85 
.56 


.47 
.31 


small boy 
man 


3 


1,680 


1 


154 


70 


2 hours 


.56 


.33 


man 


4 


2,109 


1 


192 


70 


2 hours 


.88 


.41 


man 


5 


1,842 


1 
3 


100 


70 


3 hours 


.85 


.44 


small boy 


6 


2,208 
2,208 


1 
1 


173 
173 


70 
. 70 


1 hour 
1 hour 


.81 
.81 


.37 
.37 


man 
man 


7 


1,984 


i 


173 


70 


1 hour 


.61 


.31 


man 


8 


2,511 


f 


173 


70 


1 hour 


.97 


.39 


man 



Grand average 40 cents, men average 35i cents, boy average 48 cents. 
10— c. c. 



146 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

TABLE NO. 4— IDEAL CREW FOR TOP-LOPPING 

Four men — men do cooking; pay, $52 per month. 

One horse — 125 logs per day. 

Two fellers — fell, buck up, make bark marks and do branching up to top. 

One swamper — lop the tops and assist skidder in making trails. 

One skidder — skid logs, roll logs, make skidways and make trails. 

Ration estimate before Christmas, averaging in Sundays, 70 cents. 

Two-fifths swamper's time to lop the tops, at $2.00 per day. 

Log average, 27 board feet skidded per day — 3,375. 

Cost of lopping per day, $1.08. 

Cost of lopping per M. feet, 32 cents. 

Top-lopping, except under proper supervision, is only a waste 
of time, as the men, especially under the jobbing system, will try to 
evade the work, often piling brush on tops to conceal them. 

The holders of timber lands are disposed to look upon top-lopping 
as a matter for careful investigation, and are wilhng to approach the 
subject with open minds. As has been said before, it is not likely that 
anyone would lop tops unless all his neighbours did the same. Some 
are disposed to use the following argument, which can be illustrated 
by the experiment described above. The cost of lopping per acre 
was found to be $L63; the benefits from the standpoint of fire pro- 
tection, reduced cost of cruising, etc., could under no circumstances 
extend over fifteen years, which would make the cost per acre per 
year eleven cents. As limit-holders in this section are now getting 
good fire protection for one-quarter cent per acre per annum, and for 
two or three cents practically perfect protection could be had by more 
numerous patrols, would it not be better therefore to spend the addi- 
tional money in fire protection rather than in top-lopping? This, of 
course, applies only to lumbermen, for the pulp operators, by taking 
trees down to three and one-half inches in the tops, are practically 
leaving small enough tops; in fact, that is within one-half inch of 
the limit prescribed by the top-lopping law in New York state. 

To sum up, the authors agree that top-lopping is well worth while 
from the standpoint of the good of the forests, but can only be a 
practical measure when compelled by a general regulation well 
enforced. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 147 

NOTES ON SITUATION IN THE UNITED STATES; SOME SUGGES- 
TIONS ON BRUSH DISPOSAL^ 

By Biers Koch, Forest Supervisor, United States Forest Service, 

Missoula, Montana 

On a large percentage of the Forest Service timber sales fire pro- 
tection has been insured by piling and burning the slash, which costs 
usually from 30 cents to 75 cents per thousand feet. Brush piling, in 
most cases, is done by the logger, and, of recent years, the timber sale 
contract usually requires the operator to burn the brush also. With 
stumpage prices running from $1 to $4 per thousand feet, the cost of 
brush disposal, which, of course, comes out of the stumpage paid the 
government, takes a large proportion of the value of the timber. On 
a big timber sale, with a heavy stand per acre, the total amount ex- 
pended for temporary protection of the sale area reaches a rather 
alarming figure, and the thrifty forester must, of necessity, cast about 
for a less expensive means of protection from fire. 

Observations made on old slashings indicate that, in from five 
to seven years, the slash has rotted down and disappeared so as to 
bring the fire risk back to normal. The problem, then, is to secure 
protection for the cut-over area during the danger period, after which 
the ordinary protective measures in force on the forest should sufifice. 
Piling and burning the brush reduces the danger to a minimum, but 
the expenditure for a few years' fire protection is extremely great. 

The fire risk on a timber sale area is generally either from fire 
starting In an adjoining slash on private lands, or from some human 
agency, such as logging engines, campers or smokers within the area. 
If a system of fire lines is constructed, by piling and burning the 
brush on strips 100 to 300 feet wide along the danger zones, and 
combined with a very intensive patrol for about five years after the 
cutting, it should be possible to reduce the fire risk to a minimum at 
a fraction of the cost of piling and burning the slash on the entire 
area. In general, the brush should be piled and burned on a strip 
200 feet wide around the border of the area if it adjoins slashing on 
private lands. A wide strip should be cleared of brush on either 
side of logging railways, and narrow strips along the main logging 
roads would break the area up into blocks and reduce the danger of 
fires starting at those points apt to be frequently traversed by human 
beings. 

Lopping the tops may prove desirable in some stands where the 
brush is very heavy, in order to hasten the rotting of the branches 



*Reprinted by permission, from Forestry Quarterly. Volume XI, No. 4. 



148 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

and needles. In many cases this is not necessary, particularly on 
steep slopes, where the tops are pretty well shattered to pieces by 
felling and logging. Recent inspection of slashings near the Lolo 
forest, where no disposal had been made of the tops, showed that, in 
the course of five or six years, the slash had practically disappeared in 
both the yellow pine and fir-larch types, 

A specific example of a Forest Service timber sale will illustrate 
the saving which could be made on the present method of brush dis- 
posal. A sale made to the Anaconda Copper Mining Company, in the 
Bitterroot forest, cutting on which has been completed, covered an 
area of approximately 3,300 acres, with a total cut of 52,600,000 
board feet, chiefly yellow pine. The area is situated on the edge of the 
forest, adjoining private lands cut over by the Anaconda Copper 
Mining Company. The brush on this sale was all piled by the logging 
company and burned by the Forest Service. The brush piling cost, 
on an average, about 40 cents per thousand feet. Much of the work 
was contracted at this figure, and it is safe to say that, at any time, 
the company would have been glad to modify its contract with an 
increase in stumpage of 40 cents per thousand, if brush piling could 
be dispensed with entirely. The brush burning cost the Forest Ser- 
vice six cents per thousand, making a total cost of 46 cents per 
thousand, or in round numbers, $24,000 total. That is to say, as 
much money was expended on the special protection of this 3,300 
acres for a period of about five years, as the annual cost of protection 
and administration of the entire Bitterroot forest, containing 1,154,550 
acres. Only the greatest risk could justify the concentration of such 
a large proportion of the fire protection funds on this limited area. 
The expense is probably justifiable if no other cheaper means of 
protection were available. The writer believes that an almost equal 
degree of protection could have been secured for an expenditure of 
about $10,000, a saving of about 58 per cent. 

The great danger on this area is from fire starting in the adjoining 
slash on the Anaconda Copper Mining Company lands. A strip 200 
feet wide along the forest boundary on which the brush is piled and 
burned would offer a good base of protection from fires of this class. 
This should be further supplemented by a system of cleared belts 
along the main logging roads. A total of ten per cent of the area 
would provide for a very extensive system of fire belts. As the brush 
is heavy on this area it would probably have been advisable to lop the 
limbs from the tops, which could be done for not to exceed ten cents 
per thousand feet. The area would then be left in good shape for 
repelHng fires, with all the greatest danger points cleared up. For 
further protection, until the brush had rotted away, two guards 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 149 

employed for four months in the year would give very intensive patrol. 
Each guard would have only two and one-half sections to patrol and 
should be able to see every foot of the ground several times a day. 

The following summary makes clear the relative cost of the two 
methods : 

Plan Adopted 

Area cut over, 3,300 acres. 

Total amount cut, 52,600 thousand feet. 

Cost of piling and burning at 46 cents per thousand $24,000 

Proposed Plan 

Cost of piling and burning 10 per cent of brush for 

fire lines $2,400 

Cost of lopping brush on balance of area at 10 cents 

per thousand 4,700 

Cost of patrol, two men, four months each year at $75 

per month for five years 3,000 

$10,100 

Saving by proposed method $13,900 

It is believed that this system of partial piling and burning brush 
in the danger zones, supplemented by intensive patrol for a few years, 
can be applied successfully to most stands in the yellow pine, the 
fir-larch or Douglas fir types. Further advantages of leaving the 
brush unburned might be cited. Most of the yellow pine type in this 
locality occurs on dry south and west slopes. The brush and needle 
cover would help to retain moisture in these very dry situations and 
would probably be an aid to securing reproduction. In the fir-larch 
type there is very often an advance seedling growth, frequently eight 
or ten feet high, besides a large number of poles below merchantable- 
size. Brush burning on an area of this sort must, of necessity, destroy 
a large amount of seedling and pole growth, besides being so expensive 
that it often deters a prospective purchaser from buying the timber. 

The problem in white pine, spruce and cedar timber is somewhat 
different. The .amount of brush in timber of this sort is so large, and 
the fire risk in the Avhite pine belt is so great, that, in most cases^ 
extreme care must be taken to prevent fire in the slashings. 

In the old, over-mature white pine stands, which are characteristic 
of the merchantable white pine type of the Lolo forest, the only feas- 
ible system which has been proposed for securing natural reproduction 
is the reservation from cutting of scattered groups, strips or single 
trees well distributed over the area, constituting 10 to 15 per cent 
of the total stand. If the brush is to be burned in a stand of this 



150 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

sort, it must necessarily be piled, in order to prevent the total destruc- 
tion of the seed trees. The cost of piling and burning brush on a 
mixed stand in the white pine type is estimated at 60 cents per thous- 
and feet. In a stand averaging 25,000 feet to the acre this involves the 
enormous expenditure of $15.00 per acre, several times the cost of 
planting. 

The obvious alternative, then, is to cut clean, burn the slash broad- 
cast, and plant the burned area with nursery stock. No very accurate 
figures are at hand for the cost of broadcast burning, with the area 
controlled by cleared fire lines, but an estimate of 20 cents per thous- 
and feet is certainly conservative. 

Let us then take a specific instance and compare the cost of the 
two methods. A timber sale has recently been made to the Mann 
Lumber Company, on Big creek, in the Lolo National forest, cover- 
ing an area of 3,600 acres, estimated at 80,000,000 feet, a mixture of 
white pine, spruce, Douglas fir, larch, cedar, hemlock, and white 
fir. The contract provides that, except on clean-cut areas, the brush 
shall be piled and burned. The clean-cut areas will be practically 
nil, so that they need not be considered. In this particular case a 
part of the area is fire-killed timber where there will be no brush 
disposal; but to make the case typical of average conditions, it will 
be assumed that it is entirely a green timber stand. 

By clearing a system of fire lines one chain wide along the prin- 
cipal ridge tops, thus dividing the area into blocks, broadcast firing 
could be done safely and cheaply, and the ground would be left in 
good shape for planting. 

The following figures give the relative cost of the two systems : 

Area of tract, 3.600 acres. 

Total stand, 80.000,000 feet. 

Cost of brush piling and burning, at 60 cents per thousand 

(per acre, $13.33). Total $48,000 

Cost of broadcast burning at 20 cents per thousand (per acre, 

$4.44). Total 16,000 



Saving by broadcast burning, per acre, $8.89. Total $32,000 

Cost of planting white pine 8x8 ft., per acre, $5.22. Total. . . $18,792 

Net saving after burning and planting, per acre, $3.67. Total $13,208 

These figures, if correct — and it is believed that they can be demon- 
strated — indicate that, if the contract could be amended to permit the 
company to burn broadcast instead of piling the brush, the stumpage 
price could be increased sufficiently to amount to $32,000. The sum 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 151 

of $18,792 could then be devoted to planting the area, leaving a net 
saving of $13,208. We would then have a well-spaced, completely 
stocked plantation of white pine, or whatever species was deemed 
desirable, instead of a more or less incomplete, natural reproduction 
of perhaps 25 to 50 per cent white pine. The weed trees, the hem- 
locks, white fir and cedars, would all be eliminated, and there would 
be prospects for a succeeding crop of timber which would have double 
the value of the mixed, natural stand. A further advantage, which 
has not been included in the calculation, is the saving of stumpage 
in the seed trees. In an over-mature stand much of this will be lost 
by death of the trees before the end of the next rotation, and the 
amount of timber left would probably not justify a logging opera- 
tion before that time. This item would amount to from $2 to $4 
per acre. The operator would also get the advantage of an increased 
cut with the same improvement investment, as well as the cheaper 
cost of logging a clean-cut area. 

The planting cost is figured as follows : 

Cost of three-year-old white pine transplants, per thousand.. $3.00 

Transportation, per thousand 50 

Planting, per thousand 4.00 

Total $7.50 

Spacing 8x8, or 670 per acre, gives a cost of $5.22 per acre. 

About a million and a half of eastern and western white pine 
transplants will be shipped from the Saranac nursery this fiscal year, 
at a cost not to exceed three dollars per thousand ready for shipment. 
The planting crew on the Lolo forest this fall is planting white pine 
at the rate of 1,000 per man per day. The final cost has not yet been 
obtained ; but it is certain that it will not exceed $4 per thousand plants. 

The obvious difficulty in carrying out a policy of clear cutting 
and planting on Forest Service sales is, of course, lack of funds to 
handle the planting. The increased stumpage receipts go into the 
United States treasury and the extra expense must be carried by 
the regular funds of the Forest Service. It would seem, however, 
that arrangements must be made to cover this expense, if the Forest 
Service is to make any pretence to a businesslike administration. 

The Forest Service policy is, perhaps, not to be criticized. In- 
creased appropriations are hard to get and the present funds barely 
cover current work ; but the fact remains that an attempt to regenerate 
over-mature white pine stands by natural methods is an economic 
waste, which will cost the United States government tens of thous- 
ands of dollars within the next decade if the policy is continued. 



152 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

SITUATION IN NATIONAL FORESTS IN MINNESOTA, MICHIGAN, 
SOUTH DAKOTA, COLORADO AND WYOMING 

The following statement is furnished by the District Forester at 
Denver, Colorado, in charge of U. S. Forest Service District No. 2. 

Heretofore our methods of brush disposal have differed, of course, 
with the various timber types and ground conditions in each case. In 
the lodgepole type, we have resorted to piling and burning entirely. 
In the open yellow pine type in Colorado, scattering has been our 
usual method, and this method has also been used almost exclusively 
in our rather dense stands of spruce and alpine fir in mixture. In the 
Black hills, and in Colorado, where fire danger is great, yellow pine 
brush has been piled and burned as a strictly protective measure. In 
comparison with other districts more heavily timbered, and not subject 
to a fair amount of precipitation during the summer months because 
situated at lower altitudes, the fire risk in this district is not great 
and our reasons for piling and burning in lodgepole have taken 
reproduction into consideration as well as to present a clearer surface 
to possible ground fifes. With the exception of the Minnesota and 
Michigan forests now in this district, piling has generally been done 
bv the operator as cutting progressed, and the burning has been carried 
out by the Forest Service later, when light snow or other conditions 
made it least dangerous. Lately, we have been using a clause in our 
contracts, however, which requires the purchaser to furnish a suffi- 
cient number of men to properly burn the brush, under the supervision 
of the Forest officer in charge, at any time the latter may order such 
men. On the Minnesota forests, and in ^Michigan, piling and burning 
are carried on simultaneously as the cutting progresses, and we are 
giving this method a thorough trial in the lodgepole type in Colorado 
and Wyoming, with a view to determining its feasibility in these 
regions. 

The following is an extract from a letter submitted to this office 
last winter by Supervisor Marshall of the Minnesota Forest, describ- 
ing methods of brush disposal in that region : 

" Brush piling and burning costs vary so much according to con- 
ditions that it is impossible to give any figures which will govern all 
cases, but I will give you such data as I have and you can fit them tr> 
local conditions. 

" For an open stand of Norway, running from five hundred thous- 
and to a million to the forty, brush burning should cost nothing if 
properly handled. By this I mean, that, if as soon as the trees are 
felled, the brush is piled and burned, the extra amount of logs that 
the teams will skid on cleared ground will ofifset the cost of brush 
disposal. This may be considered one extreme. 




A Progressive Lumbering Operation 

The fire risk is reduced by the disposal of the debris. Brush is piled, ready for 

burning. Clear cutting of very heavy stand of spruce. 

Deerlodge National Forest, Montana. 




Pi***--"-' 



■yl^Mi^k^ 



Selection Cutting of Lodgepole Pine, Deerlodge National Forest, Montana 

Only marked trees are allowed to be cut, brush must be piled and burned later. 

Sufficient trees remain to ensure a next crop. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 153- 

" If you have a bunch of scattered pine timber situated in a. 
growth of poplar and aspen, where the felling of a pine will bring 
down a dozen or so aspen with it, and where it is necessary to cut & 
skid road through birch and aspen to get to the tree, the cost of piling 
and burning will come close to seventy-five cents. This is assuming 
that you would do as we do here, make them burn all of the brush 
cut out of the skid roads and all of the aspen knocked down by the 
'pine. We have had instances where there was more brush to be 
burned on the skid road and more knocked down aspen and birch than 
there was to be burned on the pine tree they were after. This is the 
other extreme. 

" We figure an average of from eighteen to twenty-five cents for 
piling and burning. If piled and burned later, it will cost from, 
twenty to forty cents for piling and from five to ten cents for burn- 
ing, but this is the most costly method and not used here at all. Assum- 
ing that you intend to have the brush piled, it is just as easy to take 
ten minutes in the morning and start a small fire of dry wood and pile 
the brush on. After the fire is once started, you need do no more 
than pile, except that, instead of piling it on bare ground or snow,, 
you pile it on the fire and, in this way, brush that would make two 
or three piles is burned in one fire, and time is saved in carrying the- 
brush. After the first one is made, other fires may be started easily 
by using a square-nosed, long-handled shovel and carrying some coals 
to the point where the next fire is to be started. It is very difficult 
to make a pile of brush that will burn clean without repiling but by 
burning as you pile, everything is cleaned up. 

" Another thing to be taken into consideration is that, if you 
are working in a country where there is considerable reproduction, 
the number of ash piles will be greatly reduced, in fact, from figures 
we have made here, the area burned over will be only about one- 
fourth of what it would be if piled and burned later. If brush cannot 
be piled and burned as soon as it is made, I would just as soon not 
require piling for, if piled in the winter, the snow drifts in and the 
pile will be the last thing to dry out in the spring. If left unpiled, 
just as soon as the spring thaw comes, a crew can go in and pile 
and burn it at one operation before there is any danger of fire 
spreading. 

"While in District No. 1, figures were taken from this forest 
on brush burning to be used in the west, and I found that at the vari- 
ous supervisors' meetings which I attended, a great deal of the opposi- 
tion to brush burning was from the supervisors themselves. I will' 
admit that to get general brush burning under way was some job,, 
but now that we have been burning for nine years, the lumbermen 
think nothing of it and it is considered as much a part of a logging 
operation as the cutting of the logs themselves. Employment offices 
around here advertise for brush burners iust the same as they do for 
swampers and sawyers. We were told when we first attempted brush- 
burning that it would cost $2.00 per thousand. Others said that green 
brush could not be burned in the winter at all. To date, we have cut 
about six hundred million and the brush has all been burned. This-. 



154 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

winter we have cut nearly fifty million and the brush will all be cleaned 
up within two weeks, and for the last month we have had nearly three 
feet of snow." 

Generally, we feel that burning should not be attempted on an 
extensive scale in less than six inches of snow. It can be done with 
safety, however, on a small scale after rains and on damp days. 

The cost of brush disposal naturally varies very -much with the 
timber and ground conditions. Twenty-five cents per thousand should 
cover scattering in western yellow pine stands, unless the timber is 
unusually limby. The cost of scattering properly in spruce should 
rarely exceed 40 cents per thousand, and piling can be properly done 
in the lodgepole type for 30 to 45 cents per thousand, depending on 
the quality and density of the timber, and these piles can later be 
burned for three to ten cents per thousand, if weather conditions are 
just right. If the snow is too deep, however, or the piling has been 
poor, the cost of burning can go as high as 20 cents per thousand. 
These figures assume an average cost of $2.50 per day and meals for 
temporary labour and the cost of at least one forest officer at an 
average of $1,100 per annum, supervising the work. Aside from the 
piling and burning costs there appear to be no additional costs to 
operators from this source, and in many cases I believe skidding is 
facilitated by piling and burning, and the cost thereof lowered a few 
cents per thousand, offsetting a portion of the direct brush disposal 
cost. Following are figures on burning cost furnished from the 
Medicine Bow forest: 

Average depth of snow, 6 inches. 

Acreage burned 514 

Average cut per acre 5,000 

Average piles burned per man per day 451 

Brush had been piled one year. 
" Tepee " and low, flat piles. 

COSTS 

Oil and matches $4 05 

Teaming 9 00 

Temporary labour at $2.50 72 00 

Forest officers' time 56 39 

$141 44 

Cost per acre $0,275 

Cost per thousand cut 0.0542 

The costs of burning with a large crew in the Bighorn forest in 
the season of 1911, were as follows: 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 155 

COSTS, SEASON 191 1 

Wages of temporary labourers $534 00 

Wages of Forest Service employees 141 86 

Meals furnished temporary labourers 137 53 

81 gallons oil, at 25 cents per gallon 20 25 

Freight on 81 gallons oil 7 29 

Supplies purchased from Bighorn Timber Co 9 05 

Two lb. wicking at 35 cents per lb 70 

Freight on food supplies ( Dayton- Woodrock) .... 27 40 

Total cost $878 08 

Area burned over, acres 4,236 

Total amount timber removed from above area, ft. B.M. . . 24,532,875 
Amount of timber removed per acre burned over, ft. B.M, 5,791 

Cost per acre $0,207 

Cost per M. ft. B.M 0.0357 

When brush disposal was initiated, operators throughout this dis- 
trict were very much opposed to it, but now take it as a matter of 
course, and we have very few complaints from this source. One of 
our largest operators in the lodgepole type in Wyoming has com- 
plained on several occasions of the added responsibility thrown on 
the operator's shoulders from this source, and has asked that the 
Service take entire charge of brush disposal, carrying it out at such 
times as may seem best and meeting the costs from funds deposited by 
the operator for this purpose from time to time. This is an unusual 
case, however, and, where the burning is properly supervised by the 
operator, little trouble occurs. Shortly after piling and burning was 
initiated we had some trouble with operators because of their lax 
supervision of this phase of the operations, and, because of a general 
inclination on their part to consider brush disposal impracticable, they 
make no effort to carry it out properly. When an honest effort is 
made to secure efficiency in its disposal, operators secure results at 
very low cost and rarely, if ever, complain of this feature, particularly 
in view of the fact that our stumpage appraisals now consider brush 
disposal as a distinct item of operating costs and allow a rather liberal 
figure for it. 

The only compensating advantages I can think of which ensue 
to the operator through brush disposal, are the slight reduction in the 
fire hazard and, as previously mentioned, the slightly increased freedom 
in skidding operations. If a sufficient margin has been allowed for 
brush disposal in the stumpage appraisal, I think these two points can 
really be considered as distinctly advantageous to the operator. How- 



156 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

ever, if brush disposal has not been considered in the stumpage ap- 
praisal, they would, of course, not offset its cost. 

It is our behef that the piling and burning of brush undoubtedly 
reduces the fire hazard and certainly lessens damage to which timber 
is liable through ground fires. However, under certain conditions in 
this district, piling and burning is impracticable, owing to the nature of 
the stand or ground conditions. In our spruce-fir type, for instance, 
there is so much advance reproduction on the ground as a rule and 
such a large amount of dead timber and other inflammable debris, that 
piling and burning would hardly be practicable, unless we required the 
purchaser to pile this other material in addition to the brush resulting 
from his cutting operations, and, in many cases, this would prove so 
expensive as to make the requirement impracticable of enforcement. 
In the )'ellow pine type we rarely pile and burn because the stands 
are generally very open and the ground rather bare ; we have also felt 
that the slight addition to ground cover and soil moisture occasioned 
by scattering was very desirable from a standpoint of possible repro- 
duction, and that the risk of fire was negligible. I believe that it is 
very generally conceded in most portions of the west and in the Lake 
states, to-day, that brush disposal does lessen the fire hazard, although 
I do not know of any tests having been recorded on this subject or any 
reports showing the comparative intensity of fires on cleared and 
uncleared cut-over land. 

The effect of brush disposal on reproduction seems to be dependent 
on a number of factors, the most important of which are the weight 
of cutting in the stand, the tree species, and soil conditions. In our 
lodgepole type, brush burning is undoubtedly conducive to reproduc- 
tion, and investigators of this office have reported that reproduction 
following the scattering of brush in the lodgepole type in Wyoming 
was very unsatisfactory in comparison with that following piling 
and burning. Based on cutting areas examined in the past several 
years and the general knowledge of conditions in the lodgepole type, 
it is my opinion that scattering would not give good reproduction in 
this type if applied as a general rule. I believe that piling and burn- 
ing in the spruce-fir type might possibly result in better reproduc- 
tion, but, as explained above, it is impracticable owing to the character 
of the stand usually encountered. Where the cutting in this type is 
rather hea\^^ and the scattering is carried out with the idea of assist- 
ing reproduction as much as possible, I think we will obtain very fair 
results. In our open yellow pine stands, scattering is undoubtedly 
more favourable to reproduction than piling and burning. The great- 
est difficulty we encounter in sscuring reproduction in such stands is 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 157 

■the occurrence of grass and weeds and the dryness of the soil, and I 
feel that any method which assists in killing the grass or weed cover 
is more conducive to reproduction than a system which would not 

•destroy this cover on portions of the area. I am sorry to state that 
we have as yet no information on file in this office as to the effect 

■of brush disposal on reproduction in timber types found in the Lake 

■states. 

Brush disposal is now so firmly established in the sale policy of 
the Service that I can foresee no radical change in the near future. 
Changes may be made from time to time in the exact methods of dis- 
posal, either from silvicultural or administrative standpoints, but I 
do not believe the general principles we have been following will 
be relinquished. 

STATE WORK IN BRUSH DISPOSAL— MINNESOTA* 

By W. T. Cox, Minnesota State Forester 

The control of fires and the handling of slash has been the body of 

•the work of the Minnesota State Forest Service since its organization. 
A large number of people are vitally interested in the disposition of the 
logging slash, either because they have such to dispose of or are dan- 
gerously menaced by its existence. Since the slash disposal laws have 
been in effect, it has been the custom of many of the logging companies 
to leave the slash scattered and strewn all over the logged ground, and 
then make a grand clean-up in the spring with a general fire. This 

■system has not worked out satisfactorily, not only because of the 
destruction of the remaining timber and reproduction, but because of 

the damage of resulting fires that escape control. 

A study of the situation for the last few years has revealed a few 
new facts. Statistics show that 16.5 per cent of the total fires during 
the last year were fires escaping from slash burners, and that these fires 

•caused 16 per cent of the total damage done. 

All kinds of slash do not burn the same, nor does any one kind burn 
the same under different conditions. Green slash of pure cedar and 
spruce, for instance, is hard to burn, but, if a fire is started and the 
green slash piled on, it burns well. Pine slash burns well either in 
winter or summer. Where the timber is dense and the slash consider- 
able, the expense of burning at the time of logging is very nearly 

'balanced or may even be more than ofifset by the increased convenience 
in skidding. Actual operations have shown that where timber is heavy 



* Extracts reprinted from Fourth Annual Report of State Forester of Minne- 
sota, for the year ending July 31, 1914, pp. 36-40. 



158 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

(150 M per "40 " or greater), slash will be so dense that considerable 
piling will be necessary before skidding can be done, and under these 
circumstances it would be much cheaper to burn at the time of cutting 
than to wait until spring. Figures from further operations also show 
that 25 cents is a fair average cost for burning of slash at time of 
logging, to say nothing of the increased benefit to skidding and to the 
operation as a whole. 

In summarizing conditions generally, the policy has been adopted 
to enforce winter burning, or very early spring burning wherever 
wnnter burning would entail unreasonable expense. 

Below are general instructions for disposing of various kinds of 
slash under different conditions : 

Cedar, and to a certain extent, Tamarack 

/. Isolated or very small tracts. 

Pile and burn in winter or early spring, a strip at least 150 feet wide 
along roads or any dangerous points. Pile and burn any slash that 
falls from the cedar swamp on to high land. 

//. Larger tracts. 

W^here there is much small cedar or other timber remaining, pile 
slash well in at least a 150-foot strip around slashing, and burn strip in 
early spring. 

///. Upland Cedar and Hardzvoods. 

On good agricultural soil with very little or no valuable timber 
remaining, fire line as in No. II, or let burn hard with general fire, but 
in early spring only. 

IV. Summer cutting of Cedar. 

When it can safely be done, pile and burn a fire line along roads,. 
rights-of-way, and settlements as cutting proceeds. Otherwise, slash 
to be disposed of as per Nos. I, II and III when dry season is over. 

Spruce and Balsam 
/. Upland type. 

Where spruce alone is cut and the stand is mixed with pine or hard- 
woods, burn the slash as logging proceeds. 

//. Szvamp type. 

Where 40 to 50 per cent of the number of trees remain standing, 
fire-line a strip at least 150 feet wide around entire slashing by burning 
slash in winter or early spring. If clean cut, pile slash in windrows 
and burn in early spring. 

///. Any Spruce or Balsam. 

Where most of spruce or balsam is cut out, but where there is con- 
siderable timber remaining that may be valuable in the future, pile 
slash in windrows as logging proceeds and burn in early spring. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 159 

Pine 
/. Very scattering. 

Burn a 150-foot strip as logging proceeds, or pile and burn in very 
early spring all dangerous slash, old and new, along rights-of-way, 
standing timber, roads and farmsteads. No late spring burning. This 
would apply to land with pine alone or where pine is in mixture with 
other timber. 

//. Scattering to 150 M per " J^O." 

Burn slash in winter over entire area as logging proceeds, or pile, 
as logging proceeds, all slash either old or new in a 150-foot strip 
around entire cutting and burn the slash on this strip either in winter 
or early spring. 

///. 150 M per " IfO " and heavier. 
Burn all slash as logging proceeds. 

IV . Summer logging. 

Burn all slash as logging proceeds, except during dangerous periods,. 
when slash should be piled for burning at first safe time. 

V. On strictly non-agricultural land. 

If dense (150 M or more to the "40"), winter burn all slash. 
In lighter stands, winter burn or pile all slash in 150-foot strip or 
greater, fire line around entire area and along all roads, rights-of-way 
and standing timber, and burn piled strips in early spring. No late 
burning. 

VI. Steam skidding. 

Clean burn winter cutting in early spring. For summer logging, 
burn settings as safe conditions will permit, or keep a fire-line around 
slashing as cutting proceeds. 

VII. Homesteaders, settlers, wood cutters and small jack pine opera- 

tors. 
Early spring -burn scattered slash, or fire line as provided for other 
slash. 

(Wherever the term " early spring " is used, it is meant immediately 
after the snow has gone and while the frost is yet in the ground. At 
this time the surface is moist enough so that fires will not run in the 
woods.) 

NATIONAL FORESTS IN WASHINGTON AND OREGON V 

Following is a statement of the developments in brush disposal,, 
during the past year, in National forests in Washington and Oregon. 
This statement was prepared by the District Forester, District No. 6,. 
U. S. Forest Service. 

The slash on two of our National forest timber sales in Oregon was 
burned broadcast last autumn (1913), and the fire menace on these two 
cut-over areas was thereby considerably reduced. On one of these 



160 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

areas, consisting of 120 acres, the cost of burning the slash was 43c. per 
acre, or, when figured in terms of the amount of timber taken from the 
area, $0.0034 per thousand board feet. 

We have experienced very little difficulty in securing the consent 
of purchasers of National forest timber to the brush disposal require- 
ments in the sale contracts. Practically the only point to which they 
object is the cutting of snags on the sale area, and this requirement is 
usually confined to only three snags per acre in addition to the snags 
which must be cut in the construction of fire-lines. I believe that almost 
all the present purchasers of National forest timber in this district 
fully appreciate the importance of the proper disposal of brush. In 
one of our yellow pine sales in southern Oregon, where big wheels are 
used in the logging, comparatively wide roads must be cleared through 
the forest, so that a good deal of the brush is piled in advance or at the 
time of the felling operations. 

A suggestion has recently been made that slash burning on Douglas 
fir sales, where all of the merchantable timber is cut and removed, 
should be confined to only one burn. The idea set forth is that the 
seed which has fallen from the trees in the past few years is present 
in the duff and humus and, after the forest cover is removed and light 
is admitted to the ground, this seed germinates. A single burning is 
supposed not to be so severe as to destroy this seed, but a second or 
numerous subsequent burnings would probably completely destroy it. 
If this idea is true, and we are now trying to corroborate it, it might 
be advisable to burn over such areas only once. 

At the bottom of page 53 of Forest Protection in Canada, 1912, an 
error was made in stating that the Oregon forestry law requires that slash- 
ings shall be burned between June 1st and October 1st. The law prescribes 
that it is unlawful to burn slashings between June 1st and October 1st 
without first obtaining a burning permit from a state fire warden. No 
restriction whatever is placed on slash burning during the other eight 
months of the year. — C. L. 

STATE WORK IN BRUSH DISPOSAL— WASHINGTON 

The following is quoted from a statement by E. W. Ferris, State 
Forester of Washington : 

The disposal of slash is one of the important problems of forest 
protective organizations. In this state we have three forest protective 
organizations working in co-operation. They are the State Forest Fire 
Service, the Washington Forest Fire Association, and the U. S. Forest 
Service. 

In the forest protection laws of this state, consideration is given to 
the importance of slash burning, and provision is made that permission 
for burning shall be given only upon compliance with such rules and 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 161 

regulations as the Board of Forest Commissioners shall prescribe, 
which shall be only such as the board deems necessary for the protec- 
tion of life and property. 

In considering methods of slash disposal in the past, the element of 
cost has figured largely, and the method of slash disposal has been to 
fire the cut-over areas when weather conditions were favourable. 

On account of the abundant rainfall, the burning season is limited, 
especially west of the Cascade mountains, where the heaviest bodies of 
timber are situated. 

Spring and autumn burnings are advocated. While spring burning 
is not as thorough as it is later in the season, the areas burned over 
reduce the amount of inflammable material and lessen the fire risk, if 
precaution be taken to extinguish the smouldering fires that result from 
such burning. 

With such large areas of timber lands being cut-over each year in 
the state of Washington, the fire hazard has been on the increase. And 
with the season for successful burning on an extensive scale limited to 
the dry season, every effort must be made to burn slashings whenever 
it is possible and safe to do so. 

Every slashing successfully burned over reduces the fire hazard, and 
the burned-over area acts as baclcfire guards that will prevent the 
spread of other fires that may occur. 

The lumber operators are learning that it pays to systematically 
burn over their holdings after the merchantable timber has been 
removed. They realize that the element of fire risk is very great during 
the dry season, not only from their own operations but from cut-over 
lands of other operators which have been left unbumed, and they are 
earnestly considering forest fire protection. 

The additional cost of burning is insignificant when compared with 
the results gained by the reduced hazard to property from accidental 
fires. 

Logging operators and millmen are realizing the importance of 
burning more and more each year and are making the burning over of 
their logged-ofif lands a systematic part of their operations. This has 
been brought about by the earnest and constant advocating of such 
burning by the State Forester and Fire Warden of this State, and by 
the Chief Fire Warden of the Washington Forest Fire Association, as 
well as by the experience gained from personal loss by forest fire, in 
equipment, saw-logs and standing timber. 

In regard to the eflfect of brush disposal on forest reproduction, it 
has been observed that the areas burned of brush, etc., reproduce the 
better species of original forest growth ; where unburned, the inferior 
species reproduce. 

11— C.C. 



162 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

The lessened fire risk must be given consideration in the reforesta- 
tion of logged-off lands. Repeated burnings are disastrous to the life 
of the soil. 

In the important work of slash burning, important because it reduces 
the fire hazard, we endeavour to co-operate with those who have slash- 
ings or logged-ofif lands to burn over. The State Forest Fire Serv^ice 
and Washington Forest Fire Association work in co-operation in this 
matter through the efforts of the fire wardens and forest rangers. Our 
methods of slash burning are the same. The forest rangers in the 
employ of the association receive their commissions from the State 
Forester and Fire Warden, which gives them authority to issue burning 
permits and make arrests for violations of the forest protection laws. 

THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 

The Northern Forest Protective Association is composed of timber 
land owners in the northern peninsula of Michigan. 

Thos. B. Wyman, Secretary-Forester of this association, writes as 
follows : 

" In relation to brush disposal in this peninsula, permit me to say 
that the Northern Forest Protective Association is advocating con- 
tinuously the disposal of brush as the most rational fire preventive 
measure, and we are meeting with some slight success in stirring up 
a feeling along this line. Several of the large companies are under- 
taking to burn their slash, and we are furnishing patrolmen for them 
as a means of greater safety. 

" Occasionally fires get started in cut-over lands, and, instead of 
making a huge effort to put them out, we prefer rather to simply control 
them and permit of the burning of as great an acreage as is consistent 
with safety. I am expecting to see a large area burned over during the 
coming season." 

TOP-LOPPING IN THE ADIRONDACKS 

The top-lopping situation in the Adirondacks was very fully dis- 
cussed in the 1912 report. The present situation is explained in the 
following statement, by C. R. Pettis, Superintendent of State Forests, 
state of New York : 

"The only question of brush disposal which we have considered 
in this state is the lopping of evergreen branches. The law, which we 
proposed as a result of the investigation last winter, was enacted. It 
provides that all limbs and branches down to three inches in 
diameter shall be cut off at the time of cutting of evergreen trees. The 
present statute prescribes a penalty for failure to do so. The lumber- 
men are co-operating in this matter and we are having no trouble in 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 163 

enforcing the provision. The additional cost amounts to approximately 
25c. per M. feet, but there are certain offsets; for example, they are 
securing material which in some cases before was wasted, and some 
operators claim that it reduces the cost of skidding. I do not think that 
top-lopping seriously interferes with reproduction, and the experience 
has been that the fire danger is, perhaps, increased the first year or two ; 
but, on the other hand, should a fire start, they are able to build a fire 
line quicker and easier, and that, on the whole, there is not any material 
disadvantage, even during the first year or two. 

" The tendency in softwood operations is, so far as possible, to get 
away from river-driving and to adopt shipping by rail instead. This 
has led to bark peeling, and there are large areas in the Adirondacks 
where spruce is now being peeled in the woods. I think that this is a 
very serious situation, as the bark does not decay for years, and should 
a fire occur it would afford excellent fuel. The law charges us with 
protection of various areas from fire and, of course, v/e cannot accom- 
plish what the law or people expect unless certain precautions are 
taken." 

THE ENTOMOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SLASH DISPOSAL* 

By Ralph Hopping 

There is one protection factor in slash disposal that Mr. Koch, m 
his article, "The Economic Aspect of Slash Disposal," in the July,. 
1914, number of the Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters,. 
fails to consider. This is the danger of an insect infestation resulting 
from the breeding of large numbers of destructive bark borers in the 
unburned refuse from timber sales, such as cull logs, tops, and limbs. 

That the danger from slash left on the ground should be considered' 
from all sides of the question is obvious, and that the danger from 
insects is not negligible is recognized by foresters the world over. 
While in France, Austria, and Germany the very small limbs may not 
always be piled and burned, the utilization of all tops and limbs is so- 
thorough as to practically eliminate this danger. The very small 
branches and twigs do not breed any very dangerous species. In 
America, however, the absence of settlers and distance from market 
precludes this thorough utilization. Logs are seldom used under ten- 
feet in length and limbs not at all, except in cases where they are used 
for fuel in logging engines, or in the rare instances where cordwood 
sales are possible. 



* Reprinted from Proceedings of the Society of American Foreste\rs, Vol. X» 
No. 2, pp. 183-185. 



164 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Mr. Koch and Mr. Mitchell* have very ably considered the cost 
and necessity of slash disposal from a fire-protection standpoint. That 
the protection of our forests from insects is probably of as great 
importance is beginning to be recognized by foresters in the United 
States and Canada. I will cite one instance of damage from insects, 
resulting from unavoidable slash, as an illustration of the importance 
of this phase of the question in America. 

During the winter of 1912-1913, the southern part of the Sierra 
Nevada mountains, extending from the Merced river on the north to 
Kings river on the south, was visited by a storm which caused a large 
amount of snowbreak, especially in the pole and sapling stands. This 
slash bred a bark borer {Ips confusus), which is very destructive to 
young growth of western yellow pine and the tops of mature trees of 
the same species. The bettles increased in this slash to such an extent 
that, in the spring and summer of 1914, groups of 75 and 100 dying trees 
were not uncommon. Strenuous efforts have been made to check this 
epidemic in some of the more important commercial stands, at a cost 
of approximately $5,000. What the ultimate cost will be it is impos- 
sible to estimate at the present writing. This was a natural cause, and 
only serves to illustrate the immense damage resulting from fresh 
material which is not promptly burned, or at least before the broods 
escape to near-by standing timber. 

Settlers and commercial activities in our wooded areas, especially 
in the western United States, have added another cause for epidemics 
of insects in our forests. Visitors and residents in these sections are 
continually reporting the increase of dying timber due to this cause. 
Prof. E. P. Stebbing,! a well-known English forester, says : 

" Experience has shown that in countries where very large tracts 
are covered with a single species of conifer, such, e.g., as is the case 
in America and to a lesser extent perhaps in India, uncontrolled fellings 
have resulted in the most disastrous infestations of bark-boring beetle 
pests." 

Unburned slash constitutes " uncontrolled fellings." I do not mean 
to state, nor does Professor Stebbing, that all uncontrolled fellings 
start epidemics, but that many of them do, and that the damage and 
consequent loss is so large that it will greatly exceed any expenditures 
for slash disposal. Certain investigations in CaHfornia have proved 
that the annual loss of timber from the depredations of forest insects 
has increased from year to year. If only natural causes, such as snow- 
break, windbreak, and climatic conditions, were responsible, the loss 



*Proceedings of the Society of American Foresteis, Vol. VIII, No. 3, 1913. 
^Indian Forest Memoirs, by E. P. Stebbing, Vol. Ill, Pt. 1, page 1, 1911. 



FOREST FIRES AND BRUSH DISPOSAL 165 

would probably not exceed that in the past. This loss, however, has 
been augmented by freshly cut, unburned material. 

It has been the general policy on the National forests and on some 
private holdings to burn all slash, but this slash has not always been 
burned at the right time. In order to prevent the insect broods which 
destroy standing timber from escaping, the slash must be burned before 
the brood escaped. Where these broods have escaped from public and 
private operations resulting in slash, small epidemics have started 
wherever the conditions were favourable. An instance of this is the Cox 
timber sale on the Plumas National Forest, where an epidemic, started 
from the cull logs and slash, killed a large percentage of the standing 
timber on the hillside above the mill the following year. 

An epidemic has just appeared in the eastern Lassen National forest, 
along the right-of-way for the Fernley and Lassen branch of the 
Southern Pacific , railway. This started in the logs and slash felled in 
clearing for construction. Unless controlled, these epidemics increase 
from year to year and are often augmented by broods from other 
freshly cut material. 

The infesting species is often different, due to different species of 
trees or parts of trees. Thus a cull log or top of yellow pine (Pinus 
ponderosa) breeds the western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis) , 
the most destructive beetle to yellow pine on the Pacific coast. Tops 
and limbs breed another very destructive species, an engraver beetle 
(Ips confusus), killing tops of trees and young growth. No matter 
what the species of tree the slash resulted from, that slash breeds under 
ordinary circumstances the insect or insects destructive to standing 
timber. The annual loss from this cause alone far exceeds any cost 
incurred from the burning of the slash at the proper time. Therefore, 
the consideration of the burning or non-burning of brush must be taken 
up from a broad protection standpoint and not from the standpoint of 
fire risk or cost alone. 



PART IV 

The Effect of Repeated Forest Fires upon the Re- 
production of Commercial Species in Peter- 
borough County, Ontario 

BY 

C. D. Howe. Ph.D. 



OBJECT OF THE WORK AND THE CONCLUSIONS IN BRIEF 

URING the summer of 1912, while engaged in a survey of the 
forest conditions of the Trent watershed, Ontario, the writer 
attempted to secure an insight into the amount of damage occasioned 
by forest fires. The result of this incidental, and somewhat super- 
ficial, work, presented in the report* of the Commission of Con- 
servation, was such as to make a closer and more detailed investigation 
of a smaller area appear desirable The writer was, therefore, 
engaged by the Commission to make such an investigation. 

At the outset, it may be stated that the general results obtained m 
1912 have been fully substantiated by the detail work carried on in 
1913. While, in 1912, the total loss, as the result of repeated fires, was 
figured at over $12,000,000 on a territory of 620,000 acres, or prac- 
tically $20 per acre, the loss on the 85,000 acres more closely investi- 
gated during the following year could be estimated at around $3,000,- 
000, or $35 per acre — a loss that could have been prevented, to a 
large extent, by more effective fire protection. 

A more detailed statement of the conditions on the Burleigh- 
iSIethuen area, investigated in 1913, shows that- the areas burned only 
once now have 110 young pine trees on the average acre; the areas 
burned twice, 14; areas burned three times, seven trees, and those 
burned many times, three pine trees per acre. (See p. 190). 

Assuming that the areas burned twice had been burned only once, 
and that they had been restocked with pine by natural processes at the 



*Trciit Watershed Survey. Commission of Conservation, Canada, Ottawa, 
1913. 

166 



eowwiasiOM or conservatiow 




Legend 






liiwnfd thrt-r ttnt*'n 



Buruni matt v tun*- 



CuUt'd htwdtrooiis 



Mixed hoftltvoods] 
aful soH'M'ooJa- \ 



F'un-filetl .twafiifts 


\-c-/^ 


i>/a/vA*-v 


L*.*.*J'i 






(iaio hftrrt^nx 


\m;M 


Clfarfd land' 


— 


yat f^anutwfl 


1 1 



Ammpanyi,^ n^parl In r I) How,- on Ke-prodtKtu, 



FOREST FIRES IN BURLEIGH AND METHUEN TPS., PETERBOROUGH CO., ONT. 

, ^^^ Scale of milu 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



167 



same rate as the areas burned once, then it will be seen that the second 
burning reduced the then existing potential stumpage and dues values 
of the pine by more than $1,500,000. 

Under like assumptions, we find the financial loss on the much 
smaller total area burned three times to be $646,000, and that on the 
areas burned many times to be $891,000. Thus, as already stated, the 
repeated fires represent a loss already incurred, in previously existmg 
potential values of pine, of approximately $3,000,000 (see p. 199). 

The greater portion of the poplar on the area is less than 25 years 
old, consequently the amount of material now suitable for pulpwood 
is very small, being one cord per acre on the area burned once ; one- 
fifth cord per acre on the area burned twice; one-eighteenth cord per 
acre on the area burned three times, and only one- forty-fifth cord per 
acre on the area burned many times (see p. 190). 

According to the calculations given in table, p. 200, it is estimated 
that the area burned once will yield nine cords of pulpwood per acre 
in 30 years from the present date; the area burned twice five cords per 
acre; those burned three times 2.5 cords per acre, and the area burned 
many times will yield less than one-third cord per acre at the end of 
the next 30 years. The repeated fires have therefore occasioned a loss 
of nearly $200,000 in pulpwood. 

Notwithstanding the tremendous loss already incurred, however, 
the investigation shows that the potential stumpage value of the 
remaining stock of pine is $1,563,540, and the potential value of the 
dues $446,718, or a total of over $2,000,000 potential value of existmg 
pine (see p. 199). The potential value of the existing stand of poplar 
is $265,325 (see p. 200). Thus, with proper methods for the preven- 
tion of further fire damage, the existing young growth of pine and 
poplar is capable of producing a future value of more than $2,275,000. 
That it is worth while to make this saving should scarcely need 

argument. 

The rate of occurrence of forest fires on the area under considera- 
tion has increased 300 per cent in the past eight years. More efficient 
fire protection is recommended. It is shown that the cost of adequate 
protection for the next 50 years would be less than $5 per acre, while 
the value of the crop at that time would be $33 per acre, a saving 
that would certainly justify the cost of protection (see p. 204). 

The report concludes with the recommendation that the cut-over 
and burned-over lands in the region under discussion be turned over 
to the county of Peterborough under the Counties Reforestation Act, 
unless the wiser or the more practicable plan be adopted, viz., placing 
these areas under the administration of the Dominion Government. 
This latter action would be fully justified by the importance of the 



168 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

area in question, as a portion of the watershed of the Trent canal, 
which is an enterprise of the Dominion Government. 

An incidental advantage attaching to transfer to the Dominion Gov- 
ernment, with administration by the Forestry Branch, Department of the 
Interior, would be the probable establishment of a forest experiment 
station. Such action would have for its object the securing of infor- 
mation calculated to furnish a solid scientific basis for the silvicultural 
handling of existing forests, as well as for the establishment of new 
forests, in order to secure the most economic use of the timber and 
forest products. A more exact knowledge of the indirect benefits of 
the forest, such as the influence of forest cover upon stream-flow, 
might result from the establishment of a forest experiment station. 
There is great need for the prosecution of such investigations, under 
Canadian conditions. 

INTRODUCTION 

That trees of relatively inferior value, such as birch and poplar, 
follow fires on areas previously occupied by pine, is a matter of com- 
mon observation, but the amount of this material and its potential 
value are not so well known. It is also well known that repeated fires 
on former pine lands greatly retard, or completely exclude, the re-estab- 
lishment of pine trees thereon, but the rate of this retardation in 
relation to the number of fires is not so well known. The financial 
losses involved in the replacement of valuable pine destroyed by 
fires, by the less valuable poplar, have been estimated in certain cases, 
but these estimates have been based upon relatively few actual 
measurements. 

Three aspects of the problem of the burned pineries present them- 
selves for solution, namely: (1) An estimate of the amount of young 
pine and poplar now present in relation to the number of times the 
area has been burned; (2) an inquiry as to whether the amount of the 
pine and poplar restocking the burned areas has sufficient present or 
potential value to justify care and protection; (3) an estimate of the 
financial losses, if any, incurred by allowing fires to replace pine 
forests with poplar or other inferior forests. 

The area examined in 1913, and covered by this re- 
Area Under p^j-j. comprises some 85,000 acres, and includes all of 
Investigation ^, ' f. . ,, , , , ' 

the township of Methuen and that portion of the town- 
ship of Burleigh which lies east of Eels brook, both being situated in 
the county of Peterborough, Ont. The region was selected because 
it contains, in a relatively compact space, considerable areas which 
have been burned once, twice, thrice and many times. 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 169 

The work was carried on for three and one-half months by the 
writer and two student assistants, Messrs. J. D. Aiken and Miles Bur- 
ford, of the Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, whose efficient 
co-operation made possible the gathering and the organization of the 
data for the report. 

The original plan was to run parallel compass lines one-half mile 
apart through the burns of various ages, and to measure all of the 
trees one inch and more in diameter. This plan was adhered to for 
the first month, when it was found that the composition of the various 
types was so constant that the running of the lines so near together 
appeared to be unnecessary. None of the lines, however, were more 
than a mile apart. At least one line was run through each type in its 
longest direction and the trees were counted and measured with 
calipers. Then paced reconnaissance lines were run parallel or per- 
pendicular to the calipered lines and in this way the boundaries of the 
various types were determined. The strips, a chain (66 feet) wide, 
on which the trees were actually counted and measured, aggregated 
nearly 25 miles, while the reconnaissance lines aggregated over 80 

miles. 

In the field work, the following types were found 
cfassification within the burns of various ages, and separately 
tallied: (1) Low amphiboHte ridges; (2) low granite 
ridges; (3) low limestone ridges; (4) sand ridges; (5) depressions 
between ridges; and (6) sand plains. Upon compilation of the results, 
however, it was found that, while there were interesting differences 
botanically, there were not differences enough as regards the amount 
of second growth pine and poplar to justify such classification. Hence, 
the differences due to topography, soil, and attendant conditions have 
been neglected, and the areas have been classified alone according to 
the number of times burned. 

In the field work, also, an area burned a certain number of times 
was sub-divided into several smaller areas, according to the amount of 
pine and poplar reproduction per acre, but, in the final tabulation, it 
seemed best for the purposes of this report, to group these areas and 
to strike the average in terms of the young pine and poplar for the 
entire area burned a stated number of times. 

The number of times an area had been burned was determined in 
two ways: (1) By the age of the stands of poplar, and (2) by the 
number and age of the fire scars on the old trees. For example, it 
would be found that the great majority of the young trees on a certain 
area fell into three age classes, of 8, 16, and 25 years. In addition, the 
poplars 25 years old would show that they had been burned at the 
base 8 and 16 years ago, while the poplars 16 years old would have 



170 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

iire scars eight years old. By counting the annual rings of the wood 
covering the fire scars on the few mature trees still standing, it would 
be found that they had been severely injured by fire approximately 8, 
16 and 25 years ago. Therefore, the area would be classed as having 
been burned three times. Severe fires usually burn off the brush and 
duff down to the mineral soil. These areas form ideal germinating 
beds for poplar, which requires plenty of light, and whose seeds are 
easily and widely distributed and germinate quickly. The poplar grows 
rapidly for the first few years, and the young seedlings soon cover the 
ground. The seedlings from the seed crops of the few succeeding 
years are too much shaded to compete successfully with those already 
on the ground. The result is a pure or a nearly pure stand of even- 
aged trees. Fire is practically the only agent that can make the proper 
conditions for the development of such stands. Clean cutting without 
the usual subsequent fire might bring about pure stands in restricted 
patches, but, taking the area as a whole, it would be found that the 
poplar would not come among the brush piles until they decayed. 
The result would be " patchy " stands of different ages. In any case, 
the presence or absence of fire scars on the escaped mature trees would 
furnish the necessary corroborative ^evidence that we are dealing with 
burned areas. 

One is, then, not dependent upon hearsay or tradition in determin- 
ing the number of times an area has been severely burned. Every 
severe fire leaves its record burned into the trees not actually killed, 
and stamps its impress upon the succeeding generation of trees. 

yr The designation number of times burned, in these dis- 

Smaller cussions and on the accompanying map, means that 

^^^^^ the greater portion of the area so designated has been 

severely burned the number of times indicated ; that is, burned suffi- 
ciently to scar the standing trees and to kill off portions of the young 
growth periodically, so that stands of different age classes have resulted 
where more than once burned. It will be seen that this method of 
designation takes no account of the ground fires, which did not develop 
sufficient heat to burn into the wood of the trees or to kill the young 
trees in large quantities. Fires of this kind are frequent in the dry 
periods of the last week of April and the first week of May, when the 
leafage is not sufficiently developed to feed the flames and when only 
the upper layer of the vegetable debris on the ground is dry enough to 
burn. It is evident that fires of this kind are very destructive to the 
tender seedlings of pine and, on the other hand, that they stimulate 
the reproduction of birch and poplar, both because the fires make a 
■clean seed-bed and because the birch and poplar sprout vigorously. 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 171 

The preponderance of birch or poplar of the smaller diameter classes 
-on the areas burned once or twice, as indicated in the accompanying 
tables (see pp. 176-177, 180-181), is due to ground fires. 

PHYSIOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS 

The geology, topography, and soil conditions of the region in which 
the area under discussion hes were fully discussed in the report on the 
Trent Watershed Survey.* Only enough of the description will be 
repeated here to give the reader a general picture of the area now 
under consideration. 

The portion of Burleigh township examined includes the territory 
lying east of Eels brook, and is drained into Stony lake by that brook 
and by Jack creek. The central and eastern portions of Methuen town- 
ship drain through Kasshabog lake into North river, thence by the 
Crow river into Trent river. The waters in the north-western portion 
flow through Jack creek into Stony lake. The extreme south-eastern 
portion drains into Otter creek, a tributary of Deer river, whose 
waters also fall into the Trent through Crow river. 

fThe general elevation of the country is approximately 
Description 850 feet above sea level, and it has the appearance of 

•of Territory g. dissected plateau, sloping gently in a south-south- 
western direction. Between Eels brook, Jack creek and its tributary. 
Grassy brook, the underlying rock is mostly crystalline limestone, 
through which are frequent intrusions of granite, especially in the 
southern division of Burleigh. The topography, on the western side 
near Eels brook, is quite flat, but becomes more diversified and rougher 
eastward to the Blue mountains, in Methuen township. These moun- 
tains are the most conspicuous objects in the topography of the area, 
and they are situated almost in the centre of the region under discus- 
sion. They rise abruptly on all sides to about 300 feet above the 
general level and extend about four miles in a northeast and south- 
west direction. The crest of these mountains is a bare ridge of syenite 
rock, and the " foothills " consist of numerous ridges of sharply in- 
clined amphibolite or granitic ridges, with deep gullies between. The 
-amphibolite, in a strip about a mile wide, is continued north-eastward 
to the extreme northeast corner of the township. 

Eastward and southward from the Blue mountains, the country has 
"the appearance of a granite plain, into which innumerable gullies and 



*Trent Watershed Survey. Commission of Conservation, Ottawa, 1913. Pp. 
35-39; 75-76; 108-113. 

tThis description is summarized from Geological Survey Report, Memoir 
No. 6, Geology of the Haliburton and Bancroft Areas, Province of Ontario, by 
'Frank D. Adams and Alfred E. Barlow. 1910. 



172 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

ravines have been worn by ice and water action. The result is a 
topography of low rounded ridges and depressions. The monotony 
of this plain is relieved by a few granite hills, rising from 100 feet to 
150 feet above the general level. The highest of these hills lies half 
way between Clear lake and Bass lake. Another stands about a mile 
southeast of Sandy lake. Kasshabog lake, on the southern side, is 
hemmed in by a high granite ridge, which increases in elevation in 
going westward. The eastern and south-eastern margins of the granite 
outcrop are bordered by amphibolite rock, whose ridges are, for the 
most part, higher and sharper, and, as there are more of them, their 
topography is much rougher than that of the granitic areas. At Oak 
Lake and Van Sickle settlements there are two detached plateaus of 
sedimentary limestone of Trenton age. 

The depressions between the ridges are a very noticeable phase of 
the topography. They are abundant in both townships, but are more 
abundant in Methuen. At least one-quarter of the region is occupied 
by these depressions, and they vary from a few yards to a thousand 
yards across. Some of them may be traced continuously for several 
miles and are evidently former stream channels ; others are the bottoms 
of former small lakes and ponds. 

The soil on the crests of the ridges is very thin, and 
ftl^ 1'^.?^^°" often entirely lacking, although there are crevices and 

pockets on most of them with soil deep enough for 
scattered tree growth. In studying the conditions on these ridges, one 
cannot but be convinced that the soil was, at one time, much more gener- 
ally distributed and deeper than at present. One frequently finds 
stumps of trees from one foot to two feet in diameter on bare rock, 
in such a position that the roots could not have penetrated crevices. 
The trees could not have germinated and lived for many years on 
bare rock. Then, too, trees still standing on bare rock are held up by 
roots extending into crevices several feet from the base of the tree. 
There must have been soil at the base of the trees when they started 
in life. One needs only to note, after a heavy rain, the accumula- 
tions of soil washed down from above, to be impressed by the rapidity 
of the soil-erosion on these ridges. The soil-washing is the result of 
the repeated fires, which kill and loosen the natural retainers, the roots 
of the trees and shrubs, and the decaying vegetable matter. 

The soil on the lower slopes and about the bases of the granite 
ridges varies in composition from gravel to sand, not uniformly dis- 
tributed, but in alternate deep and shallow patches, owing to the minor 
undulations in the topography. The wider depressions between the 
ridges are often filled with sand to the depth of many feet, and there 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



173 



are also occasional sand ridges and sand plains. The soil on the 
amphiboHte is often deeper and is almost invariably of finer texture 
than on the granite, frequently approaching a loam in composition. 
The crystalHne-limestone soils are nearly all light sandy loams. While 
they are often very thin on the ridges and plains, as a whole, these 
areas are more deeply soil-covered than either the amphibolite or 
granite areas, because a larger percentage of the area is composed 
of broad, gentle slopes, where the soil accumulates, or where it has not 
been washed away as rapidly as on the steeper slopes of amphibolite 
and granite. 

The soils of the depressions between the ridges are formed by the 
accumulated washings from the slopes. Only the finer material reaches 
them, the coarser being left above. Mixed with the decaying portions 
of a rank vegetation these soils become a very rich muck, usually three 
to four feet, or more, deep. 

The only really good farm soils, with perhaps one or two excep- 
tions, are to be found on the sedimentary limestones, in the south- 
eastern portion of Methuen township. 

FOREST CONDITIONS 

The total land area of Methuen township is 63,152 acres, and the 
portion of Burleigh township covered by this survey is 23,181 acres. 
This makes a total of 86,333 acres, of which approximately 2,000 
acres have been cleared for farms. The remaining 84,333 acres are 
partially or completely under forest cover. Of the forested portion, 
15,000 acres are covered with mature forest. Seventy-seven per cent 
of this is the hardwood forest characteristic of the Trent Valley 
region, in composition approximately one-half being sugar maple and 
one-quarter beech, the remaining quarter consisting of basswood, yel- 
low birch, elm, hemlock, balsam, white ash, red oak, large-toothed 
aspen, white pine and cherry, in occurrence in the order named. The 
remaining 23 per cent of the mature forest is represented by swamps.* 
The swamps bearing mature forest are practically all of the mixed 
type. Several sample lines run through them reveal the trees to be 
mostly black ash, balsam, red maple and elm, these entering into the 
composition in the proportion of 30, 23, 15 and 6 per cent, respectively. 
There are relatively few swamps of the undrained peat bog type. 

The remaining forested portion, some 69,333 acres, was originally 
dominated by pine. It is evident that the red pine was the more 

*Only the larger swamp areas were mapped. Small swamps containing 
commercial trees, swamps covered with non-commercial trees and open 
marshes, compose at least one-quarter of the total area. Proper deductions 
are made for these in estimating the amount of material in the different 
types given below. 



174 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

abundant on the coarser granitic soils, while the white pine predom- 
inated on the deeper, finer-textured soils of the amphibolite and 
crystalline limestone. At present, single trees, or widely separated 
groves, constitute all the pine of commercial value. With the possible 
exception of the pine of the Blue mountain region, the cost of harvest- 
ing would be prohibitive. Fifty years ago lumbering operations were 
commenced on the area, and were continued for 25 years. Since these 
operations ceased, the area has been picked over twice, the last time 
three years ago. These former pine lands have all been burned at 
least once, and some of them eight times, since the lumbering was 
begun. It is the present condition on these burned pineries with which 
this report is chiefly concerned. 

AREAS SEVERELY BURNED ONCE 

So far as could be ascertained, there are no places in the former 
pineries, outside of the swamps, that have not been burned at least 
once since lumbering. The stands designated as burned once evidently 
followed a severe fire. Patches which escaped the fires in the areas 
burned more than once are included in this group, either because they 
were originally established after a fire, or because they were burned 
once since establishment, as revealed by a fire scar. 

The largest continuous area burned but once is found in the north- 
western corner of the township of Methuen. The best pine reproduc- 
tion on lowland is found in the southern portion of the area, where the 
average stand is 94 white pine and 35 red pine per acre; of these 16 
per cent of the white pine are from six inches to ten inches in diameter, 
while all of the red pine fall between the one-inch and six-inch 
diameter classes. The pine on the ridges is much less abundant, aver- 
aging only six trees per acre. 

In the south-eastern portion of Burleigh township the best repro- 
duction of pine was found, and it covers 365 acres, at the rate of 88 
white pine and 173 red pine per acre, and single acres containing 350 
trees could be picked out. On the average acre, 70 per cent of the 
trees belong to the one-inch and two-inch diameter classes, and the 
trees eight inches in diameter and above average only six to the acre. 
There is evidence that about 2,000 acres in this vicinity were once 
bearing young pine in similar quantities, but a fire about eight years 
ago cleared them off. 

The other areas in Burleigh classed as burned but once, namely, 
the rather narrow strip east of Eels brook, in the north division, and 
west and south of the hardwoods, have good pine reproduction. 
Patches in these areas were burned 35 years ago, and other patches 16 
years ago, but, as a whole, the areas were burned about 25 years ago. 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



175 



Patches, several acres in extent, containing 550 young pme from one 
inch to six inches in diameter, were frequently encountered, but the 
average is 125 white pine and 53 red pine per acre. In the area eas 
of Eels brook there are occasional groups of pine, varying m extent 
from a few trees to those covering several acres, which apparently 
escaped the fire with only slight injury, and they are now approaching 
commercial value, one-half of the stands being from six inches to ten 
inches in diameter and averaging 70 trees to the acre. An area of 
similar character was found just west of Kasshabog lake, m Methuen 
township, and it covers about 800 acres; here the nurnber of pme trees 
approaching commercial value averages 15 per acre. Scattered through 
this area are frequent groves, aggregating about 300 acres, which 
contain 30 trees from 9 inches to 15 inches in diameter per acre, and 
are, therefore, of commercial value. 

TABLE lA 

Present Composition and Average Number of Trees Per Acre on 17,349 
Acres SEVEREI.V Burned Twice. Based on Sample Strips Totaling 

40.4 Acres 




176 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



TABLE Ib 

Diameter Classes axd the A\'Erage Proportiox of Occurrence in Each 
Acres Severely Burned Once 



Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent . 
Per acre. 

Per cent . 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent . 
Per acre . 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per acre. 

Per cent. 
Per aae. 

Per cent . 
Per acre . , 

Per cent . 
Per acre. , 

Per cent . 
Per acre . , 



►S' H 



10 

11 

I 

121 

i 

13 
U 
15 
16 
17 
20 
21 



Total 
Per cent . 
Per acre. 



28.5 
46.7 

30.2 
50.0 

20.3 
33.5 

8.8 
14.5 

5.4 
9.0 

3.2 
5.2 

1.4 
2.4 

1.0 
1.6 



25.7 
24.0 

37.6 
34.9 

21.0 
19.3 

8.5 
7.9 

4.0 
3.7 

1.6 
1.5 

.8 
.8 

.4 

.3 



100.0 
164.8 



92.8 



IS. 8 
12.1 

23.5 
15.2 

20.7 
13.4 

13.8 
9.0 

8.4 
5.4 

5.8 
4.0 

2.9 
1.9 

2.9 
1.9 



.6 


.3 


1.3 


.0 


2 


1.0 


.3 


.1 


.7 


.3 


.1 


.4 


9 




.4 


.3 


• • 


.2 



.2 
.1 

.1 

.05 

.1 

.05 



.1 

.05 

.05 
.05 



64.8 



« 



30.1 
13.4 

26.1 
11.6 

17.8 
8.0 

10.4 
4.6 

6.4 
2.9 

4.7 
2.2 

2.0 
.9 

1.0 

.4 

.5 
.2 

.3 
.1 

.4 
.2 

.2 
.1 



44.6 



1.9 



3.8 
.05 

13.2 
.2 

15.1 



28. 



11, 



3 

4 

3 
.1 

20.8 
.3 

5.6 
.1 



39.5 
42.3 

31.7 
33.8 

16.0 
17.1 

7.4 
7.9 

3.2 
3.4 

1.2 
1.3 

.5 
.6 

.2 

9 



.051 
.05 

.05' 

.05 



1.3 106.9 



37.8 
.9 

16.8 
.4 

17.9 
.5 

6.9 



6.9 
,2 

2.9 
.1 

3.9 
.1 

3.9 
.1 

1.0 



1.0 



1.0 



« 



18.7 
2.9 

16.2 
2.4 

22.6 
3.3 

16.7 
2.5 

13.7 
2.2 

7.4 
1.0 

3.3 

.5 

.5 
.1 



.1 



2.4 i 15.0 



54.9 

20.7 

25.8 
9.7 

11.9 
4.5 

3.8 
1.4 

1.9 
.7 

.8 
.3 

.4 
.2 

.2 
.1 



.1 

.05 

.1 
.05 



.1 

.05 



37.7 




General View of an Area Burned Three Times 
Poplar largely predominating. 




Root Collars of Poplars Repeatedly Burned are Swollen and Tuberous 
No commercial trees come from such roots. 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



177 



TABLE Ib 
Diameter Class of the Species Enumerated in Table Ia, Occurring on 17,349 



1> 

£ 
13 

3 


£ 

to 

13 
03 




3 




u 
U 


y 




E 

lU 

C 







rj 








j3 


m 




£ 
h 


60.9 


50.9 


26. 


5 72.0 


61.2 


29 


4 28.0 


36.0 


26 


62 


8 73.8 


6 


2 


8 





2. 


3 23. 


6 


7.1 


1 


2 .4 


1.7 




3 1 


6 2. 





24 


2 


29 


2 


21 


1 20 


1 


29.8 


40 


31.5 


32.3 


30 


24 


8 19. 


6 


2 


5 


4 


6 


1 


9 6 


6 


3.5 


1 


6 .4 


1.5 




4 


7 : . 


5 


9 


5 


12 


2 


27 


3 6 


3 


6.0 


20 


20.0 


15.4 


26 


7 


6 4. 


6 


1 





1 


9 


2 


4 2 





.7 




8 .3 


.7 




3 


2 


1 


1 


7 


3 





10 


5 1 


2 


1.0 


5 


6 7.4 


6.4 


12 


4 


8 






2 




5 




9 


4 


.1 




2 .1 


.3 




1 


1 




l' 


3 



1 


1 


9 
3 


8 


2 

7 


2 
1 


.2 


3 


7 3.7 
1 .05 


3.2 
.1 


6 




1 


2. 





1 




1 

5 


1 




1 

7 


3 

1 


1 
3 

1 




.4 
.05 

.2 


1 


3 3.7 

05 .05 


4.2 
.2 

1.0 












05 




1 

8 
1 




1 

8 
1 












.05 












2 








8 

1 




.2 








.5 
.03 












8 




1 




6 


1 






3.7 


.5 












1 
















.05 
2.0 


.03 
















1 






1 


.4 

.05 




















2 












.4 
.05 

.2 




■; ; 




.5 
.03 










10 


'2 


15 


6 


8 


8 32 


7 


11.' 6 


4 


6 I'.i 


i 


4.'7 


1 


2 2 


6 2! 


6 



12— c. c. 



178 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

The areas burned once, as indicated on the map (facing page 166),. 
aggregate 18,898 acres. Deducting one-quarter of these as areas occu- 
pied by marshes and swamps, there are left 14,174 acres occupied by 
poplar and pine. The patches that escaped the fire, in the areas 
burned more than once, total 3,175 acres. Therefore, the total num- 
ber of acres burned but once is 17,349. It will be seen, by referring to 
the accompanying table (page 175), that white pine on this area aver- 
ages 65 trees and red pine 45 trees per acre, or a total of 110 pine 
trees. Seventy-nine per cent of these trees are from one inch to three 
inches in diameter. Judging from the results of the growth studies, it 
takes about 25 years, on the average, to make a three-inch pine tree. 
These areas were burned about 25 years ago; therefore, practically 
four-fifths of the present quantity of pine has established itself since 
the last severe fire. 

Regarding the trees eight inches in diameter and above as capable 
of producing viable seeds, there are on the average three seed trees 
per acre on the area as a whole, an ample quantity, if properly dis- 
tributed, to fill up the open places and to replace the trees that die from 
natural causes. If the 110 trees per acre were allowed to come to 
maturity, the area would probably be more fully stocked with pine than 
it was at the time the first lumbering operations began, for the original 
forest was a very old one, with large trees, a condition under which 
the trees must necessarily have been scattered to have received light 
and food enough to reach large dimensions. But, with the present 
high price of pine lumber, and the consequent utilization of compara- 
tively low grade stock, pine forests like the original will never be 
duplicated. Instead of cutting trees 200 to 300 years old, as was 
originally done, the trees will be harvested at 100 years, 80 years, and 
even, in some cases, 60 years of age. The pine trees standing at 
present will be cut at these ages, if not burned in the meantime, and 
the present number of trees per acre on the areas severely burned once 
is about right for proper development for harvest in that condition. 
It would seem, therefore, that one burning after lumbering does- not 
seriously interfere with the reproduction of pine in commercial quan- 
tities. This statement, of course, is based on the assumption that the 
fire came very soon after lumbering, since otherwise it would destroy 
the first crop of seedlings established. 

The pine trees above ten inches in diameter on the average acre 
would yield only 185 board feet, a very small amount, but when multi- 
plied by the number of acres, it becomes 3,000,000 feet of commercial 
material. 

It will be seen from the table (page 175) that the poplars con- 
tribute the largest number of trees per acre, the trembling aspen having 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 179 

165 and the large-toothed aspen 93, a total for the two species of 258 
per acre, and they thus comprise 41 per cent of the stand. Nearly 90 
per cent of these trees have not yet attained commercial size, if we 
regard those as non-commercial which are less than five inches in 
diameter at breast height, that is, the height at which the trees were 
measured. By using a volume table for poplar, it is calculated that 
the trees of this species now of commercial size, yielding only one 
cord of pulp wood per acre, would run 17,000 cords on the whole area 
burned once. Yet, if the 230 trees per acre under commercial size, or 
the normal percentage of them, were allowed to come to maturity, the 
outlook for pulpwood as a secondary product to the pine would be 
more hopeful. 

The other commercial trees, whose rate of occurrence is given in 
the table (page 175), probably had only a scattering distribution in the 
original forest. The oak, cedar, balsam and hemlock occur in suffi- 
cient quantities — in the aggregate 100 trees of all kinds per acre — to 
form a valuable commercial adjunct if allowed to come to maturity, 

AREAS SEVERELY BURNED TWICE 

The areas indicated on the map (facing page 166) as burned twice 
aggregate 26,000 acres. In these are 1,750 acres which escaped the 
second fire, and hence these were classed among the areas burned once. 
Deducting this amount, and the 25 per cent estimated to be occupied 
by swamps of various kinds, there are 17,750 acres actually burned 
twice. The two severe fires on the Methuen areas occurred approxi- 
mately 25 years and 16 years ago. Patches too small to be delimited 
were burned eight years ago, and there are indications of numerous 
local ground fires. One of these marked some of the trees five years 
ago. The two severe fires on the Burleigh areas occurred 25 years 
and 8 years ago, while the fires of 16 years and 5 years ago were light, 
and only left their scars in some places. 

The largest area burned twice is found in southern and south- 
eastern Methuen and comprises, exclusive of swamps, 8,760 acres, but 
28 per cent of this escaped the fire, so that the area actually burned is 
6,300 acres. Although a relatively large proportion escaped, the fires 
were very severe upon the pine reproduction on the areas actually 
burned, since it now averages only 1.3 pine trees per acre, whereas, 
before the second fire, the area averaged 33 pine trees per acre. The 
second fire then practically obhterated the potential pine stand. The 
area burned twice around Bottle and Barrette lakes now contains five 
young pine trees per acre. Only one small unburned patch was dis- 
covered, and this contained young pine at the rate of 50 to the acre. 



180 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



TABLE IIa 

Diameter Classes and the Average Proportion of Occurrence in Each 
Acres Severely Burned Twice 









— 
















o 






jC 












<u 












bo 




c 




u 








C 


o 


D. 


c 


rv 


o 






3 £ 


1 s 


V 




« 


o 




















•^ 


if 7" 


J3 


•o 


^ 


^ 




c 


h-" 


-: 


^ 


« 


^ 


^ 


Per cent 


1 


55.5 


54.7 


19.3 


27.8 


69.3 


56.2 


Per acre 




80.1 


61. 


/ 


1.6 


1.6 


81. 


3 


9.1 


Per cent 


2 


28.2 


31. 





19.0 


21.3 


23. 


5 


18.7 


Per acre 




40.8 


35. 


2 


1.6 


1.2 


27. 


4 


3.0 


Per cent 


3 


10.3 


10. 


1 


14.6 


17.5 


4. 


6 


15.8 


Per acre 




14.8 


11. 


4 


1.2 


1.0 


3. 


3 


2.6 


Per cent 


4 


3.3 


2 


5 


11.0 


12.2 


1. 


5 


4.5 


Per acre 




4.8 


2 


8 


1.0 


./ 


1. 


8 


.8 


Per cent 


5 


1.3 




8 


10.0 


9.1 




8 


3.0 


Per acre 




1.9 




9 


.9 


.3 




9 


.5 


Per cent 


6 


.7 




4 


9.5 


6.1 




2 


.5 


Per acre 




1.0 




5 


.8 


.4 




2 


.1 


Per cent 


7 


.3 




3 


7.2 


1.8 




04 


.5 


Per acre 




,4 




3 


.6 


.1 




1 


.1 


Per cent 


8 


9 






4.4 


1.1 




04 


.3 


Per acre 




.3 






.4 


•1 




1 


.05 


Per cent 


9 


.1 




08 


2.1 


.8 




02 




Per acre 




.2 






.2 


.05 






•• 


Per cent 


10 


.05 






1.8 


.5 






.1 


Per acre 




.1 






.1 


• • 






•• 


Per cent 


11 


.05 






.5 


.8 








Per acre 




.1 






.05 


.05 






•• 


Per cent 


12 


., 






.2 


.5 






.3 


Per acre 




. 








•• 








.05 


Per cent 


13 


, 






02 




.5 






.. 


Per acre 




. 
















•• 


Per cent 


14 


. 








,2 










Per acre 




• 










•• 








Per cent 


16 


















.1 


Per acre 












• • 








•• 


Per cent 


17 


. 








.2 








.. 


Per acre 




• 








•• 


•• 






•• 


Total 
















Per cent.. 


. . .. 


100.00 












Per acre . . 




144.5 


113.6 


8.4 


5.7 


117.3 


16.3 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



181 



Diameter Class of the Species Enumerated in Table IIb, Occurring on 17,750 



PS 

o 

4) 


s 

T3 
Pi 


"a. 
S 

u 

bo 

3 


H 

P5 


3 
u 

a. 
<u 
IS 


I. 
•z 

4. 


•T3 
O 
O 

1 


4) 


67.6 


93.7 


86.0 


46.1 


37.7 


76 


8 58.8 


90.1 


48.3 


30.9 


2 


.2 


1 


.3 




6 


1 


6 1. 


7 


1 


.4 


20.0 


3.3 


7 


.5 


30 


.5 


27 


.6 


13 


7 23. 


6 


8 


.5 


14.3 


1.1 




.2 




.8 




.4 




3 


6 




.1 


7.9 


1.5 






14 


.8 


13 


.0 


8 


4 2. 


3 


1 


.4 


5.6 


.5 








.4 




.2 




2 


1 






2.7 


.3 


2 


5 


1 


.6 


8 


.7 


1 


1 10. 


7 






1.9 


.1 




1 




.05 




.1 






3 






1.0 


.4 


. 




2 


.4 


4 


.4 




3. 









.7 


.1 








.1 




.1 






1 






.3 


.4 


. 




1 


.6 


7 


.1 






8 






.2 


.1 


. 






.05 




1 












.2 


.05 




8 


1 


6 
















.1 






02 




05 
















.2 


.05 








8 










8 






.1 




. 






















.1 


.05 




8 




















.1 


.. 




02 
























•• 


• 










5 
















.05 




8 
02 
























.1 




























.05 




























.1 


.8 
























.05 


.02 
























•• 




8 
























•• 


.. 


02 




8 
















71 


.'.3 


33*.0 


2 


'.6 


^ 


J. 8 


'i 


L.5 


2. 


i 2! 


8 


i 


.5 



182 



COMMISSIOX OF CONSERVATION 



TABLE IIb 

Present Composition' and Average Number of Trees Per Acre ox 17,750 
Acres Severely Burxed Twice, Based ox Sample Strips Totalixg 

46.2 Acres 



Per cent 



Per acre 



Trembling- aspen 

Large-toothed aspen 

White pine 

Red pine 

White birch 

White oak 

Red oak 

Red maple 

Sugar maple 

Balsam 

White spruce 

Cedar 

Basswood 

White ash 

Xotal number of trees per acre 



27.6 


144.5 


21.6 


113.0 


1.6 


8.4 


1.1 


5.7 


22.4 


117.3 


3.1 


16.3 


13.7 


71.4 


6.3 


33.0 


.5 


2.6 


.5 


2.8 


.3 


1.5 


.4 


2.1 


.6 


2.8 


.3 


1.5 




522.9 



The areas burned twice in Burleigh township, after making the 
deductions for swamps, total 8,540 acres. The largest of these is 
along the east side of Eels brook, in the southern division. This lim- 
ited area now averages 26 young pine per acre, a high average for an 
area burned twice, but the lower half of the area at least had a remark- 
ably large stock of pine before the second burning, about eight years 
ago. This, as stated on page 174, was 260 trees per acre. The whole 
area burned twice has, on the average, two pine seed trees per acre, 
which, in the course of a long time, might bring back the pine, if 
protected from fire. 

The area in the south-eastern portion of Burleigh township, lying 
between the areas marked as burned once and three times, respectively, 
on the north, and the area marked as burned three times, on the south, 
and extending up to Jack lake, in Methuen township, is mostly on 
granite. It differs in composition from all the other areas in its large 
amount of oak, about 50 per cent of the stand being red oak and 17 
per cent white oak. While the soil is rather thin, and much of the 
oak naturally stunted, it is probable that considerable quantities would 
attain commercial size if protected from fire. 

As a whole, the areas burned twice now support eight white pine 
and six red pine, a total of 14 pine trees per acre. The areas burned 
once contain 110 young pine trees per acre. Therefore, as a whole, 
the second burning reduced the amount of pine to one-eighth of that 
on the areas burned once. 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 183 

The number of poplar trees on the average acre at present — it being 
8 years or 16 years since the last burning — is practically the same as 
after the first burning. Eighty-five per cent of these trees, however, 
belong to the one-inch and two-inch diameter classes, and are not over 
16 years old. They are mostly sprouts, stimulated to growth by the 
last fire. The number of commercial trees averages six per acre, while 
the number of like trees on the areas burned but once averages 27 per 
acre. There is one-fifth of a cord of poplar now fit for pulpwood on 
the average acre, while the pulpwood on the areas burned but once 
averages one cord per acre. Trees of other species of potential com- 
mercial value average practically the same (100 per acre) as on the 
areas burned but once. 



AREAS SEVERELY BURNED THREE TIMES 

The areas severely burned three times cover 9,300 cares. Deducting 
the usual one-fourth of the area for swamps, there are 6,975 acres 
actually occupied by this type. The area in Methuen township was 
burned approximately 25 years, 18 years and 5 years ago, while the 
areas in Burleigh township were swept by fires 25 years, 16 years and 
10 years ago. One of the Burleigh areas extends into Methuen, near 
the point at which Jack creek leaves the township. 

The last fire on the Methuen area was very severe. The dead 
trees resulting were counted on sample plots totalling eight acres. 
Before the fire there were 276 poplar trees ; 23 pine trees and 41 oak 
trees per acre; after the fire there were only two living poplar trees, 
one pine and one oak tree per acre. 

The area burned three times in south-eastern Burleigh is on 
crystalline limestone, and the stand is open and park-like in many 
places, where the three generations of trees, due to the three fires, are 
quite easily distinguished. Continued burnings on limestone areas 
stimulate the development of grass beneath the trees. The soil being 
thin, however, the grass completely dries up in the drier portions of 
the year, so that such areas would be of only temporary service for 
grazing purposes. The area burned three times in the central portion 
of Burleigh is chiefly composed of low granite ridges, the tops of 
which, in many cases, have been burned practically clear of trees. 



184 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



TABLE IIIa 

Present Composition and Average Number of Trees Per Acre on 6,973 

Acres Severely Burned Three Times, Based on Sample Strips 

Totaling 34 Acres 



Per cent 



Trembling aspen 

Large-toothed aspen 

White pine 

Red pine 

White birch 

White oak 

Red oak 

Red maple 

Sugar maple 

Balsam 

White spruce 

Cedar 

Total number of trees per acre 



Per acre 



35.2 


96.9 


26.1 


71.8 


1.1 


3.0 


1.5 


4.2 


24.0 


65.8 


.5 


1.3 


3.9 


10.7 


5.3 


14.7 


.5 


1.4 


.8 


2.0 


.7 


2.0 


.4 


1.1 



274.9 




General View of an Area Burned Many Times 
Forest Growth Scattered. Note soil erosion. 




Burned Many Times 
Note the number of stumps and the absence of reproduction. 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



185- 



TABLE IIIb 
Diameter Classes and the Average Proportion of Occurrence in Each 
Diameter Class of the Species Enumerated in Table IIIa, Occurring 
ON 6,975 Acres Severely Bltrned Three Times 



Per cent . . ■ 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . • . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . • . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . , 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . , 
Per acre . . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre. . . 

Per cent . . . 
Per acre . . . 
Total 

Per cent . 

Per acre. 



57. 

55. 

25. 
24. 

9. 
9. 

4. 
4. 

1, 
1, 



100, 
96. 



ca a 



51.7 
37.1 

33.5 
24.1 

10.3 

7.4 

2.8 
2.0 

.7 
.5 

.3 
.2 

.5 
.3 

.1 
.1 



71.8 



24.0 
.7 

14.0 
.3 

21.0 
.6 

18.0 
.5 

6.9 
.2 

4.9 
.1 

2.9 
.15 

.9 
.05 

.9 

.05 

1.9 
.1 

.9 

.05 

■1.9 
.1 



3.0 



35.2 
1.5 

28.1 
1.2 

7.7 
.3 

9.1 

.4 

4.2 
.2 

1.5 
.1 

3.5 
.13 

3.5 
.13 

3.5 
.13 

1.5 
.1 



1.5 
.1 



4.2 



j3 

17.4 
.2 

34.8 
.4 

19.5 
.2 

4.3 
.1 

6.6 
.13 

2.2 



2.2 



4.3 
.1 



4.3 
.1 



65. 



2.2 



2.2 



1.3 



« 



41.5 
4.4 

30.0 
3.1 

14.6 
1.6 

7.7 



4.6 
.5 



77. 
11. 

15, 
2. 

4. 
1, 



.1 

.2 
.03 



.2 
.03 



.2 

.03 



.2 

.03 



91.6 
1.3 

6.3 
1 



.2 

.03 



44.3 
9 



24, 



12. 



10.7 



14.7 1.4 



2.0 



28.6 
.5 

22.2 
.4 

11.1 

.2 

22.2 
.4 

3.2 
.1 

3.2 
.1 

1.6 

.05 

1.6 
.05 

1.6 

.05 

4.7 
.15 



2.0 1.1 



21.1 
2^ 



47, 



28. 



.6 
.05- 



186 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

On the area burned three times there are, on the average, seven 
pine trees to the acre, three white pine and four red pine, — a reduction 
of one-half from the number on the areas burned twice, and approxi- 
mately only one-sixteenth of the number on the areas burned but once. 
The reduction, in terms of the reproduction, is even greater than this 
indicates, for 30 per cent of the trees are of such size as to show that 
they antedate the first fire; that is, they are the larger trees which 
have withstood all the fires. 

The trembling aspen is represented by 95 and the large-toothed 
aspen by 70, a total of 165 per acre, compared with 258 trees on the 
areas burned once and twice. Although the percentage ratio of the 
poplar of the one-inch and two-inch diameter class to the other 
diameters is practically the same as on the areas burned twice, as a 
matter of fact, the condition is really not as favourable as would 
appear, since a large proportion of the smaller material has been 
materially weakened as the result of the successive fires; it is crooked, 
deformed, and already attacked by disease. The lower illustration 
opposite shows two shoots springing from a root collar that has been 
injured by fires. The swollen portion on a similar stock was about 25 
years old. It had sent forth shoots twice before, only to be burned to 
the ground. Shoots arising in this manner are weak and probably 
never make trees of commercial size. The amount of commercial pulp- 
wood is reduced from one-fifth of a cord on the areas burned twice to 
one-eighth of a cord per acre on the areas burned three times. 

The number of other species of potentially commercial trees, such 
as oak, basswood, balsam, cedar and spruce, reaches approximately 100 
on the average acre on the areas burned once and twice, but the same 
or similar species total only 18 per acre on the areas burned three 
times. 

AREAS SEVERELY BURNED MANY TIMES 

Thirteen thousand acres of the region examined have been burned 
over many times. Making the usual deduction of one-quarter of the 
area for swamps, and a deduction of five per cent for patches which 
escaped most of the fires, there are still 9,260 acres actually included 
in this class. The greater portion of the area so designated has been 
severely burned seven times, five of which have occurred since lum- 
bering operations began in the vicinity. Practically all of the few old 
pine trees still standing show from five to seven fire scars. One of 
these, which little by little had been severed at the base by fires, dis- 
closed the fact that it had been fire-scarred when 25, 43, 55, 64, 82, 88 
and 96 years old. It finally succumbed to the last fire at the age of 
lOO years. This means that the tree was burned, on the average, at 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 187 

intervals of 12.5 years. These are only the recorded fires. There is 
much evidence that ground fires have been still more frequent. In 
fact, hardly a season passes that some portion of this area is not run 
over by ground fires. 

There are three classes of persons principally responsible for these 
fires: Cattle rangers, marsh hay makers, and berry pickers; and the 
most careless of these are the berry pickers. The area is commonly 
called the huckleberry barrens. The term " barren," however, can be 
applied only to its present, not to its original condition, for it was once 
well covered with pine trees. The pine stumps were counted on sam- 
ple plots aggregating 28 acres, and those eight inches and over in 
diameter averaged 17 per acre. This refers only to those that still 
show they had been cut for lumber. Those so far decayed or so 
severely burned as to leave this point in doubt were not included. 
Considering the length of time since lumbering began on the area, and 
the number of times it has been burned, it is fair to conclude that many 
of the stumps of former merchantable trees do not now exist; hence it 
is reasonable to assume that this area was originally well stocked with 
pine. At the present time, however, judging from sample plots aggre- 
gating 62 acres, there are only 0.7 white pine and 2.4 red pine an acre, 
on the average. Regarding the trees eight inches and more in diameter 
as capable of producing seed, one may find at present one such white 
pine seed tree to each seven acres and one red pine seed tree to each 
four acres. In fact, the average number per acre of all kinds of 
trees is only 22, without doubt considerably less than the original 
number of commercial pine trees per acre; and of these nearly one-half 
(48 per cent) are not over two inches in diameter. 

Approximately five per cent of the area, exclusive of swamps, 
has escaped serious injury by fire. The average number per acre of 
trees of all kinds in these situations is 278, or over twelve times as 
many as on the adjacent areas burned many times. The pine on the 
patches that have not been badly burned averages 158 trees per acre, 
53 white pine and 105 red pine, over 50 times as much as on the sur- 
rounding areas burned many times. This is an indication of what 
might have been, had the fires been prevented. The poplar also shows 
a similar increase, averaging 87 trees per acre on the unburned patches, 
compared with ten on the adjoining areas burned many times. The 
poplar large enough for pulpwood on the unburned areas at the present 
time averages 1.3 cords per acre; on the neafby areas burned many 
times, only one- forty-fifth of a cord per acre. 



188 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



TABLE IVa 

Present Composition and Average Number of Trees Per Acre on 9,260 

Acres Severely Burned Many Times, Based on Sample Strips 

Totaling 62.3 Acres 




Per acre 



Trembling aspen 
Large-toothed aspen 
White pine 
Red pine 
Jack pine 
White birch 
White oak 
Red oak 
Red maple 

Total number of trees per acre 



8.7 
1.3 
0.7 
2.4 
4.6 
2.2 
0.5 
1.0 
0.9 

22.3 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 189 

TABLE IVb 

Diameter Classes and the Average Proportion of Occurrence in Each 
Diameter Class of the Species Enumerated in Table IVa, Occurring 
ON 9,260 Acres Severely Burned Many Times 





tn 
(U 

-g 

a 
1 


c 

is. 


JS 

o 
o 

;1^ 


IS 


0) 

a 
"a, 

Pi 


o 
a 

'El 
o - 

*-> 


'.S 


o 

■-S 


o 


1) 
a 


Per cent 

Per acre 


30.5 
2.6 


25.0 
.33 


22.7 
.16 


42.3 
1.01 


7.3 
.3 


35.5 
.8 


, , 


6.7 
.06 


44.4 
- .38 


Per cent 

Per acre 


2 


28.6 
2.5 


19.0 
.25 


6.8 
.04 


9.4 
.22 


22.2 
1.0 


32.0 

.7- 


3.1 
.01 


15.0 
.14 


39.0 
.32 


Per cent 

Per acre 


3 


20.5 
1.8 


21.4 

.28 


9.5 
.06 


5.4 
.13 


24.0 
1.1 


22.4 
.5 


12.5 
.06 


23.3 
.22 


5.6 
.04 


Per cent 

Per acre 


4 


9.6 
.9 


26.2 
.35 


11.4 

.08 


4.7 
.11 


21.9 
1.0 


5.8 
.13 


28.1 
.14 


16.7 
.16 


1.8 
.01 


Per cent 

Per acre 


5 


6.2 
.6 


2.4 

.02 


4.5 
.03 


2.7 

.07 


10.1 

.5 


2.2 

.04 


15.6 
.08 


11.7 
.11 


1.8 
.01 


Per cent 

Per acre 


6 


1.7 
.1 


3.6 

.05 


16.0 
.11 


8.0 
.21 


7.6 
.4 


0.7 
.01 


21.9 
.11 


8.3 
.08 


5.6 
.04 


Per cent 

Per acre 


7 


1.5 
.1 




4.5 
.03 


6.7 
.16 


3.2 
.14 


•• 


9.4 

.04 


5.0 
.05 


•• 


Per cent 

Per acre 


8 


0.6 

.05 


•• 


4.5 
.03 


4.7 
.11 


2.8 
.13 


0.7 
.01 


3.1 

.01 


11.7 
.11 


.. 


Per cent 

Per acre 


9 


0.4 
.03 


1.2 

.01 


4.5 
.03 


6.0 
.14 


0.3 
.01 


•• 




1.6 

.02 


.. 


Per cent 

Per acre 


10 


0.2 
.01 


1.2 

.01 


2.2 
.01 


2.0 
.04 


0.3 
.01 






.. 




Per cent 

Per acre 


11 


0.2 
.01 






4.7 
.11 


0.3 
.01 


.. 




.. 


• • 


Per cent 

Per acre 


12 


, , 






0.7 
.01 


•• 


•• 


•• 


.. 




Per cent 

Per acre 


13 


•• 




4.5 
.03 


0.7 
.01 


•• 


•• 


•• 


•• 


.. 


Per cent 

Per acre 


14 


•• 




2.2 
.01 


2.0 
.04 




•• 


6.3 
.03 


•• 


1.8 
.1 


Per cent 

Per acre 


15 


•• 




2.2 
.01 






0.7 
.01 


•• 




•• 


Per cent 

Per acre 


19 


•• 




4.5 

.o: 


] '.'. 




•• 


•• 


•• 


• • 


Total 

Per cent .... 
Per acre 




100. 0( 
8.7 


) .. 
1.3 


6".7 


2A 


4'. 6 


2'.2 


6'.5 


i'.o 


6.9 



190 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

SUMMARY OF FOREST CONDITIONS 

The forest conditions described on the preceding pages may 
be summarized as follows: 

Partially or completely forested, 84,333 acres. 

Unburned mature forest 15,000 

Burned areas (second growth forest) 51,334 

Unburned swamps within the burned areas 16!799 

Oak barrens 1,200 

Total 84,333 

The areas actually burned over, with reference to the number of times- 
burned, may be grouped as below: 

Burned once 17,349 

Burned twice 17,750 

Burned three times 6,975 

Burned many times *. 9,260 

Total 51,334 

Comparing the conditions, as a whole, on the areas burned many- 
times with those burned once, twice, and three times, we find that 
the pine averages three trees per acre, in contrast to 7, 14, and llO 
on the areas burned thrice, twice and once, respectively; the poplar 
ten per acre, in comparison with 169 on the areas burned three times,, 
and to 258 on the areas burned once and twice; the amount of pulp- 
wood ready to harvest, one-forty-fifth cord, in contrast to one-eighth 
cord on the areas burned three times, to one-fifth cord on the areas 
burned twice, and to one cord on the areas burned once. 

The condition of affairs in order of the number of times the area 
has been burned may be summarized in tabular form, as below : 

TABLE V 

Numerical Proportion of Reproduction of Various Species on the Average' 

Acre in Order of the Number of Times Burned, Based on Sample 

Plots Totaling 180 Acres 





Burned 
once 


Burned 
twice 


Burned 
thrice 


Burned 
many 
times 


Whole number of trees at present 

Pine 


626 
110 
258 
106 
1 


523 

14 

257 

101 


275 

7 

169 

18 


22 


Poplar 

Other commercial species 


10 

7 


Cords of pulpwood now merchantable. . 


i, 



These conditions may be represented graphically by the following. 
diagrams : 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



191 



Burned- 



Oncfc, 


626 Trees, 


Twice. 


59^ Tre.es . 




Three times. 


275 Tr^tS. 






Mo^y times. 


«-Z? Trees. 





Whole nunrxber of trees of fl^U Species, one inch ojnd above in diameter now 
preser\k, actorolin^ to the rvumber oT times burrved. 



BURNEO. 



Once. 


liOTrees. 


Twice. 




*- 14 Trees. 


ThreeT'mes. 
Many Times. 


<- 


<-7 Trees. 
3 Trees, 



Youno p\ne trees, one inch and above m diameter rtow present 
OiccordinQ to tWe nonrvber of tirrvea burned 
BURN£0. 



258 Trees. 



256Trees. 



l69Trees. 



Once. 

Twite. 

Three times 

MOtttv times _r lO Trees 

Youn6 poplars, one ii^th and above in diameter now present 

accordin6 to the j\unr\ber of times burned . 

BuRNEO . 
Once. 

Twice. 

Three times 

Mon^ times 



106 Trees. 



101 Trees 



tia Trees. 



••7 Trees. 



Other commercial Species, one inch and above in diameter nov^/ 
present, accordinA to the number of times burned . 

BURNE.0 . 

Once. I Cord 

Twice. '/iCord. 

Threctimes. I h '/i8 Cord . 



Many times. J*" 'As Cord 



Cords per acre of merchantable poplar pulpwoodnow present, 
Q.Gcordin6 to the number of times burned. 



192 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

The area marked " oak barrens " on the map consists of about 
1,200 acres. It is situated in the " foothills " of the Blue mountains, 
and consists of bare ridges and deep gullies, the latter often only a 
few yards across and 15 yards to 25 yards deep. The ridges are 
covered with stunted oak trees, growing mostly in the crevices of 
the rocks, while the gullies are filled with poplar. Occasional stumps 
in the gullies indicate that pines of large size once grew there. The 
area has been burned several times, but it is so evidently a natural 
barren that it has been excluded from consideration of the burned 
areas. 

GROWTH STUDIES 

To secure data upon which to base an estimate of the financial 
losses involved in the fires, some growth studies were undertaken. 

In the case of the pines it was found that their rate of growth 
was so variable that, to secure a satisfactory statement, a larger num- 
ber would have had to be analyzed than time permitted and the object 
in view would have warranted. Moreover, reliable tables already 
exist for these species, and these have been used. The rate of growth 
of poplar has, however, been especially studied. 

Growth studies of poplar were made in three places: In lot 15, 
concession II, and lot 25, concession III, in Methuen ; also in lot 2, con- 
cession III, in Burleigh. The area on which the trees grew was of 
second quality for the locality, and was selected because it represented 
the average condition of the region as a whole. The soil would be 
classed as sand, and its depth was from 8 to 12 inches. The composi- 
tion of the soil may be judged by the average of four samples, given 
below, which were taken from the areas where the growth studies 
were made. 

COMPOSITION 
PER CENT 

Fine gravel 16.3 

Coarse sand 24.5 

Medium sand 10.6 

Fine sand 18.1 

Very fine sand 8.2 

Clay 13.9 

Silt 4.8 

Organic matter 3.6 

Total 100.0 

In the table given on page 193 six per cent of the trees included 
are the large-toothed aspen. The growth of these was figured separ- 
ately, but as practically no difference in the rate of growth from the 
trembling aspen was to be ascertained, and since for commercial 
purposes the two species are not distinguished, it was thought best 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



193 



for the purposes of this report to group the two aspens together, under 
the designation of " poplar." 

It is difficult to tell, after the first few years, whether a tree has 
come from a seedling or from a root sucker, but it is probable that 
most of the trees on which the growth studies were made came from 
seedlinsfs. 



TABLE VI 

Rate of Growth of Poplar, Site Quality II, Based ox 166 Trees 



Age 


Average diameter, inside 
bark, at ground, 
inches 


Average height, 
feet 


3 
4 
5 
6 
9 
10 
11 


0.24 

0.39 

0.43 

0.60 

0.80 ^ 

0.86 

0.98 


3.5 
5.1 
5.3 
7.8 
8.0 
9.0 
10.4 


Average age 


Diameter class, 
breast height 


Average height, 
feet 


Average merchant- 
able volume, 
cubic feet 


13 
21 
26 
30 
31 
36 
40 
41 
44 
45 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
11 


14 
20 
24 
30 
36 
39 
47 
48 
48 
55 


i.'gog 

2.352 
5.752 
6.233 
6.714 
13.706 



Rate of 
Growth of 
Poplar 



The rate of growth, as indicated in Table VI above, 
may seem very slow to many, for poplar is generally 
considered one of the most rapidly growing trees. If 
these trees had been taken from the best soils, the rate of growth 
would have been considerably faster, but they were taken from the 
kind of soil in which the greater majority of the trees of the region 
were growing and this was of second quality. There is a tendency 
in the popular mind, however, to over-estimate the rate of growth of 
trees, for the judgment is usually made from trees growing in the 
most favourable soil, and other conditions, not from the average condi- 
tions actually found in the forest, where competition for food and 
light is generally severe. 
13— c.c. 



194 



COM -MISSION OF CONSERVATION 



The average height growth of the 166 poplar trees employed in 
table \'l, is 10.8 inches in a year, and the average increase in diameter 
is one inch in six years. It will be noted that it takes approximately 
30 years' growth to produce a poplar tree five inches in diameter, 
breast high, the lowest diameter at which trees are cut for pulp- 
wood. Further, it takes 13 years, on the average, to produce 
a tree one inch in diameter, 26 years for a tree three inches in diameter 
and 36 years for a tree six inches in diameter. Growth studies were 
made on a few trees of larger diameter than those given above, but 
they were on a much better quality of soil and so were not included. 
Basing the statement upon growth studies of poplar from other 
sources, one may say that it does not reach its most rapid growth in 
volume until about the fiftieth year. Since none of the trees studied 
had reached that age, it is assumed, in forecasting the yield at the 
end of the next 30 years, that the trees will grow at the rates stated 
above. 

Applying the rate of growth indicated above to the average num- 
ber per acre of poplar trees of the various diameter classes on the 
areas burned once, as given in table 1b (pages 176-177), and assuming 
that all were to live, it would be found that, at the end of the next 30 
years, the diameters, number of trees and their contents in cubic feet 
would be as indicated in the table below : 



TABLE VII 

Number of Poplar Trees Per Acre and Volume to be Expected ox the 
AvER-'^GE Acre After the Next 30 Years on the Areas Burned Once, 
Assuming all Trees Survh^ed 



Number of 


Diameter class, 


Total volume, cubic feet, 


trees 


inches 


bark excluded 


71 


5 


135.0 


90 


6 


211.6 


53 


7 


304.8 


22 


8 


137.1 


13 


9 


87.2 


7 


10 


81.9 


3 


11 


41.1 


2 


12 


44.0 


1 


13 


30.0 




Total 1,072.7 



A cord of peeled pulpwood contains 90 cubic feet solid. This 
figure, used as a converting factor, gives 11,9 cords as the estimated 
yield per acre. If twenty-five per cent be deducted from this, as the 
amount that would die in the natural course of events in the next 30 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



195 



years, the average yield per acre would be 9 cords. Multiplying this 
by the acreage, 17,350, we get 156,150 cords as the expected total yield 
of pulpwood at the end of 30 years, on the areas which have been 
burned but once. 

Treating the poplar of the various sizes now present on the areas 
burned twice in the same manner, we find that the following condi- 
tions may be expected at the end of the next 30-year period : 

TABLE VIII 

Number of Poplar Trees Per Acre and Volume to be Expected on the 
Average Acre After the Next 30 Years on the Areas Burned Twice, 
Assuming all Trees Survived 



Number of trees 


Diameter class, 
inches 


Total volume, cubic feet, 
bark excluded 


142 

76 
26 
8 
3 
1 
1 


5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


171.0 
178.7 
149.5 
49.8 
20.1 
11.7 
13.7 




Total 594.5 



Using the converting factor given above, and subtracting twenty- 
five per cent for the normal decay, the average yield per acre to be 
expected at the end of the next 30 years, is five cords. The areas 
burned twice aggregate 17,750 acres, so the total expected yield on 
such areas becomes 88,750 cords of peeled pulpwood. 

Following this assumption as to rate of growth, the following con- 
ditions would be found at the end of the next 30 years on the areas 
burned three times : 

TABLE IX 

Number of Poplar Trees Per Acre and Volume to be Expected on the 
Average Acre After the Next 30 Years on the Areas Burned Three 
Times, Assuming all Trees Survived 



Number of trees 


Diameter class, 
inches 


Total volume, cubic feet, 
bark excluded 


90 
47 
16 
7 
1 
1 
1 


5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


171.8 
110.5 
92.0 
43.6 
6.7 
11.7 
13.7 




Total 450.0 



196 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



Assuming the same converting factor as previously, the 450 cubic 
feet given above becomes an even five cords of pulpwood on the 
average acre, before deduction is made for decay. Because of the 
deformed and diseased condition of the young growth on the areas 
burned three times, as described on page 186 a much larger percentage 
of it will die, or at least will not make commercial pulpwood, than 
on the areas burned once and twice; consequently, 50 per cent is 
deducted on this account, making the estimated yield per acre 2-5 
cords. The areas burned three times aggregate 6,970 acres, so the total 
estimated yield of pulpwood becomes 17,425 cords. 

On the areas burned many times, the expected yield of poplar will 
be as follows : 



TABLE X 

Number. OF Poplar Trees Per Acre and Volume to be Expected on the 
Average Acre After the Next 30 Years on the Areas Burned Many 
Times, Assuming all Trees Survived 



Number of trees 


Diameter class, 
inches 


Total volume, cubic feet, 
bark excluded 


3 
3 
2 
1 
1 


5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


5.7 
7.0 
11.5 
6.2 
6.7 

Total 37.1 



If the converting factor of 90 cubic feet to the cord be applied to 
the above, the average yield per acre becomes 0.4 cord. Since the 
trees on this area are not " crowded," a smaller deduction may be 
made for the normal death rate, say, 25 per cent. On this basis, the 
expected yield will be "3 cord per acre. There are 9,260 acres in the 
burned-many-times areas, so the expected yield on the whole area will 
be around 3,000 cords. 



Probable 
Yield of 
Pulpwood 



The forecasted yield of poplar 30 years from the 
present date, according to the number of times the 
area has been burned, may be summarized as follows: 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



197 





Number of 
acres 


Average per 
acre, cords 


Total, cords 




17,350 

17,750 

6,970 

9,260 


9 

5 

2,5 

0.3 


156,150 




88,750 




17,425 


" " many times 


3,000 


Xotal 


265,325 











This relationship may be expressed by the following diagram: 



Qfsce 


S Cords 


Twice. 


5 Cords 


TV»r«ft t\Ws 


;^•5Cords 


Mon^bwes 


^-O-'iCords. 



Th« -forccasbed ^ield o{ poplar per acre, 30 veo-TS -from the 
present date, accord m^to thenumbtr of tiWs b»*vried. 



FINANCIAL LOSSES BY FOREST FIRES 

There can be little doubt that, if the public understood the cost of 
forest fires in terms of the future yield, more efficient methods of 
protection would be demanded. People do not burn, nor allow to be 
burned, what they value. It is in the hope of securing a better under- 
standing of this question that the following estimates of the financial 
losses due to repeated fires on the Burleigh-Methuen areas are pre- 
sented. 

, In most lumbering operations, in pine stands, a certain 

Fires Destroy number of the larger trees, because of disease or de- 
Seed Trees formation, escape the axe. Seed from these trees, 
together with the trees too small to be of commercial value at the time 
of lumbering, would, if left undisturbed, in time, restock the area to 
pine. When young, pine is very easily killed by fire. Only in the older 
stages, after a thick bark is formed and the crown has raised itself 
out of reach, does it become to any extent resistant to light fires. 
Large trees readily fall a prey to the heavy fires. The slash left be- 
hind lumbering operations is almost invariably burned accidentally, 
sooner or later. If seed trees are left, if the slash is burned within a 
year or two after lumbering, and especially if the fire comes in a year 
of a heavy yield of seed, the burning, by clearing the ground of debris, 
probably stimulates the reproduction of pine. Every fire after the 



198 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

first one kills not only a large number of seedlings and young trees, 
but also many of the seed trees. Every severe fire reduces the num- 
ber of seed trees, and so reduces by so much the reproductive capacity 
of the area. This process goes on until, with the death of seed trees, 
the remaining trees become so scattered that it would take several 
hundred years for them to bring the area back to its original stand 
of pine. As an example of this, the area burned many times, as indi- 
cated on the accompanying map, facing page 166, where there is only 
one seed tree to each five acres, may be cited. This does not mean that 
each five-acre plot actually has a seed tree on it. As a matter of fact, 
in the area under discussion, there are probably several hundred acres 
without any seed trees. It is merely a statement of the average 
condition. 

Future ^^ ^"^'^^^ t'^^" ^^ readily seen that successive fires result 

Production in a progressive diminution of the future yield of pine. 

o me From the data on the preceding pages of this report, 

it will be seen what is the numerical diminution of the future yield 
of pine on the areas under consideration, namely, 110, 14, 7, and 3 
trees per acre on the areas burned once, twice, thrice and many times, 
respectively. It should be emphasized that the data have been 
obtained by actual measurement. Knowing, in this way, the number 
of pine trees per acre in relation to the number of times burned, 
knowing also, at least, their minimum value at maturity, in terms of 
stumpage values and of timber dues, we may compute with reason- 
able accuracy the money losses involved in the progressive diminution 
of future yield owing to successive fires. This computation is pre- 
sented in the table below. The figures are derived from the assump- 
tion that each tree now present will grow to maturity and at maturity 
will yield 100 feet board measure. This is the yield of an ordinary 
pine tree from 12 inches to 13 inches in diameter, according to the 
Scribner rule. The stumpage value is placed at seven dollars per 
thousand, the present average value, and the dues at two dollars per 
thousand feet board measure, the present rate, although the price of 
the former at least will undoubtedly be much higher by the time these 
young trees produce saw logs. 







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EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



199 



TABLE XI 

Pine Reproduction on Burned Areas, With Estimates of the Prospective 
Future Value of Present Stock if Protected From Fire, and the Loss 
Already Incurred in Previously Existing Potential Values, Due to 
Repeated Fires 



Acres 

Potential value of 
dues if burned but 
once 



Potential \alue of 
dues with present 
stock 



Loss of dues by re- 
peated fires 



Loss in previously exis 

Potential stumpage 
value if burned but 



Potential stumpage 
value of present 
stock 



Loss of stumpage val- 
ues by repeated 
fires 






C b£ 



17,350 
$381,700 

381,700 



ting potenti 



1,336,000 



1.336,000 



1) C3 HJ 

•a J*. " ■"' 

a; CD -i-J V. 

S f^ <u ii 



O) tl 4) 

§ ^"'i'- 
lTS fe « J 
i-O ss-r; o 

M S § ^ 

1 •" >> 



17,750i 6,970 



$390,500 



$153,340 



49,700; 9,758 



340,800 
al dues, at 

1,366,750 

173,950 



143,582 
$2 per M 

536,690 

34,150 



1,192,800^ 502,540 



^ C ii 



pq.a o 



9,260 
$203,720 

5,560 
198,160 



713,000 



19,440 



693,560 



51,330 
$1,129,260 

446,718 
682,542 



3,952,440 



1,563,540 



2,388,900 



2,542 



Loss in previously existing potential stumpage values at $7 per M $2,388,900 

Total loss already incurred , on account of repeated fires , in previously ex- 
isting potential dues and stumpage values $3 , 071 , 442 



Potential value of present stock, if protected from fire (dues $446,718, plus 

stumpage $1 , 563 , 540) $2 , 010 , 258 

Great Loss "*■* ^^^^ ^^ ^^^" ^'"°"^ *^^ figures in the above table that 

of Stumpage if the entire area had been burned but once, if it had 
Values become stocked with young pine in the same quantities 

as the present area burned once, and if it were protected from fur- 
ther destruction by fire, the stumpage value of this pine at maturity 
at present prices would be over $3,900,000. As stated on page 198, 
this estimate is based on the assumption that each tree thus theoreti- 
cally present would attain sufficient size to yield 100 feet of boards. 
This condition would be reached when the trees averaged between 12 



200 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



and 13 inches in diameter. The numerous fires which have been 
allowed to run over this area have so reduced the stock that its 
stumpage value at maturity will be about $1,500,000, or, in other 
werds, the fires have cost, in terms of pine stumpage, nearly $2,400,000, 
and the dues on the young pine burned would have amounted to 
$680,000. So the fires have destroyed more than $3,000,000 in poten- 
tial pine values. As a result of the fires, however, we have sufficient 
poplar to make, at maturity, 265,000 cords of pulpwood. Considering 
this to be worth one dollar a cord when ready to harvest, we have 
$265,000 to deduct from the cost of the fires. So the final charge 
against the forest fires, in terms of potential value of pine destroyed, 
is, approximately, $2,800,000. 

While the value of poplar is very much less than that of the pine, 
yet the successive fires have very materially lessened the potential 
value of its crop. Assuming the poplar to be worth one dollar a cord 
on the stump, for pulpwood, and that it could be harvested 30 years 
hence, the following data may be given in regard to the reduction 
of its value on the areas burned more than once : 



TABLE XII 

Yield of Poplar 30 Years Hence on Burned Areas. With Estimates of its 
Value and the Loss in Value by Repeated Fires 





Burned once, 

average cords per 

acre, 9 


Burned twice, 

average cords per 

acre, 5 


Burned three 

times, average 

cords per acre, 

2.5 


Burned many 

times, average 

cords per acre, 

0.3 


2 
o 




17,350 

$156,150 
156,150 


17,750 

$159,750 

88,750 
71,000 


6,970 

$62,730 

17,425 

45,305 


9,260 

$83,340 

3,000 
80.340 


51,330 


Potential value of poplar 30 
years hence if area burned 


$461,970 


Potential value of the present 
stock 30 years hence 


265,325 




196.645 















From the figures in the above tables, it will be seen that the value 
of poplar on the whole area is reduced only 43 per cent by repeated 
fires, while the reduction in the case of the pine is 60 per cent. This 
is due to the well-known fact that fires make conditions favourable for 
the reproduction of poplar. But, in spite of this, some of the areas 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 20L 

have been so often and so severely burned that the value of the poplar 
is less by $196,645 than if there had been only one burning. This 
should be charged to the fire account, so that adding it to the 
$2,800,000 loss of pine, we have a total loss of practically $3,000,000 
from fires which have occurred in the past 25 years on 85,000 acres 
(including swamps and other conditions), or $35 an acre. 

FIRE PROTECTION 

Adequate protection from fire is the necessary preliminary stage 
to any management of the area under consideration for future re- 
turns. There has been no lumbering on a large scale in this region 
for nearly 25 years. Since that time, judged by the number of fires^ 
there has been little or no real fire protection. Deducting the swampy 
areas within the former pineries, it was found that, of the area 
actually burned, only one-third has escaped with a single burning since 
lumbering has been discontinued ; another third has been burned 
twice; one-sixth has been burned three times, and one-sixth has been 
burned many times. The most severe and widespread fires occurred 
25, 16, 8, 5, and 1 year ago, or in other words, there were three 
destructive fires in the past eight years and one each in the two 
former eight-year periods, an increase in rate of 300 per cent in the 
past eight years. If this rate continues, the young pine and poplar at 
present on the area will inevitably be destroyed. As shown on pages. 
199 and 200 this would involve a further loss of $2,275,000 in exist- 
ing potential stumpage and dues values of pine and potential stumpage 
values of poplar, in addition to the above $3,000,000 loss already irre- 
vocably incurred. It would seem worth while from a business point 
of view to save this $2,275,000 if possible. 

PQj.gg^ Officials, and the public in general, assume a rather 

Protection fatalistic attitude toward the occurrence of forest 

Can be Secured f^j-gg. They are considered to be inevitable and un- 
avoidable phenomena, like earthquakes and tornadoes. Such an atti- 
tude of mind perpetuates many an economic waste, one of the greatest 
of which is the destruction of forest wealth, present or potential, by 
fire. Experience has demonstrated that forest fires can be reduced 
to a minimum at a reasonable rate of expenditure, compared with 
the value of the property involved. As an example of this, the co-opera- 
tive forest fire protective associations in the province of Quebec may 
be cited, where fairly efficient protection of large areas costs from 
one-quarter of a cent to one cent per acre per year. In order to accom- 
plish this, however, two things are necessary: (1) An earnest desire 
to prevent fires, through a real appreciation of the value of the pro- 



202 COMMISSION OF C O X S E R \- A T I O X 

perty involved, and (2), efficient, business-like administration of the 
protective organization when once estabHshed. It will be seen that 
the area under consideration lacks both of these prerequisites. The 
territory has been cut over several times. One-half of it has been 
abandoned by the limit-holders and the remainder has been so far 
abandoned that it is not considered of sufficient value to be patrolled 
by a fire ranger. The latter condition is the logical result of throw- 
ing the entire cost of fire protection upon the limit-holder. He has 
usually no financial interest in the cut-over lands, because they will 
eventually revert to the Crown, since he can not, as a rule, afford to 
wait for the young growth to reach merchantable size. As a rule he 
is financially interested only in the timber of present commercial value; 
that gets the protection, and the cut-over lands are neglected. Fire 
on them receives attention only when it endangers standing timber. 

Value of Under the former regulations, when the Government 

Protection Not paid one-half the cost of fire protection, the lessee 
Appreciated could justly be required to patrol the cut-over areas 

as well as the timber areas, but, under the present regulations, this 
hardly seems practicable, unless it be assumed that limits are to be 
held in perpetuity, and this assumption is usually not justified. In the 
actual working out of the new regulations, then, the cut-over lands 
are abandoned to the ravages of fire, both by the Government and by 
the lessees. That such a condition of affairs could exist is due to the 
fact that the actual owners of the land, or, in other words, the people, 
do not appreciate the value of their property. " Waste land " is the 
common appellation applied to these cut-over and burned-over areas, 
yet the figures already given demonstrate that they are far from that. 
As has been pointed out, this relativeh* very small area contains suffi- 
cient young growth to be worth at maturity S2,275,000. The harvest- 
ing of this timber, and the many million dollars worth of material on 
similar areas in the province, would mean the employment of many 
people; with its destruction by fire, the opportimit)' for such prospec- 
tive employment is removed. The dues received by the Government 
help to meet public expense; the removal by forest fires of the pos- 
sibilit}- of collecting such dues means that money for current public 
expenses must be raised in some other way, with the consequent in- 
crease in taxes, either direct or indirect. The people, therefore, 
have a direct financial interest in these cut-over lands. When they 
realize this, and appreciate their value, they will be efficiently protected 
from fire. 

Where fire protection has been most efficient, it has been chiefly 
preventive. The means of prevention usually adopted are lookout 





p. 5« 



ij ^ 






EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 203 

towers, patrolmen, trails, telephone lines, tools and men for fighting 
the fire. These are all accessories to reaching and putting out the fire 
before it gets beyond control. Another phase of efficient protection is 
in preventing the occurrence of fire, by educating the frequenters of 
the forest to be careful in the use of fire. This is the hardest task 
that has to be done. 

Suggested Turning to the phase of efficient protection, the object 

Means of of which is the quick extinguishing of the fire when 

Protection ^^^^ started, and applying it to the area under consid- 

eration, it was found that it could be adequately protected by one look- 
out station on the Blue mountains, situated in the centre of the terri- 
tory and commanding a view of nearly every acre of the area. It 
should be connected by telephone with the neighbouring communities, 
to summon help in case of fire. A rural telephone line is already in 
operation on two sides of the area and most of the inhabitants live 
along this line. It could be tapped from the Blue mountains for a dis- 
tance of eight miles, and could be installed for $500, including cost of 
materials. The lookout man could be provided with a cottage at the 
foot of the mountains, not more than a half mile from the best position 
for the lookout station. Such a building, suitable for summer occupa- 
tion, could be erected at a cost of $500, making a total outlay of 
$1,000 for the telephone fine and the cottage. This initial capital 
investment could readily be made from the sale of mature material now 
on the ground. 

The cost of patrol, fire-fighting and supervision need not exceed 
three cents per acre per year. For this sum it is possible to afford a 
very good degree of protection. The cost of overhead supervision per 
acre chargeable to fire protection would be reduced if a larger area 
than that discussed in this report were to be included in the proposed 
reserve, or if some line of scientific investigation, preferably a forest 
experiment station, were to be carried on, in connection with the 
general work of forest protection and administration. However, it 
will be safe to estimate the average cost of fire protection at three cents 
per acre per year. 

It has already been shown that the potential value of 
Resultsof the existing young growth of pine and poplar is, in 

Protection ^^^^^^ figures, $2,275,000. Out of the total of 85,000 

acres, only 15,000 acres are unburned mature forest (see p. 190), 
leaving approximately 70,000 acres which were occupied by the former 
pineries and have been more or less burned over. This includes un- 
burned swamps and oak barrens, which must be included in any 
scheme for protection, being scattered in relatively small areas. Using 



204 C O M -M I S S I O X OF CONSERVATION 

this figure of 70,000 acres, then, as a basis, the potential value of the 
existing young growth is approximately S33 per acre. If the period 
of maturity be taken as 50 years hence, then three cents per acre per 
year, at 4 per cent interest, compounded annually, becomes $4.58 at 
the end of 50 years. Therefore, after a total of less than $5 per acre 
had been spent, including interest, distributed over a period of 50 years, 
the province would have a property of 70,000 acres, worth $33 per 
acre, a clear profit of more than $28 an acre. 

Fire Pre- Turning now to the second phase of efficient fire pro- 

vention and tection, namely, the actual prevention of the occurrence 

ucation q£ fires, we come to the greatest need of fire protection 

propaganda, that is, a campaign of education and publicity. There is 
already considerable public sentiment in favour of fire protection, but 
it is mostly subconscious and non-expressive. It must be aroused and 
made virile and aggressive. This could be best accomplished by 
accentuating the financial results following fire protection. The com- 
mon tendency is to think of the benefits resulting from fire protection 
as something remote — a sort of entailment in favour of future genera- 
tions. But it should be emphasized that the present generation would 
reap the benefits of protection even on cut-over lands. While the value 
of the yields forecasted on page 199 would hardly be attained in one 
generation, yet in 30 to 50 years, at the present rate of growth, if 
protected from fire, the area under consideration will yield over 
$2,000,000 worth of pine lumber and $265,000 worth of poplar for 
pulpwood. The harvesting of this would give employment to many 
members of the community in which it is located, and, if the area were 
large enough, the employment would be permanent. 

T^ This, then, is the argument from the business stand- 

Permanent . ^„ . - • 1 J 1.1 , 

Benefits to pomt : Effective fire protection leads to a stable and 

be Derived permanent lumber industry in the community, with 

consequent permanent employment of its members. Those who would 
not benefit directly by securing employment would serve or supply 
those who would so benefit. Contrast this with the present system, 
in which the lumberman removes all of the trees, and is steadily forced 
farther and farther from the markets in order to obtain merchantable 
timber, with the consequent increase in cost of production and trans- 
portation and, therefore, increased cost to the consumer. The present 
system leaves former timber lands open to recurring fires, greatly 
retarding or, in some cases, completely preventing the natural restock- 
ing of the area by commercial trees. It also results in increased 
taxation, abandoned farms, and a stranded population, often compelled 
to eke out a mere existence by hunting and fishing. 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 205 

Communities not infrequently offer special inducements to cer- 
tain industries to locate in their midst, and such industries often fur- 
nish, directly or indirectly, the means of livelihood for the greater 
portion of the inhabitants. They become such an integral part of the 
community that their withdrawal would be an economic calamity. A 
suggestion of such a thing would be fought vigorously by the citizens. 
If the citizens reahzed the value of the forest to the country as a 
source of permanent employment and permanent supply, they would 
fight against its removal just as vigorously and they would promote 
any means leading to its perpetuation. 

So the work of the propagandist of fire protection is to present to 
the public the relation of the forests to the industries dependent upon 
their products, the relation of forest industries to other industries and 
the relations of the forests to the pubHc treasury. The annual value 
of the products of the lumber industry in Canada is surpassed only 
by those of agriculture and manufactures. A large, but, in reality, 
diminishing, portion of the revenues of the eastern provinces is ob- 
tained from the forests. The taxpayer should be made to appreciate 
the relation of all this to his pocketbook. When he does, the unre- 
strained destruction of forests by fires will be regarded as an economic 
waste not to be tolerated. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

In devising a policy for the proper management of this watershed 
there should first be made a classification and segregation of the lands 
which are capable of agricultural use from those which should be 
forever given over to timber culture. 

As has been shown in a previous report*, many farms 

Possibilities which had been abandoned, and others which are still 

farmed, are really too poor for successful farming. 

Nevertheless, there are areas which are capable of agricultural 
use. Indeed, the richest and, probably, the most potentially profitable 
soils have been overlooked. These could be made useful for cattle 
ranching and specialized farming. 

The area burned many times, as indicated on the accompanying 
map (facing page 166), is over 12,000 acres. At least one-quarter of 
this is composed of marshes and swamps. Many of these already 
have hay of such quality that cattle readily fatten on it, and many more 
could be made to do so without a prohibitive amount of work upon 
them. The more intractable portions could be fenced for grazing pur- 
poses, while the more easily managed areas could raise the hay to 



*Trent Watershed Survey. Commission of Conservation, 1913. 



206 C O M ^I I S S T O X OF CONSERVATION 

support the cattle in the winter. It is claimed, and probably with 
truth, that cattle can be brought to the " stocker " condition by free 
range in the forest. It is to be noticed, however, that in the later and 
drier portions of the season they do most of their grazing along the 
edges of the marshes, especially those along moving streams, where 
both food and water are accessible. Even under the most favourable 
conditions in the bush, cattle range over large areas in a day to find 
satisfying quantities of food. It is evident that they would fatten 
more readily if kept more closely confined in ranges, including areas 
of the more solid blue-joint grass-producing portions of the marshes 
(to avoid the danger of cattle being mired), and larger areas of the 
uplands. It is noticeable that white clover and blue grass grow 
luxuriantly along the margins of trails. It is also noticeable in cases 
of severe burning, where everything is killed and the litter burned 
down to the mineral soil, that pure stands of white clover and blue 
grass often cover patches several square rods in extent. It might be 
that pasturage could be materially increased in this way. If, by care- 
fully managed trials, the cattle-raising industry should prove suc- 
cessful, it could be made a source of considerable profit through rentals 
of grazing areas. Indeed, it might well prove to be more profitable to 
utilize these semi-barren areas for permanent pasturage than for 
forest purposes. 

M k t G r Another alternative measure is the conversion of the 

dens from marshes and swamps into market gardens. As stated 

Swamps above, many of them are already grass covered, and 

these vary in size from a few acres to those containing several hundred 
acres. Some would require but little drainage, others considerable. 
Nearly all of these marshes have streams flowing through them; they 
are not of the undrained peat bog type, and consequently are but 
slightly acid, a condition readily rectified by liming. An analysis of the 
soil of one of these marshes showed it to consist of decaying vegetable 
matter to the extent of 60 per cent of its dry weight, 25 per cent silt. 
4 per cent clay, and the rest mostly of the finer grades of sand. Soils 
of this kind extend to the depth of three to twelve feet and if properly 
managed they would furnish a practically inexhaustible supply of 
plant food matter to garden crops. 

The utilization of these soils would, of course, be a matter of 
provincial control. The beginnings could be small, without a great 
initial outlay of money. It would be very desirable to establish an 
experimental farm on these soils. If it were demonstrated that they 
could be successfully managed, then encouragement could be given 
settlers to take up these lands by aiding in drainage, the cost being 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 



207 



charged in the form of rent for a certain number of years, at the 
conclusion of which the settlers could be given title under the usual 
homesteading conditions. Ten acres of such soil devoted to garden 
crops would support a family. There are about 15,000 acres that 
might be eventually used for this purpose in the township of Methuen 
alone. 

The chief objection to such a plan is the present dis- 
Reaching ^ ^^^^ markets, the average distance to a through 

4. Via Tvl3.rKCtS 

railway being 20 miles. This could be met by a co- 
operative motor-truck service, and when the produce once reached the 
railway it could be brought to such a market as Toronto, for example, 
in two or three hours, so the distance from the field to the market 
would not be over six or seven hours. It may be argued that it is 
hopeless to offer inducements to utilize such soils, while better soils in 
other parts of the country remain yet to be occupied. It would be 
difficult, however, to find better soils from the standpoint of fertility. 
Only from the standpoint of mass and contiguous distribution are 
others superior. It is evident that the day of intensive and specialized 
farming has arrived, and the soils in question ofifer an opportunity for 
one line of development in that direction. It is to the advantage of the 
province to keep its farming population at home. Most of the depopu- 
lation of the rural districts has taken place in the regions of the poorer 
upland farms like this one. The opening up and successful utilization 
of the moist lowlands would undoubtedly induce most of the young 
men to stay at home, and would contribute to the up-building of their 
own communities. 

The bulk of the land, however, was designed by nature 
ShouW be ^^^ for wood crops ; it is absolute forest soil, and the prin- 
Devised cipal effort should be to devise a proper forest policy 

for the area. 

It seems obvious to one who has studied the problem of the cut- 
over and burned-over lands in the Trent watershed that they should 
at least be placed under some kind of control which would ensure 
adequate protection from repeated forest fires. From the calcula- 
tions on the preceding pages of this report, it is equally obvious 
that such protection would prove a highly profitable investment for 
some long-lived institution. This protection, as has been shown, would 
involve a relatively small outlay of funds, compared with the potential 
value of the young growth, since mere protection is about all that is 
needed on at least one-half of the area covered by this report. It has 
been conclusively proven by the figures on the preceding pages that 



208 COMMISSION OF COXSERVATIOX 

nature, in time, if not interfered with, would re-establish the pine on 
the cut-over pineries in commercial quantities. If man would do 
his part and remove the interference (forest fires), all would be well, 
and the former pine lands would continue to produce pine indefinitely. 

Three plans* have been suggested for future action 
trol"of Area°"" *^^ ^^^ cut-over and burned-over lands in the Trent 
watershed, namely, (1) municipal ownership and man- 
agement; (2) provincial management, and (3) co-operative manage- 
ment between the Dominion and the Provincial governments, the latter 
because of the interest which the Dominion has in the protection of the 
watersheds of the Trent canal. Of these three plans the first seems the 
most logical and desirable to the writer, if it could be inaugurated.j 

One of the chief arguments in favour of county ownership is the 
stimulation of local interest that would be created. Fire protection 
would be more effective under local management, for the in- 
habitants of the community would realize that they, and not some 
absentee landlord, would reap its benefits. On the other hand, one 
of the chief arguments against county ownership is that the financial 
backing of the enterprise would not be so strong as in the case of 
provincial or federal management, although the initial outlay of money 
need not be large, as has been shown on pp. 203-204. Moreover, most 
of the initial outlay, and, to some degree at least, the annual cost of 
protection, could be oft'set by the sales of merchantable material already 
on the area, such as is contained in the patches of hardwoods, scattered 
groups of pine, the elm in the swamps, and there are many places 
along the margins of swamps and in the gullies where 100 cords of 
poplar could be cut on a relatively small area. These operations would 
involve the establishment of a local sawmill, with its employment of 
local labour. Again, a local interest in the protection of the area from 
fire would be stimulated. At the end of 15 years the cutting of poplar 
on a fairly large scale could be begun and at the end of 30 years, 
according to the calculations on p. 200 some 328,000 cords of poplar 
could be harvested. By this time also, considerable young pine would 
have attained commercial size. 



*Trent IVatersJicd Survey. Commission of Conservation, Canada, Ottawa, 
1913. Pp. 15-20. 

tit should be mentioned in this connection that Hastings county has already 
initiated a policy, through the Counties Reforestation Act, of acquiring cut-over 
and burned-over lands and holding them for their future timber yields. The 
councillors of Peterborough county, in which the area under discussion is situ- 
ated, have a similar project under consideration. 




Reproduction of White Pine and Poplar on Area Burned Once 




General View of an Area Burned Twice 
Note scattering young growth of pine remaining. Contrast with reproduction on area 

burned once. 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 209 

jj p . On the greater portion of the 9,000 acres burned many 

of Pine times, there are not enough pine seed trees to insure 

Necessary ^ restocking of the area by natural processes. Under 

forest management this would eventually require planting, but it would 
be a waste of money to do so until fire protection had been demon- 
strated to be effective. There is no doubt that, where fire risk is re- 
duced to the minimum, forest planting would be profitable for a long- 
lived institution, but, if this area were placed in the hands of the county, 
planting could be delayed until the harvesting of the crop was 
assured, and other conditions justified it. 

While then, theoretically, county management would recommend 
itself on account of the local interest which it would create, practically, 
it is open to question whether the counties are financially able to burden 
themselves with the responsibility of caring for such lands, especially 
for the poorer ones, which do not promise early returns. It is doubt- 
ful, also, whether they could be expected to employ the technical advice 
which is needful, to make a success of forest management. This is a 
new business and requires careful planning and circumspect detail 
attention, which only a specially fitted manager can give. 

There are other practical difficulties and objections to the transfer 
of these lands to the counties, which, however, do not preclude the 
participation of the counties in the benefits, indirect as well as direct, 
which would come from a provincial or federal management. 

The next logical proposition is for the province to place these lands 
under management for continuity. The only objection to this is the 
financial one. 

It is realized that the province, because of more insistent demands 
for public expenditure in other directions, absence of sufficient public 
interest, or because of other reasons, may not be in a position to under- 
take a management which cannot furnish returns for a series of years. 

Luckily, the interest of the Dominion in this watershed is paramount 
and, having in her Forestry Branch a technical bureau which could 
take charge at once and efficiently, no practical difficulty would be 
experienced in inaugurating a broad, comprehensive policy of manage- 
ment for the entire watershed. 

Since the province is already receiving no rent for nearly one-half 
of the Burleigh-Methuen area under consideration, it being abandoned 
timber limits, and is receiving only ground rent — less than one cent an 
acre yearly, for the other half, the commercial timber being all cut off — 
the province might without serious financial loss, when the licenses on 
the latter are cancelled, turn the area over to the Dominion gratis. 

This could be effected under a condition that the Provincial govern- 
ment and the counties receive a stated proportion of the net or 
14 — c. c. 



210 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

gross receipts which may be derived from the management of these 
areas. Such an arrangement exists in the administration of the United 
States National Forests, where 25 per cent of the gross returns is 
turned over to the states in which the forests are situated, to aid in 
the maintenance of roads and schools. 

■p An additional advantage that might be expected to 

Experimental follow the transfer of this area to the Dominion 
Station Forestry Branch, under any terms mutually acceptable, 

would be the local establishment of a forest experiment station, with 
one or more technically trained men, who would devote their whole 
time to investigating silvicultural problems. Such investigations 
would have for their object the securing of a thorough knowledge of 
the silvical characteristics and requirements of the various species of 
forest trees — a solid scientific basis for the silvicultural handling of 
existing forests, and for the establishment of new forests, to secure 
the most economic use of the timber and other products of the forest, 
and a more exact knowledge of its indirect benefits. 

Scientific information can be secured only in a systematic manner 
and by intensive methods of study. So far as forestry work is con- 
cerned, such information can best be secured through the establishment 
of forest experiment stations. This idea has already been developed 
extensively in other countries, including France, Germany, India and 
the United States. The silvicultural investigations carried on by the 
United States Forest Service are classed under the following 
headings : 

Porestation — 

General Studies 

Seed, production, fertility, methods of extraction, etc. 
Nursery practice 

Species, methods, and seasons for artificial forestation 
Sites — limits upon the growth of each species fixed by site condi- 
tions 
Introduction of exotics 
Species 

V or est Influences Upon Climate, Stream Plow, Erosion, etc. 
Management — 

General systems and their technical basis 

Methods of cutting 

Brush disposal 

Natural reproduction 

Thinnings 

Valuation — immature growth, merchantable timber, soil for 
forest production 



EFFECT OF REPEATED FOREST FIRES 211 

Mensuration 
Protection from — 

Fire 

Grazing 

Disease 

Insects 

Animals 

Snow 

Regional Studies of Types and Forest Conditions 
Silvical Studies — 

Distribution of forest trees and types 

Forest types — description, basis of tree associations, etc. 

Special studies. 

Tree Studies — 

Growth, yield, silvical characteristics, methods of management, 
etc. 

Utilization Studies 

While the Dominion Forestry Branch could not be expected to 
undertake all the above lines of investigation immediately, the list will 
indicate the wide range of possibilities. Aside from the conduct of 
actual planting operations on a limited scale, by the provinces of 
Ontario and Quebec, and by various private interests in these and other 
provinces, but little systematic attempt has been made in eastern 
Canada to solve the class of forest problems indicated above. If 
forestry is to be placed on a permanent basis in Canada, a great deal 
of scientific investigation must be carried on, as in other countries, and 
the Dominion Forestry Branch is the most logical organization in 
Canada to undertake and prosecute such work. Forest experiment 
stations are needed at a number of points throughout the Dominion, 
where the results secured will apply to different conditions and have 
a wide general application. It is believed that the portion of the Trent 
watershed, discussed in this report, would be eminently suitable for 
the establishment of a forest experiment station, since the region is 
typical of very large areas of lands in eastern Canada, chiefly or only 
valuable for the permanent production of timber. Thus, the transfer 
of this area to the Dominion Forestry Branch, on any terms that might 
be agreed upon, would not only help to protect the large investment 
of the Dominion Government in the Trent canal, by furnishing ade- 
quate fire protection, but would also tend to greatly advance the general 
cause of forestry in eastern Canada, by facilitating the conduct of 
scientific investigations, and the establishment of a demonstration area 
for the elaboration of the various methods of handling forest properties. 



PART V 

The Reproduction of Commercial Species in the 
Southern Coastal Forests of British Columbia* 

BY 

C. D. Howe, Ph.D. 



OBJECT OF THE WORK AND THE CONCLUSIONS IN BRIEF 

EVEN the casual observer, employing the usual methods of travel 
in the southern coastal region of British Columbia, would doubt- 
less be impressed by the abundance of forest reproduction, especially 
that of Douglas fir. He sees young trees, often in dense stands, on all 
sides. If he reflects upon the significance of what he sees he gets the 
impression that there is nothing to fear in regard to the establishment 
of future commercial forests. However, for the most part, he sees 
this reproduction only along the margin of green forests, adjacent 
to cleared fields, highways and burned areas, where the conditions for 
the re-establishment of the forest are the very best. Are the conditions 
the same throughout the logged-over and burned-over areas ? That is, 
are these very extensive areas in an adequate manner reproducing the 
forest which has been removed? The investigations, described on 
the following pages, were made in order to answer this question. The 
results are based not upon general impressions, so often misleading even 
to a careful observer, but upon a painstaking enumeration of the 
young trees on measured areas laid out in such a manner as to include 
all kinds of conditions. 

As the result of such investigations, the question stated above may 
be answered thus: On about one-half of the area logged and burned 
in the past 20 years, the forest reproduction is not sufficiently abundant 
to insure the re-establishment of the commercial forest. The other 
half, however, is well stocked with young trees, and, if not burned, a 
forest yielding saw-logs is assured. 



*The investigations reported in the following pages were carried on by 
the Commission of Conservation in co-operation with the Forest Branch 
of British Columbia. The writer is deeply indebted to the Chief Forester 
and members of his staff for their hearty co-operation and aid in facilitating 
the work. 

212 




A Ground Fire Burning the Slash 

The shade of the debris and under vegetation is removed, the mineral soil is exposed and 

sufficient seed trees are left. Conditions favourable for the reproduction of Douglas fir. 




The Probable Condition of the Area Shown Above After Twelve Years 

The area represented here was logged and burned twelve years ago and it now contains 

5,000 young fir trees, 1,300 cedar and 400 hemlock per acre. 



REPRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES 213 

The barrenness, from the standpoint of young trees, on one-half 
of the logged area is due to the occurrence of repeated fires. One 
burning stimulates the reproduction of Douglas fir. In fact, it is 
regarded as necessary for the establishment of dense stands; but a 
second burning is very disastrous, because it kills both the seed trees 
and the young growth following the first fire. There is nothing left 
with which to start another crop of trees on the area. 

Judging by the age of the fire scars on the older trees, and by the 
age of the stands following the first fire, the writer found that during 
the past 20 years four widespread fires occurred. That is, a severe 
fire occurred once in five years, the last one being four years ago. From 
20 years to 100 years ago the average interval between widespread 
fires was 27 years, while from 100 years to 360 years ago severe and 
widespread fires took place at intervals of 86 years. Therefore, the 
rate of the occurrence of fires has increased enormously in the past 
few years. Practically all of these fires were upon the logged-over 
areas, and so endangered or killed the forest reproduction. 

The significance of the increasing number of fires lies in the fact 
that the future supply of saw-logs must come from the logged-over 
areas. It takes, under average conditions, from 75 years to 100 years 
to make even the smallest trees now being used for saw-logs. The 
largest trees are from 400 to 900 years old. Adequate fire protection 
for the young growth on the logged-over areas should be installed 
at once. 

NATURE OF THE INVESTIGATIONS 

The following report upon the re-establishment of the forest after 
logging and after burning is the result of work on the eastern coast of 
Vancouver island as far north as Union bay and on the mainland 
coast as far north as Powell river. The investigations extend inland 
about five miles in each case, so that the total area explored covered 
about 1,000 square miles. After areas of second growth of various 
ages had been located by a general exploration, the number of young 
trees on them was counted by means of strips 33 feet (one-half chain) 
wide and their ages determined. The length of the strips depended 
upon the density and uniformity of the stand, being shortest in the 
more dense and more uniform stands. With the exception of the stands 
less than 10 years old, however, all the strips were at least 20 rods 
(5 chains) long, and some of them were two miles in length, the aver- 
age being about one-fourth mile (20 chains). From these sample 
strips, the number of trees on an acre was calculated and the results 
are given in the tables below. The total area of such sample strips on 
which the young trees were counted was over 43 acres. Besides this, 
sample strips of like nature, amounting to 28 acres, were made in the 



214 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

cut-over areas to determine the number of seed trees remaining after 
the logging operations. At the same time, studies were made on the 
influence upon the re-establishment of the commercial species of vari- 
ous agencies, such as logging without burning, logging with burning, 
and the presence of underbrush. 

After a brief description of the mature forests in the southern 
coastal forests of British Columbia, the following report passes to a 
description of the young forests (the forest reproduction) dominated 
by fir, hemlock or cedar (pp. 218-222). The section of the report 
following this deals with the agencies which accelerate or retard the 
establishment of young forests. The last topic is discussed under such 
headings as logging without burning, logging with burning and the 
under-vegetation (pp. 222-229). The recommendations based upon 
the results of the investigations are presented in the final section 
(pp. 229-231). 

The statements in regard to the ages of the older trees are to be 
considered only as approximate. The age is determined by counting 
the annual growth rings on the stumps, so an addition must be made 
for the time taken by the young tree to reach stump height. This 
period varies according to the favour of the growth conditions in 
which the seedling found itself ; it may have grown in height very 
slowly or very rapidly. For example, some seedlings in very dense 
stands on poor soil were found to make an average height growth of 
three inches a year for the first ten years, while, on the other hand, 
seedlings in the best soil conditions grew at the rate of over a foot a 
year in the same time. From the measurement of several hundred 
seedlings in various conditions of density and soil, the rate of six 
inches a year for the first ten years was taken as the average height 
growth, and the age of a tree to the height of the stump was calculated 
on this basis. 

The young trees, whose ages were to be determined, were cut flush 
with the ground, so the results in this case are quite accurate. There 
are chances of error in determining the age of fire scars, as it may 
happen that a growth layer is not laid down in some years on the side 
of the tree where the rings were counted. 

MATURE FORESTS 

In the coastal region of British Columbia, included in this report, 
from sea level to an elevation of approximately 2,000 feet, Douglas 
fir is the predominant tree species in the mature forest, both as to 
numbers, since it comprises from 70 to 80 per cent of the stands, and 
as to growth conditions, since it overtops its associates in the forest, 
and furnishes the greater portion of the lumber. If, however, the 



REPRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES 215 

immature and non-commercial trees were included in a tree census, 
the Western hemlock, for reasons to be stated later, would be found 
to outrank the fir in mere numbers. 

The largest fir trees, from four to eight feet in diameter, and 200 
to 300 feet high, occur in the deep sandy loam soils of the first bench 
lands above the lakes, streams and along the innumerable re-entrant 
arms of the sea. According to the writer's observations, they occur 
at present only in scattered groves, or relatively small patches, or scat- 
tered among trees of much smaller size. They are usually in situations 
well protected from fire, and this is doubtless the reason they have 
been spared. The medium-sized trees, from one and one-half to four 
feet in diameter, and from 150 to 200 feet high, are found on the 
stony loams and the sands of the second bench lands of the inland 
waters and of the old sea terraces of the coast. They are also found 
on soils of similar nature on the numerous glacial sand plains at the 
mouth of the mountain valleys. These medium-sized fir trees, in 
addition, extend up the lower slopes of the mountains to an elevation 
between 600 and 800 feet. The situations in which the medium-sized 
trees grow are very extensive, and they furnish by far the greater 
portion of the fir saw-logs. 

Above an altitude of 600 to 800 feet the mature fir trees as a whole 
are small, from ten to thirteen inches in Hiameter, and from 75 to 125 
feet high. Some medium-sized trees, however, may run up the ravines 
to the higher elevations. The soil is thin and very rocky, although, 
when not burned, the rocks are hidden by a luxuriant growth of mosses, 
ferns and small, woody undergrowth. The stands are dense and have 
every appearance of being "growth bound." This type of fir forest 
is quite extensive. Small mature trees also occupy the numerous 
gravel plains at lower elevations. 

Western hemlock is the commonest associate of the Douglas fir in 
the coastal region under consideration, but it rarely, if ever, attains 
the proportions of the fir. Away from the immediate coast, it grows 
in rather more moist situations than the fir, or is more abundant and 
of larger size when it shares with the fir the better soil conditions. It 
is found in good development particularly along streams and on north- 
facing stream slopes, on flats at the head of lakes, in gullies and depres- 
sions in the sand plains. Hemlock occurs in suppressed condition, 
often in dense thickets, beneath nearly all of the mature fir stands 
whatever the kind of soil they may occupy, so that if these small trees 
be counted, the hemlock very often surpasses the fir in numbers, 
although the fir dominates the stand. The hemlock evidently recovers 
from its suppression when released by the death of the over-topping 
fir, for a break in the crown cover of the fir is usually occupied by 



216 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

hemlock, so that even in the pure stands of fir there are scattered 
small groups of mature hemlock. At the higher elevations, the hemlock 
gradually displaces the fir in the forest. 

Western cedar is much less common than the hemlock as an asso- 
ciate of the Douglas fir, but in its best situations it more nearly ap- 
proaches the fir in size; in fact it sometimes surpasses the fir in diam- 
eter, but not in height. The largest cedars are found on moist fiats 
along lakes, sea and streams. Cedar, however, like the hemlock, may 
be found in almost any soil condition, but it apparently does not 
reach large size on indifferent soils except on the immediate slopes of 
the shores. 

Balsam, Sitka spruce and western white pine, so far as observed, 
occur only scatteringly in the Douglas fir forests. The balsam is the 
most common of the three. 

One is impressed by the occurrence of a large number of stands 
of mature fir in which the trees are nearly all of the same age. The 
stands of medium-sized trees, for example, were prevailingly 315, 170 
and 124 years old. In fact, representatives of these age classes were 
found on every area studied, whether on the island or on the main- 
land. The uniformity of age, however, was not so pronounced among 
the largest and oldest trees. The largest tree observed was seven feet 
in diameter and was 910 years old. Fire scars disclosed the fact that 
the tree was burned 856 and 335 years ago. The large trees, about 
six feet in diameter, at Chemainus, were 540 years old. Those near 
Cowichan lake and Gibson landing were 425 years old, with an 
average diameter of five feet. In both places they showed fire scars 
230 years old. At Powell river they were 356 years old, and averaged 
four feet in diameter, while at Union bay they were 460 years old and 
six feet in diameter. 

Younger stands, 70 and 100 years old, were also frequent on all of 
the areas investigated. These are the ages of most of the fir trees left 
after the logging operations at Shawnigan lake, Chemainus and Union 
bay, and also of the trees now standing on the logged-over areas on 
the north side of Burrard inlet, at Gibson landing and Powell river. 

Judging by what we know of the method of re-establishing fir 
forests after the more recent fires, we are fairly safe in assuming that 
these mature Douglas fir forests were established as the result of fire. 
Moreover, all the five younger age classes mentioned above correspond 
with the ages of fire scars on the neighbouring older trees. This point 
may be made clear by describing the condition of aflfairs at Powell 
river, where a careful study of the history of the forest on a square 
mile was made. The majority of trees logged on the area would be 
approximately 315 years old if standing to-day. The fire scars on the 



RETRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES 217^ 

veterans were 316 and 70 years old. The scattered veterans were 356 
years old, and they doubtless represent the remnants of the stand 
burned 316 years ago. One finds some trees 155 years old, but it is 
evident that they established themselves beneath an old stand, for they 
were suppressed for the first 55 years, being only two inches in diam- 
eter at that time. Something happened 100 years ago to release them,, 
for they began to grow rapidly a few years after that date. It may 
have been the fire recorded by the scars 100 years ago on adjacent 
trees, although the stumps of the 155-year-old trees do not show fire 
scars of that date. Nearby stands, however, are 100 years old, and 
the effect of the fire recorded 70 years ago is to be found in adjacent, 
stands of that age. 

YOUNG FORESTS 

Under the heading of young forests are included all those areas 
where the young trees of the commercial species are in the process 
of reproducing a forest. A new forest may be in process of re-estab- 
lishment beneath an old forest or upon areas wholly or partially 
cleared by fire or by logging or by both. Practically all of the repro- 
duction of Douglas fir forests is taking place on areas cleared by fire 
alone or by logging and fire combined. A new hemlock forest, how- 
ever, may be established beneath an old fir forest. This is because 
young hemlock trees can endure shade, while young fir trees will not 
grow well if shaded by the crown cover of larger trees. 

The object in this section of the report is to show the decrease in 
the number of trees per acre as the stands grow older. The death 
rate is greater, the greater the density of the stand, yet the denser 
the young stand, the better will be the quality of the lumber produced 
by the surviving trees. As the shade is so dense that the side branches 
are killed off early in the life of the tree, the wood laid down on the 
stem after this is free from knots, hence the quality of the lumber 
is improved. Crowding also forces the young trees to grow more 
rapidly in height and more uniformly in thickness, with the final result 
of more logs to a tree and less taper in a log. 

Dense young stands are necessary to produce the largest quantity 
of the best quality of commercial timber. For this reason the agencies 
which bring about dense stands should be encouraged and those which 
tend to retard or destroy their development should be eliminated. 

For convenience of presentation, the description of the forest repro- 
duction will be given under three sub-titles, namely, that in which 
Douglas fir predominates, that in which hemlock is the most abundant,., 
and that in which cedar is the most numerous. 



218 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



Douglas Fir 
Predominant 



The table below gives the average density per acre of 
the young Douglas fir forests grouped into age classes 
of ten-year intervals. The actual age of these stands 

will be found under the section upon the influence of fires on forest 

reproduction. 



TABLE I 

Number of Young Trees Per Acre, Accordixg to Age by Decades, Based Upox 
32 Acres of Sample Strips 



Age, by decades 



Less than 10 years 

10 to 20 years 

20 to 30 years . . . . 
30 to 40 years 



Douglas 
fir 


Hemlock 


Cedar 


Balsam 


White 








pine 


53,300 


1,000 


3,300 






3,900 


270 


470 


30 


5 


1,100 


220 


170 


20 


5 


410 


270 


100 


10 


.. ■ - 



Total 
trees 



57,600 

4,670 

1,510 

790 



Percentages of Young Trees Per Acre, According to Decades, as Above 



Age, by decades 



Less than 10 vear« 
10 to 20 vears . . . . 
20 to 30 years . . . . 
30 to 40 years . . . . 



Douglas 

fir. 
Per cent 



93.0 
83.4 
72.6 
52.0 



Hemlock, 
Per cent 



2.0 

5.7 

14.6 

34.0 



Cedar, j Balsam, 



Per cent 



5,0 
10.0 
11.2 
12.6 



White 



Per cent in \ 

Per cent 



0.7 
1.3 
1.3 



0.1 
0,3 



One frequently finds small patches of fir in which the number of 
trees on an acre was much higher than given in the table above. For 
example, four-year-old stands sometimes ran as high as 322.000 little 
trees upon an acre, and even in the 16- and 18-year-old stands the 
number per acre frequently reached 30,000. The figures in the table, 
however, give a good idea of the general condition of the reproduction, 
including the poor as well as the good. 

The table above clearly shows the natural thinning-out that takes 
place as the trees increase in age and size. In the case of the 57,600, less 
than 10 years old on an average acre, each little tree occupies less than 
a square foot of soil. If all of these trees lived until they were a foot 
in diameter, the result would be a solid block of wood upon an acre. 
We know that trees do not grow that way. There is not room enough 
for them all, so the weak die and the strong survive. As shown by 
the table, in this case 91 per cent of the trees had died by the end of 
the nineteenth year, 97 per cent at the end of 29 years, and 98 per cent 




A Stand of Douglas Fir About 100 Years Old 
Fire scars on adjacent older trees are of that age, so this stand evidently followed the fire. 

It has not been burned since. 




Thls Area has been Burned Twice 

The young growth is scattered and patchy in distribution. The dead saplings indicate that it 

was once well covered with young trees. 



REPRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES 219 

were dead at the beginning of the fortieth year, or, in other words, only 
one in fifty of the original trees was aHve, that is, if we assume that 
the forest between 30 and 40 years old started in the same manner as 
the present stands less than 10 years old. Stated in another way, the 
death rate per acre was 5,000 yearly during the second decade; 300 
yearly during the third, and 70 trees per acre yearly during the fourth 
decade. It will be seen that the death rate was still more pronounced 
in the case of the fir alone, since less than one in a hundred of the 
original trees was alive at the end of the fourth decade. 

By referring to the percentage table above, one will see that the 
proportion of the hemlock gradually increases as the stands grow 
older. This shows that the hemlock can endure crowding and shading 
better than the fir. The tendency of the hemlock to crowd out the 
fir as the forest gets older seems to be a general rule in the coastal 
forests of British Columbia. This is particularly true in the better 
soil conditions, and, as stated in the preceding section, (p. 216), the 
hemlock is beneath the stands of fir on the poorer soils, ready to take 
the place of the fir as soon as it is removed, that is, if the natural con- 
ditions are not too violently disturbed. 

In travelling through the southern coastal region of British Colum- 
bia one is impressed by the vigorous reproduction of Douglas fir, yet 
the occurrence of well-stocked stands of young fir is scattering and 
patchy in nature. The mature forests which will arise from these 
young stands will not be as continuous and uniformly distributed as 
the present mature forest, and consequently the forest area of the 
future will not yield as much saw-log material. This prediction is 
based on the fact that large areas of young forests are being periodic- 
ally burned, and, when the young growth is killed by fire, little or no 
young growth of commercial trees comes in to take its place. The 
reasons for this will be discussed in the section on the influence of 
fire upon forest reproduction. 

Stands in which hemlock predominated, covering large 

„ , . areas, were much less frequent than those in which 

Predominant 

fir predominated. Young hemlock stands were plenti- 
ful, but they occur in relatively small groups, usually on the better 
soils of depressions and flats. 



220 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



TABLE II 

Number of Youxg Trees Per Acre, According to Age by Decades, Based Upon: 
11 Acres of Sample Strips 



Age, by decades 



Hemlock Douglas fir 



Less than 10 vears 44,900 5,000 

10 to 20 vears 7,770 400 

20 to 30 'vears 6,170 180 

30 to 40 years 3,900 j 100 



Cedar 




Percentage of Young Trees Per Acre, According to Decades, as Above 



Age, by decades 



Less than 10 years 

10 to 20 years 

20 to 30 years 

30 to 40 vears 



Hemlock, , Douglas fir. Cedar, 

Per cent I Per cent Per cent 



82 


9 


9.0 


93 


5 


2.0 


95 


3 


1.4 


94 


2 


4.0 



As in the case of the fir, some of the young stands were much 

more dense than is indicated by the averages, as given in the table 

above. For example, a small plot in a four-year-old stand disclosed 

seedlings at the rate of 2.800.000 to the acre. By comparing this table 

(Table II) with that of the fir (Table I), one will see that there are 

many more hemlock trees per acre than there were fir trees for the 

corresponding ages, with the exception of the first age class. In other 

words, the death rate of the hemlock is not so great as that of the fir, 

since 82 per cent of the hemlock had died in the second decade, 86 

in the third, and 90 per cent in the fourth decade. Whereas, in the 

case of the fir, less than one in a hundred of the original seedlings 

was represented in the stands at the end of 39 years; in case of the 

hemlock ten times as many were represented, that is 10 out of a 

hundred. The same thing is indicated in the percentage table, where 

it W'ill be seen the relative proportion of hemlock in the stands does 

not decrease materially as the trees grow older. All this shows again 

that the hemlock can endure more crowding and shading than the fir, 

for it is evident that there would be more shade on an acre containing 

4,160 than 790 trees of the same age. 

As shown in the tables on the preceding pages, cedar 

Cedars are • ^ common associate of both fir and hemlock. On 

Short-livea r i • • ^• 

the average the greatest extent of this association is 

about one-eighth of the stand, but it sometimes ran as high as one- 



REPRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES 221 

third. On seaward slopes cedar seedlings and saplings frequently 
"•occurred as an under-story beneath well advanced second growth fir 
in such abundance that, if all the individuals were counted, the cedar 
would surpass the fir in number. The best cedar reproduction was 
found beneath alder and it will be discussed later under the section 
on the effect of various agencies upon reproduction. In other situa- 
tions, such as on logged and burned areas, no young growth cedar 
over 10 years old was found, except in small patches, although seedlings 
from one to five years old occurred in large quantities everywhere 
-and small plots containing a few square yards sometimes ran as high 
as at the rate of over 3,000,000 plants to the acre. They were foimd 
mostly about stumps, on decayed logs and under the protection of 
fallen trees. Why they do not fulfil their prophecy of a future forest 
is not known. It may be that they can not endure the dry summers. 

EFFECT OF VARIOUS AGENCIES UPON FOREST REPRODUCTION 

■r . Logged-over areas which have not been burned with at 

Without least a ground fire within four years after the logging 

Burning operations were rather hard to find in the region ex- 

plored. So far as the number of seed trees left after logging is con- 
cerned, the opportunities for the reproduction of the forest are good. 
No trees less than 18 inches in diameter are cut for saw-logs as a rule, 
and there is usually a goodly number of these in every stand. Sample 
strips to determine the number of trees six inches or more in diam- 
eter, left after logging, these being considered capable of bearing seed, 
total only five acres. On these, the seed trees averaged 44 hemlock, 
22 fir, and 13 cedar per acre, 79 in all. The death rate of these in 

• after years, if not burned, would probably not be sufficiently large 
to eliminate the possibility of good seeding of the ground. Of course, 
there are many areas, such as skidding yards and clearings about 

■camps and mills, where no seed trees are left, but these, as a rule, 
are not too large to prevent seeding from the sides. 

The reproduction of the forest after logging without burning is 
rather difficult of attainment. The removal of the over-shading trees 
greatly stimulates the growth of the under- vegetation, such as salal, 
bracken fern, huckleberry, Oregon grape, and salmon berry. These 

.grow abundantly and luxuriantly, and, together with the slash, make 
such a dense shade that the little fir seedlings which may spring up 
soon die. Cedar especially germinates abundantly under these condi- 
tions, but as stated before, does not last long. The shade is appar- 

•ently too dense in such cases, even for the hemlock. One finds abun- 
dant seedlings up to four or five years old, but not such extensive 

•dense stands as the number of seedlings would seem to suggest. It is 



222 C O -AI ^I I S S I O X OF CONSERVATION 

not a contradiction of the last statement to say that hemlock is the 
most abundant reproduction on the unburned logged areas. It appar- 
ently originates, however, not from seed distributed after the logging, 
but from the small trees which already existed beneath the mature fir 
stands before the logging. One can demonstrate this by counting the 
annual growth rings of the hemlock, when he will find that the trees 
are much older than the logging operations. It is also to be noticed 
that the growth rings become materially wider, the same year or the 
year after the logging operations, showing that the growth conditions 
for the hemlock were improved at that time, that is, by the removal 
of the overtopping fir trees. Some typical examples of the condition 
of hemlock reproduction after logging may be given. On an area 
logged four years ago, there were 416 hemlock saplings 16 years old 
and only 24 hemlock seedlings four years old, or less, on an acre. 
An area logged six years ago disclosed 730 hemlock saplings 18 years 
old on an acre and only 50 seedlings younger than the age of the 
logging. On an area logged 12 years ago, an acre showed 1.450 
hemlock trees 24 years old and 200 seedlings which had come in since 
the logging. 

The young growth hemlock on the unburned logged-over areas 
occurs in dense groups in the more moist soils and as scattered indi- 
viduals on the drier soils, so that the trees as they grow older form 
a broken crown cover. The more open places may eventually fill up 
with fir. This is indicated by the presence of scattered fir seedlings 
about stumps and along the length of fallen trees. Although the exact 
history of the areas is not definitely known, it is probable that the 
older age classes of the hemlock, represented in Table II, originated 
on unburned logged-over areas. It will be seen that the proportion of 
fir is small, indicating that the conditions for the reproduction of 
hemlock were very much better than those of the fir. 

As already intimated, much the greater portion of the 
Logging cut-over areas has been burned at least once since 

with Burning logging and most of the studies of forest reproduction 
were made on areas of this kind. In fact, extensive areas of commer- 
cial forest burned before logging were not found in the region ex- 
plored. Moreover, the impression was gained that the large-sized and 
medium-sized trees were not seriously injured by one fire, although a 
succession of fires gradually weakens the trees until they become sickly 
and finally die. The forests not quite ready for the axe, however, and 
the small-sized forests of the higher slopes are readily killed by fire; 
extensive bums of this kind were encountered. 

It is probable that light ground fires even stimulate the reproduc- 
tion of hemlock, for the verv best stands were found where fire had 



REPRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES 223 

extended a short distance beneath the green forest. Evidence in many 
cases seems to indicate that the tmder-story of hemlock so common 
beneath old stands of fir was established as the result of ground fires. 
The root system of hemlock seedlings is shallower than that of fir. 
This means that hemlock must have soils moister near the surface 
than is necessary for the fir, a condition supplied by the cover of the 
older trees checking evaporation. Another condition, however, is 
perhaps more important, and this is the cover of moss which usually 
follows surface fires beneath old stands. The moss cover conserves the 
moisture of the surface soil and forms an ideal germinating medium 
for the hemlock. Fir also germinates in these moss beds, but it 
soon dies out on account of the shade, while the hemlock, capable of 
enduring more shade than the fir, persists. Where moss is lacking the 
bracken fern or salal forms the protecting cover. One also finds 
abundant reproduction of hemlock, as represented by seedlings, on 
burned-over areas along the margins of dense undergrowth which has 
escaped the fire. This undergrowth furnishes protection from strong 
light and keeps the surface soil moist, while the adjacent burned places 
have too much light and are too dry for the hemlock. 

The most extensive Douglas fir reproduction was found on burned 
areas. In fact, it is believed that moderate burning is necessary to 
establish pure stands of fir. The young seedlings, to grow vigorously, 
must have considerable overhead light, a condition secured by burn- 
ing away the slash and the dense growth of under-vegetation. On 
approximately half of the area covered by adequate reproduction the 
trees were either four years or 16 years old, with the two ages about 
equally divided, and nearly one- fourth was eight or twelve years old, 
and again the two age classes were about equally divided. Reproduc- 
tion of these four ages was met with on every area where detailed 
studies were made, and general observation showed them to be pre- 
valent over the entire region. That these stands originated as the 
result of fire is indicated by the fact that fire scars of the same age 
or one year older were found in every case on adjacent trees. The 
next most frequent stands were 24 and 30 years of age. Other ages 
of fir which had evidently risen after burning, were 10, 26, 34, 40, 
44 and 50. Besides these are the two age classes mentioned on p. 217, 
namely, 70 years and 100 years. These, too, were accompanied by 
fire scars, of approximately the same age, on standing older trees. 
All this indicates that fires have been frequent and that they have 
been particularly extensive within the past 20 years, the period of the 
great development of the lumber industry and of settlement in the 
region. The average interval between widespread fires during this 
period is five years. Stands 30, 70 and 100 years old, evidently fol- 



.224 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

lowing fire, were also found in all the places of detailed study. Thus, 
in the 80 years previous to the period beginning 20 years ago, the 
average interval between extensive fires was 27 years. If the study of 
the life history of the forest at Powell river may be taken as a 
standard, the average interval between fires from 100 years to 360 
years ago was 86 years. 

From his investigations of the areas logged and burned within the 
past 20 years, the writer is convinced that young fir stands sufficiently 
uniform and dense to reproduce the original commercial forests are 
found on only about one-half of such areas. The reason for this 
IS the occurrence of two or more fires on the balance of these 
areas. The disastrous effect of repeated fires is two-fold, through 
the killing of seed trees and through the destruction of the young for- 
ests already established. In regard to the killing of seed trees, it may 
lae said that the fxrst fire which brings the reproduction of fir into 
existence materially reduces the number of seed trees. Sample strips, 
totalling ten acres were made in areas burned once after logging and 
the average number of seed trees per acre was found to be. as follows: 
Fir, 20; hemlock, 10; and cedar, 5; total, 35. Comparing this with 
the number given on p. 222 for the logged areas not burned, we find 
that, on the average, the total number of trees has been reduced by 
more than one-half. It would appear that hemlock and cedar suffer 
most. Sample strips, totalling 13 acres, were made on areas burned 
twice since logging and the average acre was found to contain 5 fir, 
0-2 hemlock, and 0-5 cedar seed trees, a total of less than 6. This is 
only about one-sixth of the number on areas burned only once, and 
one-thirteenth of the number on logged areas not burned. At this rate 
the third fire would kill them all. The figures for the areas burned 
twice are descriptive only of the very best conditions, for sample 
strips were not made in the numerous large areas burned twice on 
Avhich there were no seed trees, such areas sometimes being a mile 
square. Even six seed trees per acre would not be enough to seed an 
area in adequate numbers, since some of them are weakened by fire 
and will eventually die and others will be wind-thrown. Making allow- 
ance for the usual death rate, the number of trees left after the first 
burning is about the minimum to insure adequate seeding, even when 
the condition of the ground is favourable for germination. 

A still more disastrous eftect of a second burning, however, lies in 
the fact that it kills the young forests which are to be the forests of 
the future. Since the second fire, as shown above, has reduced 
the number of seed trees below the point of efficiency, no 
natural means are at hand to start the process of forest reproduc- 
tion over again. Reproduction from the edge of the green forest may 



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This Area had 2,000 Young Trees per Acre until it was Burned a Second Time 

Now it has only 20 living trees. The green forest, shown dimly in the background, is 

too far awav to re-establish the forest on this area by seeding. 




Burned Several Times 

The reproduction which followed the first fire has been killed. No seed trees are left to 

make another crop. Planting is the only method by which the commercial 

forest can be re-established on areas like this. 



REPRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES 225 

gradually work its way across the areas on which the young trees have 
been killed, but the time consumed in doing this will be very long, 
therefore such areas will remain waste land for many years so far as 
the raising of timber in commercial quantities is concerned. 

Moreover, good evidence exists for the behef that the dense stands 
of Douglas fir which follow the first fire come not from one crop of 
seeds, but from several crops that have accumulated on the ground, 
where they await a favourable opportunity for germination, that is, 
the removal of the over-shading trees and undergrowth. This has 
been clearly demonstrated by Dr. Hofman, on the Columbia national 
forest in the state of Washington. A large area was so severely burned 
in 1902 that practically all the seed trees were killed. In 1913, dense 
stands of young fir, not over eleven years old, were found two and 
three miles from any seed trees, and no relationship could be estab- 
lished between the amount of reproduction and the distance from the 
seed trees, the reproduction often being more dense far from seed 
trees than near them. This would seem to indicate that seed was not 
blown to the areas of reproduction by the wind. If, on the other hand, 
the reproduction started from seed of trees escaping the fire, but dying 
since, then unburned cones or cone-scales should have been found on 
the ground beneath the stands. As a matter of fact, diligent search 
failed to discover any unburned cones or cone-scales, but they were 
always found in charred condition. 

While most of the trees were eleven years old, indicating that they 
germinated the season following the fire which took place in the fall, 
some representatives occurred in every year down to five years old in 
1913. Since the seed from which the trees sprang was not blown in 
by the wind, it must have lain in the litter and retained its capacity 
for germination for one to six years after the fire passed over. From 
the results of these and similar investigations, Dr. Hofman believes 
that the seeds of Douglas fir and hemlock can lie on the ground and 
retain their vitality for at least six years. This gives an opportunity 
for the accumulation of several seed crops from which the dense 
stands arise. In this connection it should be pointed out that, if the 
fire is sufficiently hot to burn the litter clean to the mineral soil, most 
of the seeds lying in the partially decayed vegetable matter would 
probably be destroyed and reproduction would fail. This is indicated 
by the fact that little or no reproduction followed on the area of the 
investigations where the fire was very severe. 

No dense stands of reproduction were found by the writer as far 
as two or three miles from seed trees, but such stands were found one- 
half mile to three-fourths mile from them. These stands were just 
as dense, about 20,000 trees 16 years old to the acre, three-fourths 
15 — c. c. 



226 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

mile from seed trees as adjacent to them. It seems hardly possible 
that wind could distribute the seeds so evenly in one season, since 
practically all of the trees were of the same age. Moreover, several 
measurements were made to determine the distances to which seeds 
of fir were normally carried by the wind. The result of one of these 
may be given as a typical example. The area had been burned twice, 
eleven years and four years ago, and was uniformly covered with a 
light stand of bracken fern. A line was run approaching the green 
forest from a point one-fourth mile (20 chains) away and the seedlings 
counted on a strip 33 feet wide. Twenty to fifteen chains from 
seed trees, the seedlings occurred at the rate of 12 per acre; 15 to 
10 chains, 50 seedlings per acre; 10 to 5 chains, 500 seedlings to the 
acre, 5 chains to the edge of the forest, 3,000 seedlings per acre. 
Xone of the seedlings were over four years old. If this be taken as 
typical, really efficient seeding of the ground does not take place at a 
distance of more than five chains (20 rods) from seed trees. These 
were medium-sized healthy trees on the margin of a forest well exposed 
to the light, the area seeded was in the leeward direction of the pre- 
vailing winds, the condition of the soil and soil cover furnished favour- 
able conditions for germination, yet with several seed crops the trees 
could not raise more than 3,000 seedlings per acre at a distance of 
twenty rods, whereas the stands mentioned above had over six times 
as many trees at a distance twelve times as far from seed trees. 

These facts, and the results of the investigations in the state of 
Washington, denote the probability of the dense stands of Douglas fir 
reproduction arising from several seed crops accumulated in the soil. 
The important point of these investigations is this : Where the seed 
trees have been killed by the first or second fire, the dense stands of 
young trees killed by Hre cannot be replaced by natural methods. A.s 
stated above, one-half of the area logged over in the past twenty years 
is not now supporting adequate reproduction of commercial species 
because it has been burned at least twice. 

Alder — The presence of alder, so commonly dis- 
Under- tributed on the seaward-facing slopes, usually acts as 

a deterrent and often excludes the reproduction of 
Douglas fir. Only once was fir found to be reproducing itself in 
potentially commercial quantities beneath alder, and this at the rate 
of 1,600 small trees on an acre, although the alder formed a complete 
crown cover. Fir is frequently associated with alder, however, but it 
occurs in groups or singly in the more open places. The fir is always 
conspicuous in this association, for, although it may be the same age, 
in the older stands it much surpasses the alder in height ; also, as the 



REPRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES 227 

dark green of the fir foliage contrasts sharply with the lighter green of 
the alder foliage, it can be seen from long distances. 

As stated above, the best reproduction of cedar was found under 
the protection of alder stands. A few of the sample plots may be 
described. Beneath alder twelve years old, cedar occurred at the rate 
of 2,000, fir and hemlock each at the rate of 160 per acre. A strip 
was run from the bottom to the top of an alder-covered slope, the 
alder being sixteen years old. At the bottom it formed a complete 
crown cover, and there were beneath it 3,700 cedar on an acre. About 
half way up the slope, where there were frequent open patches in the 
crown cover, cedar occurred at the rate of 1,260 per acre, fir 1,000, 
and hemlock 240 on an acre. Near the top of the slope the alder 
formed not more than one-half the crown cover and there were 1,400 
fir, 940 cedar and 20 hemlock on an acre. As the alder disappeared the 
fir became more abundant, until finally it reached 2,200 per acre. In 
another place beneath a complete crown cover of alder 24 years old, 
were found 86 cedar, 28 hemlock and 8 fir on an acre. These were 
sixteen years old. The area also contained 24 fir trees, the same age 
as the alder, which surpassed it in height by twenty feet. One often 
found more than twice as many dead as living cedar trees beneath the 
alder, indicating that the shade was too heavy. 

No sample plots were made in the younger stages of hemlock repro- 
duction beneath alder, but their presence was frequently noted. In a 
stand twenty years old hemlock occurred at the rate of 800, balsam 
200, and fir 60 per acre. Beneath another stand of alder 25 years old 
there were 1,600 hemlock, 1,280 cedar, 40 fir and 10 spruce saplings 
on the average acre. 

On fiats not far above tide-water and along streams alder stands, 
with their under-vegetation, occur in such density and luxuriance of 
growth as entirely to exclude the reproduction of commercial trees. 
Often a secondary cover of vine maple and a third layer of bracken 
fern or salmon berry shut ofif most of the light which gets through the 
crown cover of the alder. 

Said — An undergrowth of salal is found almost everywhere in the 
more open forests ; it does not occur as a rule beneath the dense second 
growth stands, and it does not usually form a complete cover on areas 
severely burned. It seems to grow most luxuriantly in conditions of 
medium shade. Light ground fires seem to stimulate its development 
and heavy fires to retard it. When not much more than a foot high, 
and when there are spots of bare soil or patches of moss, it makes 
favourable conditions for the germination of all the commercial trees. 
For example, a square yard plot containing 150 shoots of salal had 



228 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

thirteen fir seedlings four years old, while on an adjacent plot under 
the same conditions, with salal waist high, no fir seedlings could be 
found, but there were six cedar seedlings. Numerous plots of this 
kind were made with like results. Cedar, hemlock and fir seedlings, 
however, were found in the dense larger salal stands where a fallen 
tree had crushed down the brush. The most luxuriant stands of salal 
on logged areas were on those not burned and often they were so 
dense as to make walking through them difficult. There was no ade- 
quate reproduction of commercial species on such areas. 

Bracken Pern — The bracken fern, although very commonly dis- 
tributed in nearly all conditions of shade and soil, forms the most 
extensive thickets on the burned areas, but it reaches its most luxuriant 
growth in pockets and depressions and upon moist flats, where there 
may be as many as 30 stalks on a square yard. These cast too much 
shade for the reproduction of fir, but not for that of cedar and hem- 
lock. As generally distributed on old burns, it is not sufificiently dense 
to prevent the establishment of fir beneath it. In fact, with its divided 
leaves making about half-shade conditions, the plant makes favourable 
conditions for young fir. Where there were as many as 20 stalks to 
the square yard, fir seedlings four years old were found at the rate 
of 25,000 on an acre. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

From a consideration of the statements on the preceding pages, it 
is evident that light burning of the slash and the dense undergrowth 
gives the best reproduction of Douglas fir. The two extremes, namely, 
too severe burning and no burning at all, should be avoided. This 
condition of affairs leads to two recommendations, namely, the regu- 
lated burning of the slash and of the dense under-vegetation, and a 
more rigid fire protection on the areas already covered with young 
growth. 

Against the necessity of regulated burning of slash, it may be 
argued that in spite of the unregulated burning of the past, sufficient 
reproduction of fir to meet the requirements of the future has resulted. 
It appears so to the casual observer, especially if he observes only along 
the routes of travel, but to the investigator who studies conditions 
throughout the larger burned areas comes the conviction that the 
greater portion of such areas do not support adequate reproduction. 
The good reproduction is not uniform, being very patchy in its dis- 
tribution. Not more than one-half of the cut-over and burned-over 
areas studied by the writer supports reproduction of the densities 
indicated in the tables on pages 219 and 221, the amount necessary to 
establish the commercial forest. 




Slash IvEFT on the Ground After Logging 
The slash not onlv increases the fire hazard bvit it makes conditions unfavourable for the 

reproduction of Douglas fir. 




Young Fir Trees on an Area Logged and Burned Once 
They are sixteen years old and occur at the rate of 2,000 to the acre. 



REPRODUCTION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES 229 

There is little doubt of the necessity of burning the slash and under- 
vegetation in order to get an adequate and uniformly distributed repro- 
duction of fir on the logged lands. The ways and means of carrying 
out such operations, however, present serious difficulty. Under the 
depressed market conditions which have prevailed in British Columbia 
for several years past it seems inadvisable, even if it were possible, to 
add the cost of brush burning to the operating expenses of the limit- 
holder. Until the present over-production is relieved by enlarged 
markets, and until the margin of profit for the lumberman is increased, 
some temporary co-operative arrangement between the limit-holder and 
the Provincial Forest Branch might be advantageously made, the 
officers of the branch to conduct the slash burning and the limit- 
holders to furnish men. Since the object of the burning is as much to 
remove the luxuriant under-vegetation as to destroy the slash, broad- 
cast burning is the proper method. Practically the only expense in 
this is the labour necessary to prevent the fire spreading beyond 
bounds. The numerous hauling lanes made by the steam logging 
operations almost universally employed on the coast, the spurs of the 
logging railways, moist flats and creeks furnish many natural fire 
breaks, conditions which lend themselves to comparatively safe broad- 
cast burning. In addition, because of the heavy stands of timber, the 
area cut over in any operation in a year is comparatively small. Under 
proper conditions of dryness one year's logging operation could be 
burned over in a day or two, and a few men could control it. There- 
fore, the cost of slash burning would be comparatively small. In 
British Columbia small areas of Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine 
have been burned experimentally at a cost of two and one-half cents 
per thousand feet. In the mixed coniferous forests of California, the 
burning of slash after it has been piled, costs three cents per thousand 
feet. According to Leavitt, broadcast burning has been done for 
twenty-five cents an acre, but, in most cases, it would probably cost 
from five to ten cents per thousand feet of lumber cut. 

The second recommendation, namely, the better protection of the 
reproduction of fir already established, is based on the fact that second 
and subsequent fires have already destroyed about one-half of the fir 
reproduction originally established. The largest number of fires on 
such areas have occurred in the past twenty years. It is clearly evi- 
dent that this cannot be allowed to continue, if a future supply is to be 
obtained from the present young growth. 

While the forest protection service of the Provincial Forest Branch 
is very well organized and very efficiently administered, it has not, at 
present, the men or the money to give the young growth the protection 
which it deserves. In fact, from the standpoint of conservation, it 



230 C O -M -M I S S I O X OF CONSERVATION 

would prove a better investment, in the long run, if necessary, to with- 
draw some of the protection from the mature timber and concentrate 
it upon the young growth. Fire in young growth is much more disas- 
trous than in old growth. The large mature fir trees are so fire-resis- 
tant that only a fire of exceptional intensity kills the majority of the 
trees. Even if commercial timber is destroyed, the forest-productive- 
ness of the land is not destroyed, for, as we have seen, the first burning 
stimulates rather than retards the reproduction of Douglas fir. On 
the other hand, an ordinary fire kills the majority of the trees in a 
young stand. For reasons stated above, when young growth is once 
killed, it does not re-establish itself in commercial quantities on the 
same area and the result is idle non-productive land. Therefore, from 
the standpoint of the future forest-productiveness of the province, it 
would be better to concentrate the energies of fire protection on the 
areas of young growth. 

The third recommendation is in reference to growth studies upon 
young fir. These are necessary in order to forecast future yields, and, 
as yet, very little work of this kind has been done upon trees below 
the present commercial size. The rate of growth is apparently remark- 
ably rapid in certain situations and as remarkably slow in others. 
Studies should be made to determine the cause of this. The object 
could doubtless be best attained by establishing permanent sample 
plots, and investigating the various factors through a series of years. 
A related problem is that of the influence of density upon growth. 
Some of the stands of reproduction are evidently too dense to get the 
best commercial results in the future. Different degrees of thinning 
could be made upon permanent sample plots and the proper density 
for the best growth in this way determined. 

The fourth recommendation is in regard to publicily as to the value 
of young growth and the necessity for its protection. The Forest 
Branch is to be highly commended for its pubhcity work in regard to 
forest protection and for the resultant attitude of the people toward 
forest fires. It is in striking contrast to the stolid indifference gener- 
ally exhibited in the matter by the people of eastern Canada. This 
public demand for protection, however, as a rule is applied only to 
the mature timber. It should be extended to the young growth. By 
means of literature and placards similar to those already in use, the 
Forest Branch should educate public opinion to appreciate the value 
of the young growth. 



PART VI 
Forestry on Dominion Lands 

BY 

J. H. White, M.A., B.Sc.F. 
Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto 



INTRODUCTION 

THIS report, the result of a study made during the summer of 
1913, has been prepared in order to emphasize the need for the 
adoption of the following fire protective measures : 

1. Careful consideration of the question of slash disposal is neces- 
sary in connection with all cutting operations on Dominion timber 
lands, with the enforcement of such regulations as may be found 
suitable in each case. This refers not only to forest reserves, which 
are under the jurisdiction of the Forestry Branch, but also to all 
timber limits, including those inside forest reserves and parks, and 
operations on lands outside forest reserves and parks, all of which are 
under the jurisdiction of the Timber and Grazing Branch. There is 
no provision for this at the present time in connection with operations 
on licensed timber berths, which are under the jurisdiction of the 
Timber and Grazing Branch. It is, however, wholly possible to take 
such action without additional legislation, since the licenses all pro- 
vide that "the licensee .... shall dispose of the tops and 
branches and other debris of lumbering operations in such a way as to 
prevent as far as possible the danger of fire, in accordance with the 
directions of the proper officers of the Department of the Interior." 
Further, the licenses are renewed annually, and are made subject to 
the terms and conditions fixed by the regulations in effect at the time 
renewal is made. These regulations at the present time require that, 
"to prevent the spread of prairie or bush fires, the refuse (i.e., the 
tops and branches unfit either for rails or firewood) shall be piled 
together in a heap and not left scattered through the bush." Thus, the 
situation is adequately provided for, with the exception that there is 
no policy calling for the enforcement of these specific requirements, 
and no organization of personnel at the present time adequate to 

231 



232 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

handle this feature of the work. (See appendix I, Regulations 17b, 
17c, and 47). 

2. Provision should be made for clearing up old slashings which 
constitute unusually serious fire hazards. This is especially true as to 
the Dominion parks, where the scenic beauty is, in some cases, greatly 
endangered by logging slash on old operations. In some cases, where 
operations have been completed, or limits abandoned, the cost of this 
work must, presumably, now be borne by the Government. 

3. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the forest, through the 
adequate retention of seed trees, some additional provision is neces- 
sary to secure proper enforcement of cutting regulations on timber 
limits, both inside and outside of the forest reserves. These areas are 
under the jurisdiction of the Timber and Grazing Branch. (See 
Regulation 17a, appendix I). 

4. For the future, timber should only be disposed of through 
timber sales, with a fixed, definite time for the removal of the crop, 
subject to well-considered and well-understood logging regulations, 
designed to ensure the perpetuation of the forest. This means the 
discontinuance of the policy of disposing of timber under the license 
system, which favours speculative holding and discourages efifective 
control of logging methods. 

5. Forest fire protective organizations should be placed under civil 
service regulations, to ensure an efficient personnel. This is especially 
necessary as to the Dominion Forestry Branch. 

6. A revision is necessary as to the forest fire laws of Alberta. 
Saskatchewan and Manitoba. 

DOMINION FORESTS 

On the organization of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and 
Dominion Alberta as provinces, the Federal government retained 

the public lands in each case. Hence, with the excep- 
tion of sales, grants to settlers under various methods of entry, land 
subsidies to railway companies and to the Hudson's Bay Company, 
swamp lands in Manitoba, etc., the Dominion owns and administers 
all land in the Prairie provinces. The ahenated portion is naturally, 
as yet, confined to the southern prairie region. This amounts to some 
120,000,000 acres, out of a combined land area of approximately 466,- 
068,798 acres for the three provinces. 
. In addition, the province of British Columbia, in consideration of 
the building of the Canadian Pacific railway, granted the Dominion a 
belt 40 miles wide along the railway and the Peace River block, 
3,500,000 acres. Comparatively little of this is alienated. 

The lands still remaining the property of the Crown constitute 




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FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 233 

what are known as Dominion lands in the west. Of these, 23,034,640 
acres are in forest reserves, 4,657,743 acres are held under license, 
and 621,299 acres under permit to cut timber.* 

Lying between the Laurentian region surrounding 
Forest Hudson bay and the Rocky Mountain system is a 

large interior plain of relatively recent geological age. 
The northern portion of this plain drains to the Arctic ocean, while 
the remainder in a general way slopes eastward from the Rockies, 
with the drainage largely into Hudson bay. This great plain is of a 
comparatively level, rolling nature, with the surface becoming more 
irregular as one proceeds westward. Only in a few places are there 
elevations of sufficient height above the surrounding country to deserve 
the name of mountains. Most prominent of these is the escarpment 
running north-westerly through Manitoba from the Pembina moun- 
tains. This gives rise to the Riding, Duck and Porcupine mountains. 

The southern portion of this plain forms the well-known agricul- 
tural prairies of western Canada, extending from the open grassland 
of the south, through mixed grassland and woodland, to the forested 
region of the north. It rises in three fairly distinct levels, each of 
these in turn gradually increasing in elevation westward, from an 
elevation of about 750 feet above sea-level in the Red River valley, to 
some 4,000 feet along the borders of the Rocky mountains. This 
prairie region forms, roughly, a wedge-shaped block adjoining the 
international boundary, with a width, north and south, of approxi- 
mately 110 miles in south-eastern Manitoba, and gradually widening 
through Saskatchewan to 360 miles in western Alberta. This area 
embraces practically the settled portion of the three Prairie provinces. 

Bordering the prairie is usually a wide belt of woodland of nearly 
pure aspen, which in turn gives way to the northern or sub-arctic 
forest. This latter is in general a spruce type (white and black), 
with aspen, balsam poplar, white birch, and balsam fir, as associates. 
Tamarack and jack pine also occur, the latter occupying the sandy and 
rocky areas. Much of the area is muskeg. 

On the west the prairies are bounded by a forested region of 
another type, as distinct from the northern spruce forest. This is the 
lodgepole pine-spruce forest, occurring on the east slope of the Rocky 
mountains, and which supplies a part of Alberta's lumber cut. 

These two forest areas, the one extending across the northern 
portion of the three provinces, and the other through western Alberta, 



*For the location of forest reserves, licensed timber berths and alienated 
lands, see maps of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and the Railway Belt of 
British Columbia, issued by the Railway Lands Branch of the Department of 
the Interior. 



.234 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



together with the railway belt, which is largely forested, constitute, in 
Ijrief, the region with which this report is concerned. The two latter 
forests are described later. 



Xumbering 
Industry 



Although the Prairie provinces are usually associated 
in one's mind with but one pursuit, namely, farming, 
the forested portions give rise to a lumbering industry 
of importance, and, while inferior in development to that of British 
Columbia or the eastern provinces, are of great value to the immi- 
grant settlement in the west. In 1913 some 188 mills in ^Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan and Alberta sawed approximately 250 million feet of 
lumber, valued at the point of manufacture at over $4,260,000. 
Of this quantity, Saskatchewan forests produced approximately two- 
thirds. Alberta on&-fifth, and Manitoba the balance. The prairie mar- 
ket consumes about 1,434 million feet of lumber annually. Over 
one-half of this comes from British Columbia (in part from the 
Railway Belt portion), and the remainder is supplied from north- 
western Ontario, the United States, and the home forests. 

The lumber production of these provinces necessarily comes very 
largely from timber land held under license from the Dominion govern- 
ment. The following table shows the distribution of the lumber cut on 
Dominion lands in 1912-13*: 



Crown timber agency 


Manufactured 

from 

licensed berths. 

Feet, B.M. 


Manufactured 

from 
permit berths. 
Feet, B.M. 


Number of ^^^^^^ ^^ 
mills operat- ^^^^j^,^ ^.^^ 

ing- under '^ „_„ • 

Hcense operatmg 




63,390,156 
121,786,667 
14,871,777 
23,602,764 
82,123 038 
23,695,365 


5,369,438 
2,628,994 

11,998,172 
4,406,796 
7,512,175 

14,344,060 


27 31 


Prince Albert, Sask 

Edmonton , Alta 

Calgary, Alta 

Kamloops, B.C 


4 16 
24 46 
19 21 

7 


New Westminster, B.C.. 


11 


Total 


329,469,767 


46,259,635 


92 114 



In addition to this 375,729,000 feet of lumber, there were manu- 
factured some 508,000 ties, 50.000.000 lath and 69,000,000 shingles. 

That the demand on the Dominion forests is a steady and growing 
one, and of considerable proportions, is shown by the following two 
sets of tables : 



♦These figures, as well as many others in this report, are taken from the 
Annual Reports of the Department of the Interior. 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 235 

MANUFACTURED FROM LICENSED BERTHS 



Year 


P^eet lumber 


No. lath 


No. ties 


No. shingles 


1913 
1912 
1911 


329,469,767 
240,863,681 
203,239,661 


48,372,389 
18,343,253 
18,957,193 


342,138 
390,215 
200,989 


49,876,315 
49,801,000 
37,948,000 


MANUFACTURED UNDER PERMIT- 


Year 


Feet lumber 


No. lath 


No. ties 


No. shingles 


1913 
1912 
1911 


46,259,635 
53,984,974 
27,347,629 


1,916,548 

4,624,014 

478,741 


165,908 

138,581 

18,520 


18,844,750 
558,500 
630,000 



Besides the preceding figures of the lumber industry, the following 
additional timber material was cut, under the permit system, principally 
by homestead settlers : 



Material 


1913 


1912 


1911 


Lumber and logs, ft., b.m 

Roof poles, pes , 


51,486,216 

1,346,995 

1,905,735 

5,157,420 

169,011 

848,800 

8,000 

1,485,952 

35,031 

' 224'. 430 


44,617,680 

1,638,660 

2,438,659 

6,416,326 

196,530 

264,539 

25,065,000 

2.019,916 

54,052 

1,047,900 


65,408,595 
1 44fi ^Q'^ 


Fence posts, pes 


9 704 791 


Fence rails, pes 


5 10*^ 6''5 


Cordwood, cords 


186 SS8 


Mine props, lineal feet 

Shingles, pes 


35,000 

30,852,000 

1,015,150 

''S OSS 


Ties, pes 


Telephone poles, pes 


Lath, pes 




Piling 





In the last 40 years the receipts on account of Dominion lands 
have amounted to approximately $40,000,000. Of the various sources 
of this revenue, that of sales of land naturally has been the largest, but 
this source must eventually give out. The forests rank third, the 
timber dues, etc., in that time totaling about $6,000,000. These ex- 
ceeded $463,000 in 1912-13, and have averaged over $390,000 annually 
for the last ten years. 

The above considerations go to show the importance to the com- 
munity of the forests on Dominion lands in the west, an importance 
which demands their conservation, by adequate protection from fire 
-and by regulatory control of logging operations after modern methods. 



236 C O M M I S S I O X OF C O X S E R \^ A T I O N 

FOREST CONDITIONS ON DOMINION LANDS IN MANITOBA 

The province of Manitoba contains approximately 147,000,000 
acres of land. Of this, some 27,000,000 acres in the south have been 
surveyed, to meet the demands of settlement, and the bulk of this has 
passed into private ownership. The alienated portion occupies, in a 
general way, the area north from the international boundary- for 
about 110 miles on the east, gradually widening to about 225 miles at 
the western boundary of the province. The northward extension of 
settlement is at present largely taking place in the region lying between 
lake Manitoba and lake \Mnnipeg. 

The remaining unsurveyed acreage belongs mainly to the Domin- 
ion government. The region is imperfectly known, as regards its 
possible industrial uses, but it is expected that not more than one-sixth 
of it will prove suitable for agriculture, and to that extent it will in 
time be alienated from the Crown. The larger portion of the province 
consequently is unsuitable for farming. Of this an unknown propor- 
tion is suitable only for supplying wood products, and will undoubtedly 
in time be set aside for that purpose. The present discussion, how- 
ever, is concerned only with the forest reserves and timber berths 
already in existence. 

The timber berths in 1912 covered an area of 1,235 
Berths square miles under license and 365 square miles under 

permit regulations, a total of 1,024,000 acres. These 
berths are situated, mainly, on the Winnipeg river, around the shores 
of southern lake Winnipeg, the northern portion of lake Wlnnipegosis 
and the series of lakes north of it (Cedar, Moose, Cormorant and 
Goose lakes), and within the Porcupine Hills reserve and the southern 
half of the Duck Mountain reserve. Lumbering in Manitoba has 
been in operation since a very early date, and the cut now is relatively 
small, being only around 50,000.000 feet annually. The lumber is 
practically all white spruce (to the extent of 90 per cent), with small 
quantities of poplar, tamarack, jack pine and white pine. The market 
is local. 

Some 20 years ago the Department of the Interior 
R s*^* s decided upon the advisabihty of setting aside areas of 

non-agricultural land as sources of future timber sup- 
ply in the west. Naturally this policy was first carried out in Manitoba, 
and in 1895 the Riding Mountain, Spruce Woods and Turtle Moun- 
tain reserves were set aside. The policy was continued until now the 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 237 

reserved areas aggregate 4,108.5 square miles (2,629,440 acres). The 
complete list is as follows : 

Riding Mountain reserve 1,535 square miles 

Duck Mountain No. 1 reserve 1,462.25 |' "^ 

Porcupine No. 1 reserve 777.5 "^ ^^ 

Turtle Mountain reserve 109.25 " ^^ 

Spruce Woods reserve 224.50 

4,108.5 square miles 

The more important of these are the first three, situated along the 
rough, abrupt escarpment in western Manitoba. 

Next to the Rocky Mountains and Lesser Slave Lake 
Moimain reserves, this is the largest so far created, comprising 

Reserve nearly 1,000,000 acres. It is a rolling plateau-like 

region, rising in its highest portion about 1,000 feet above the surround- 
ing country, and giving rise to numerous rivers flowing north, east and 
south. On account of the rough topography and boulder-strewn nature 
of the soil, the area is unsuited to agricultural use. 

The reserve has been logged over and has also suffered severely 
from fires in the past, so' that to-day less than 25 per cent of the area 
can be described as timbered.* Some two-thirds of the reserve has 
been overrun by fire once or oftener. As a result the prevailing type 
is poplar, mostly aspen (white poplar), with balsam poplar (black 
poplar) where drainage is slower. The poplar stands are of all age- 
classes, in accordance with the dates of the fires they followed. In 
many cases, due to repeated fires, the stands are too open to produce 
anything better than fuel ; but in close stand the trees at maturity reach 
a height of from 70 to 90 feet, with a diameter of 12 to 18 inches, and 
free from limbs. Many stands are over-mature, since the lumber 
industry does not as yet utilize poplar to any extent; these older 
stands occur mostly along the eastern side of the reserve. Both species 
of poplar are much subject to fungus defect, a large percentage of 
trees on approaching maturity showing evidence of attack by the false 
tinder fungus. 

Where the fires have been less severe white spruce is found, mixed 
with the poplar, or else scattered throughout in small pure stands. 
These latter areas are the only ones suitable for logging, however, and 
aggregate but a small percentage of the total. 

The poplar and poplar-spruce types occupy the richer and better 
drained soils. The poorly drained muskegs, covering over 15 per cent 
of the reserve, carry a stunted growth of black spruce and tamarack, 

*The figures here used are taken from Bulletin 6 of the Forestry Branch, 
which gives a detailed description of the reserve. 



238 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 



fit only for fuel. The few sterile, sandy stretches are occupied by jack 
pine; most of it has been burned over, so the present stands are young. 

In addition to the species already mentioned, there is a minor mix- 
ture of white birch along with the aspen and spruce, and of balsam fir 
in the wetter spruce stands. There is also a sparse occurrence of bur 
oak, green ash, American elm and Manitoba maple. Small open 
grassland areas occur, where fires have been most frequent. 

The present stand of saw timber on the reserve is estimated at 
about 200,000,000 feet, board measure. Over one-half of this is poplar 
(largely aspen), with spruce next in order, and the other species each 
forming but a small percentage of the total. Logging operations on 
licensed berths in the past have been confined to spruce, and this is 
pretty well exhausted. The cut from these berths for the last two 
years aggregated but 2,500,000 feet. Practically all the commercial 
spruce remaining on the reserve is under license. So far there has 
been very little market for poplar lumber. The tamarack, on account 
of its small size, is of most value as fuelwood. 

While the reserve has little value at present as a source of general 
saw-mill supplies, it is of vast importance locally for building and 
fencing material, fuel, etc. This is shown by the following statement 
of material cut from the reserve under settlers' permits : 



Material 



Lumber, feet, b.m 

Building logs, lineal feet 

Cordwood, cords 

Fence posts, pes 

Fence rails, pes 

Roof poles, pes 



1912 



3,794,613 
15,590 

4,515 
17,550 
17,320 

8,000 



1911 



2,268,663 

10,466 

3,704 

25,030 

9,600 

4,700 



1910 



2,871,110 

22,755 

2,878 

43,400 

[ 41,600 



This was roughly 5,000,000 board feet of material in all, average 
per year, apart from the lumber removed under license. The material 
was probably three-quarters spruce. 



Other 
Reserves 



North of the Riding Mountain reserve lie the Duck 
and Porcupine reserves. These have a forest cover 
similar to that just described, but have probably suf- 
fered less from fire and have a greater proportion of spruce stands 
A considerable area in each is still under license. 

About 15 miles east of Brandon is a small reserve known as the 
Spruce Woods. This is a light sand area, with a scattered growth of 
spruce, except for a small low-lying portion with tamarack. Consid- 
erable work has been done on this reserve in reforesting. 




CoRDwooD Permit Operations (Jackpine) in Northern Saskatchewan 
The regulations regarding brush disposal were enforced. 




An Adjoining Operation 
In this permit area the regulations were not enforced. 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 239- 

The Turtle Mountain reserve consists of a block of some 70,000 
acres, lying south of Boissevain, along the international boundary. 
Owing to excessive cutting and repeated fires practically no mature 
timber remains. The whole reserve has been burned over, with a 
resultant reproduction of poplar and birch, and a scattering of the other 
Manitoba hardwoods. No conifers occur. At present it affords fuel 
and hay to local permittees, and stock grazing is permitted on certain 
portions. The reserve is also used as a summer resort. 

In the utilization of the aspen and the regeneration ot 
Suggested ^j^g more valuable spruce must lie the future of the 

Riding Mountain reserve and those to the north of it. 
As already said, poplar lumber is but little in demand, yet there were 
4,700,000 feet of it sawed in 1911 in the provinces of Manitoba, Sas- 
katchewan and Alberta. With the gradual exhaustion of spruce sup- 
plies in the middle west, attention will be turned to poplar as a saw 
timber. But it is not as useful a species. In the log it is a poor floater, 
the wood is soft, weak and very perishable in exposed situations. The 
lumber warps and checks badly and cannot be obtained in large sizes. 
However, owing to its great abundance in the west, poplar will event- 
ually have great value for certain uses, in whidh its inferior qualities 
and small size do not matter. It is an excellent fuelwood, is satisfac- 
tory as boxboard material, and its toughness makes it suitable for stable 
and barn lumber. In north-eastern America it is chiefly used foi^ 
excelsior and paper pulp, in the latter use ranking next to spruce and 
hemlock. 

The aspen makes an excellent nurse tree for the young, more 
slowly growing spruce. Its light foliage protects the young growth, 
and the tree must play an important part in improving the quality of 
these forests in the future. In the interests of the reserves, all encour- 
agement sihould be given the spruce by restrictions on cutting; at 
least, settlers should be prohibited from cutting the remaining spruce 
under permit, since poplar will meet most of their needs. The yearly 
cost of administration of these reserves would not be increased by the 
adoption of a pohcy to gradually alter them from poplar forests to 
spruce. 

FOREST CONDITIONS ON DOMINION ,LANDS IN SASKATCHEWAN 

The province of Saskatchewan not only leads the Prairie provinces 
in the production of wheat and oats, but also of lumber. Its lumber 
cut in the north much exceeds that of the other two provinces com- 
bined, 23 mills in 1912 reporting a total cut of 157,255,000 feet board 
measure, worth $2,535,600 at the mill. This was nearly all spruce 



240 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Some jack pine is cut, and this is usually thrown in with spruce. A 
little tamarack is also cut, for stable flooring, inside finish, and door 
frames, but as a rule the trees are too small to be sawn. 

The area under license in 1911-12 was 2,145 square 
ggj.jjjg miles, and under permit 310 square miles. The 

licensed berths lie, roughly, in two regions. One of 
these is the territory for the first 75 miles of the Canadian Northern 
railway west from the Manitoba boundary, extending south of the 
line some 45 miles and north to the Saskatchewan river. The remain- 
ing berths lie largely in a belt of country 50 miles wide, stretching 
northwest from Prince Albert 100 miles. Very few berths under 
license are within the forest reserves, these containing little merchant- 
able timber. The timber is of the northern spruce type already 
described. 

In the province of Saskatchewan eight reserves, total- 

1'°'^^^* ing 1,800 square miles, have been created. Of these, 

Reserves & > ^ > 

Duck Mountain No. 2 and Porcupine No. 2 are the 

portions of the rough, hilly region of western Manitoba lying outside 
that province; these have been already described. Moose Mountain 
and Beaver Hills are two small reserves with much slough land, in 
the south-eastern portion of the province. Both have the usual history, 
— stripped of timber and overrun by fire, and now carrying a repro- 
duction of poplar, mostly immature. Their value is local, for fuel, 
fencing material, and such like. Planting will be necessary for con- 
version to conifers. 

Of the remaining reserves, three large ones are situated around 
Prince Albert. These are the Nisbet, bordering the North Saskatche- 
wan river; the Pines, southwest from the city, between the North and 
South Saskatchewan rivers ; and Fort a La Corne, extending eastward 
from the junction of the same two branches. 

These three reserves are very similar in character of soil and tree 
growth, and of a type very diflferent from the Manitoba reserves. 
They are in general sandy tracts, with much swamp and muskeg inter- 
spersed. This sand has a very thin layer of humus, only locally exceed- 
ing an inch in depth, which would be readily exhausted by two or 
three crops, and so is unsuitable for farming except under continued 
fertilizing. Wherever the sod is broken the tendency to become blow 
sand is very evident. 

The characteristic tree is jack pine, here near its centre of optimum 
development, and reaching good tie size at maturity. It occurs mostly 
in pure even-aged stands, and many mature blocks of limited area 
occur, especially on the Fort a La Corne and Nisbet reserves. The 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 241 

majority of the stands, however, are immature. Fires have swept 
over a large proportion of the dry sandy sites and have done much 
damage. However, as the species reproduces well on burns, the 
forest condition is satisfactory, except where repeatedly fire-swept. 
Under such circumstances park-like stands result, with limby, dam- 
aged trees, useful only for fuel; in extreme cases open grassland is 
formed. 

The older trees are very widely attacked by a parasitic dwarf 
mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), whose presence is indicated 
by the formation of abnormal bushy masses of branches known as 
" witches' brooms." These interfere very seriously with wood produc- 
tion, and may in time kill the tree. To prevent the spread of the dis- 
ease it is necessary to eradicate the affected trees. To this end it is 
highly desirable that the removal of such trees under settlers' permits 
be favoured by reduced dues. The younger trees suffered unusual 
destruction by rabbits during the winter of 1912-13. 

The better soil areas are, of course, occupied by aspen, with white 
spruce and balsam poplar in the moister places. The occurrence of 
these, however, is secondary. The drier swampy areas carry black 
spruce and tamarack, mostly of small size; this is reduced to a border 
growth in the case of the wetter ones. 

These reserves have been largely cut over for tie timber, and for 
the present they will be of value mostly as a source of local fuel supply, 
especially in the case of those near Prince Albert. If fires are kept 
out, the future of the forest growth is assured, on account of the 
persistence of the jack pine. The Pines and the Nisbet, well supplied 
with trails and surrounded by settlements, whose poplar, groves are 
being rapidly cleared up, present scope for improvement cuttings; 
while the burns which are not restocking offer very favourable oppor- 
tunity for successful planting. 

FOREST CONDITIONS ON DOMINION LANDS IN ALBERTA 

The spruce forest of Manitoba and Saskatchewan continues across 
the northern end of the prairie region of Alberta, finally mingling 
with the Rocky Mountain forest of the western portion of the province. 
In both these forest regions timber berths and forest reserves are in 
existence. 

Licensed lands in 1912 totaled 2,174 square miles, and 
Berths'^ ^^"^s held under permit, 40 square miles. Probably 

one-third of the Hcensed area lies within the Rocky 
Mountains reserve described below. The other berths are scattered 
along the North Saskatchewan and its tributaries below Rocky Moun- 
tain House, along Athabaska waters, and on Peace River tributaries 
16— c 0. 



242 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

southwest of Lesser Slave lake. These are similar in composition to 
those in northern Saskatchewan, except for the more westerly situated 
ones, which have more or less of an inclusion of Rocky Mountain 
species. The lumber cut, largely from Dominion lands, approached 
50,000,000 feet in 1912, with 90 per cent of it spruce. Small quantities 
of pine, poplar, Douglas fir and tamarack comprised the balance. 

Rocky '^^^ forest reserves of Alberta cover 26,112 square 

Mountains miles, or nearly three-quarters of the total area set 

Forest Reserve ^^-^^ ^^ Dominion reserves. The largest and most 
important of all is the Rocky Mountains reserve. This immense re- 
serve, of over 13,000,000 acres, recently created, is situated along the 
east slope of the Rocky mountains, extending in a north-westerly line 
from the International boundary some 450 miles. It includes the land 
which, owing to the character of the topography and soil and to its 
elevation, is unsuitable for any form of agriculture beyond local 
interior grazing areas. In a general way the eastern boundary follows 
a line in the foothills at about 4,000 feet elevation, the line being 
raised or lowered according to regional conditions. South of the 
Crowsnest branch of the Canadian Pacific railway the width of the 
reserve is only some 10 or 15 miles. Northward it widens more or 
less, gradually reaching a maximum breadth of about 85 miles south 
of Jasper park, and again narrowing down as the Peace River drainage 
is reached. 

Within the reserve certain areas have been proclaimed park and 
game preserves, notably Rocky Mountains park, comprising a tract of 
1,740 square miles, north and south of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
line, and Jasper park, 1,200 square miles*, along the Grand Trunk 
Pacific railway. 

The remainder of the reserve, for forest administrative purposes, 
is divided into five units, known as the Crowsnest, Bow River, Clear- 
water, Brazeau and Athabasca forests. The first two of these include 
the mountain sources of the South Saskatchewan river; the Clearwater 
and a portion of the Brazeau, those of the North Saskatchewan; 
while the remaining forests include headwaters of the Athabaska and 
Peace rivers. Thus the reserved slope is the source of the great 
Saskatchewan system of the prairies, draining to Hudson bay, as 
well as of a portion of the Mackenzie system which drains into the 
Arctic. 

The Saskatchewan drainage system, in its entirety totaling some 
154,500 square miles, embraces the major portion of the settled area. 

♦Enlarged in June, 1914, to 4,400 square miles. 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 243 

of the Prairie provinces. The importance of preserving the forest 
cover at the source of supply, to ensure an even flow during the year 
throughout this vast region, can scarcely be overestimated. The two 
westerly provinces are not endowed with a liberal water supply, and 
the denudation of the east slope of the Rockies, with consequent rapid 
run-ofif, would undoubtedly necessitate the construction of huge stor- 
age reservoirs. 

In addition, the east slope is largely underlain with coal deposits, 
estimated by the Geological Survey at over 22,000 million tons. In the 
development of these areas the forest will play a very important part, 
to say nothing of the future supply of lumber products in general. 

The reserve in the past has been extensively and severely burned 
at different periods*. The survey party engaged in determining the 
eastern boundary, from the Elbow river south, during 1910, estimated 
that at least 60 per cent of their territory had been fire-swept within 
the past 60 years. The party working north arrived at a figure of 75 
per cent burned between the Elbow and North Saskatchewan rivers. 
A study in 1908 of the Crowsnest River valley, between the Livingstone 
range and the continental divide, showed but 16 per cent of the 212 
square miles involved as unburned; and of the burned area nearly 
one-half was not restocking. South of the Crowsnest river little timber 
has escaped fire, outside of the valley bottoms. 

North of the Crowsnest, to the Bow river, the reserve suffered 
very severely in 1910; this was prior to its organization. In the Porcu- 
pine hills an area of some 50 square miles was devastated. The valley 
of the north fork of the Oldman river (Livingstone) was all burned, 
with the exception of the headwaters of the west branch. The valley 
of the High wood river was burned to the extent of some 150 square 
miles, and some 50,000,000 feet of fine spruce timber killed. The 
Elbow River valley was cleaned out entirely, as well as the adjacent 
prairie country. The Kananaskis valley was largely burned, and at 
the headwaters of the Little Red Deer river a tract of about 110 square 
miles was overrun. It is estimated that the fires of 1910 ran over at 
least half a million acres of the reserve south of the Red Deer river, 
and destroyed some 200,000,000 feet of merchantable timber. 

Although north of the Red Deer comparatively little was burned 
in 1910, except east of the reserve, very extensive fires, mostly dating 
25 to 50 years back, have occurred throughout the region. From the 
James river to the Clearwater river all has been burned over in the 
vicinity of the eastern boundary. The Saskatchewan valley has been 



*The following fire data are taken from various Forestry Branch bulletins 
and reports, together with information supplied by the district inspector for 
Alberta, 



244 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

burned as far west as Mire creek. The Clearwater forest appears to 
have suffered less than the others, due no doubt to its remoteness from 
civilization. The Brazeau and Athabaska forests have also exper- 
ienced large fires, but to what extent is imperfectly known. 

Three-fourths of the forest area of the reserve, it is estimated, 
has been burned over at various times, mostly within the last 60 years, 
so that the majority of the stands are " second growth," below timber 
size. These are almost always lodgepole pine, and as this species forms 
more than one-half of the mature stands as well, it may be said to 
characterize the east slope. 

(1) Mature Stands. — The mature stands of timber occur largely 
as isolated areas which have escaped fire. Along the margin of the 
foothill country and occasionally in the interior, stands of Douglas fir 
occur, but these have been so reduced by fires from the adjoining 
prairie as to be relatively unimportant. The majority of the mature 
stands consist almost altogether of three species — lodgepole pine, 
Engelmann spruce, and white spruce — all of commercial importance. 
They occur either as pure or mixed stands. North of the Bow river 
the mature timber is ver}- largely pine. 

The mature pure spruce stands occupy the valley bottoms and 
lower slopes, while the pure pine stands are largely restricted to the 
upper and steeper slopes. The intermediate slopes are covered with 
mixtures of pine and spruce in varying proportions. This altitudinal 
distribution is related to the depth of soil and drainage, the spruce 
requiring a moist, well-drained soil, whereas the pine can thrive on a 
drier situation. Tree growth ceases at about 7,000 feet, due to lack 
of soil and other physical conditions obtaining, rather than to the 
climatic conditions. 

On the upper slopes the soil is too poor for the production of large 
trees, and the merchantable timber is confined to the lower slopes and 
the deeper soils of the intermediate slopes. The accessible stands are 
virtually all under license at present. Originally the best spruce prob- 
ably occurred in the Highwood and Crowsnest River valleys, where a 
maximum size of three feet in diameter and over 100 feet in height 
was attained. The present stands consist of trees mostly 10 to 18 
inches in diameter. Pine, on the best sites among spruce, reaches a 
diameter of two feet, but in pure stand it only averages 8 to 14 inches. 
Logging has so far been carried on mostly for spruce, on account of its 
larger size, the average log from government returns showing a con- 
tent of 50 board feet. Both species of spruce produce lumber of 
identical qualities. The pine, though shorter than the spruce, possesses 
a less tapering stem, with a greater clear length, and, since it also 
produces a clearer lumber, with a more pleasing grain, it will in time 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 245 

receive due attention. The timber in the northern portion of the 
reserve is of slower growth, and in general reaches a smaller develop- 
ment at maturity. 

(2) 'Immature Stands. — The immature stands, originating after 
fires, as already stated, constitute three-quarters of the forest growth 
on the east slope. These stands are practically always lodgepole pine. 
Only under exceptional circumstances has a reproduction of spruce 
followed the fire; on the prairie border poplar usually results. 

This predominance of lodgepole pine over spruce in the reproduc- 
tion following a fire is due largely to the difference in fruiting char- 
acter of the two species. The cones of lodgepole pine remain on the 
tree for many years, opening slowly to discharge the seeds, while those 
of spruce open at maturity and shed the seeds within a short time. 
In addition, lodgepole pine seeds retain their germinating power for a 
longer period. A ground fire, therefore, which destroys the spruce 
seed, merely serves to release the accumulated seed supply present on 
the pine trees, since the heat opens the cones. Also, spruce trees are 
more readily killed by fire than lodgepole pine, and so their chances of 
escape to function as seed trees are less. In general, spruce reproduc- 
tion follows only in the case of very light burning, and where neigh- 
bouring seed trees are left; the light burning does not destroy the 
litter and humus and lay bare the mineral soil, and pine does not 
germinate as well as spruce with such seed bed conditions. 

The second growth stands of lodgepole pine are characterized by 
their great density, and by their evenness of age, each dating from 
a particular fire. Owing to the severity of the fires, a bare seed bed 
is prepared on which the stored-up crop of seeds rapidly falls. The 
result is a direct stocking up with altogether too dense a growth of 
seedlings. The young trees hinder the development of one another, 
so that a longer time is needed to reach merchantable size. 

Lesser ^^is is a newly-created reserve, of some 5,000 square 

Slave Lake miles, situated mostly south of Lesser Slave lake. In 

Reserve*^ general, it presents a rough broken topography, with 

large, poorly-drained areas aggregating over one-quarter of the whole. 

The reserve embraces a variety of forest types, of which the 
lodgepole pine type is the most important from the standpoint of area. 
Although it covers over a million acres of the valley slopes of the 
Swan hills, the bulk of the forest is of a dense spindly growth, which 
will never reach more than pulpwood size. 

Almost as large an area is represented in the poplar type, mostly 
as a result of fires. In this type aspen predominates, with a mixture 

*The following description is based on Bulletin 29^ Forestry Branch. 



246 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

of balsam poplar, along with a scattering of the other northern species. 
Both poplars are very defective, materially reducing the yield of pulp- 
wood. 

The remaining forest types cover relatively small areas. Jack pine, 
as usual, appears on the sand ridges, the majority of the stands being 
immature. The merchantable white spruce occurs in localized patches, 
as the remnants of larger fire-swept areas. The undrained locations 
carry the usual stunted black spruce and tamarack. 

While the present stand of mature timber on the reserve is small, 
being estimated at some 350,000,000 feet of saw timber, 4,000,000 ties, 
and 33,000,000 cords of pulpwood, the potential crop is important as 
a source of supply for the future neighbouring settlement, which will 
undoubtedly develop. In addition, the forest growth is essential for 
the proper regulation of waterflow in the main drainage streams; 
these are navigable streams, upon which this region is dependent for 
intercommunication. At present no management is feasible beyond 
protection from fire. 

The Cooking Lake reserve is a small area of very 

2 broken land, with much muskeg, situated about 40 

Reserves . 

miles east of Edmonton. It has suffered extremely 

from fire, so that practically all the original conifers are gone. The 
usual poplar reproduction prevails, but considerable areas will need to 
be replanted. The northern portion is set aside as Elk park. 

The Cypress Hills, another small reserve, lies in south-eastern Al- 
berta, extending into Saskatchewan. The eastern portion is forested, 
but the western portion has been reduced to grassland by fires. It 
is the most important elevation in a region where irrigation farming 
is practised, and hence is very important in the conservation of water 
supply. As the only source of local wood supply, it has likewise great 
value. 

• FOREST CONDITIONS ON DOMINION LANDS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 

Dominion lands in British Columba comprise a strip of land 20 
miles wide on either side of the main line of the Canadian Pacific 
railway (known as the railway belt), the Peace River block of 3,500,- 
000 acres, and some 50,000 acres of coal lands in the Crowsnest 
region. These were provincial grants to the Federal government, asso- 
ciated with early railway construction. 

The railway belt, in its stretch of over 500 miles, may 
way Belt" ^^ ^^^^ ^" ^ broad way to traverse an interior moun- 

tainous plateau, lying between the Rocky mountains on 
the east and the Coast range on the west. The region is one character- 




Typical Slash after a IvUmbkring Operation 

In Rocky Mountains National Park, within a few miles of BanfT. Fire started in this 

would quickly be beyond human control. 




Area IvUmbered 12 Years Ago 

Owing to the dry climate it will be another decade or more before the slash will have decayed 

and the fire hazard be thus removed. Spruce-pine type. Rocky Mountains Reserve. 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 247 

ized by a very rugged and diversified topography, being, in fact, a vast 
complex group of ridges and mountains. Probably less than ten per 
cent of the railway belt is adapted to agricultural use of any kind. 

Owing to its unsuitableness for agriculture, but a comparatively 
small portion of the railway belt has been alienated by the Dominion 
government. There were some alienations by the Province prior to 
the transfer. Outside of straggling areas along the railway line, and 
in many of the river valleys, the lands disposed of fall roughly into 
two regional blocks, aggregating some 150 miles in an east and west 
direction. One of these comprises the country between Sicamous and 
Kamloops, largely south of the line of railway; while the other is 
found from Agassiz westward. In the central dry region some 400,000 
acres are under grazing lease. 

The country is essentially a forested one, with the tree flora 
exhibiting many species largely absent east of the continental divide. 
Characteristic among these may be mentioned the Douglas fir, and the 
western species of cedar, hemlock, white pine, yellow pine, tamarack 
(local), together with some others restricted to the vicinity of the 
coast. 

Climatically, the railway belt may be roughly divided into three 
regions, on the basis of precipitation. The coast region is character- 
ized by a humid atmosphere and heavy rainfall, and again in the Gold 
and Selkirk ranges an abundant fall of rain and snow occurs. Be- 
tween these lies a sub-arid region, locally known as the " dry belt." 

The types of forest growth present are related very largely to 
this difference in annual precipitation, those tree species requiring at 
least a fair amount of moisture being absent from the intervening dry 
region. Within each broad regional type much variation is, of course, 
encountered, in keeping with the effect of the varied topography on 
moisture conditions. 

Regional Types. — The lodgepole pine-spruce type of the east slope 
continues on the seaward side of the divide, with both species here 
reaching a greater development. Westward, gradually an inclusion of 
Douglas fir, hemlock, cedar and western white pine appears, but these 
are of minor importance till the summit of the Selkirks is reached. 

From the Selkirk divide to somewhat west of Adams and Shuswap 
lakes the so-called "wet belt " extends, with a precipitation of 56 inches 
at Glacier in the Selkirks, and 35 inches at Griffin lake in the Gold 
range, as compared with 25 inches at Donald. Here, for the first 
time, typically, western white pine appears commonly, and cedar, hem- 
lock and Douglas fir attain commercial importance. These are all 
species whose development is favoured by a plentiful supply of 



248 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

moisture. Lodgepole pine and spruce, especially the latter, are still 
abundant. Usually the valley bottoms and lower slopes carry spruce, 
cedar, hemlock, western white pine and Douglas fir, with the first three 
predominating. The higher slopes are generally clothed with white 
pine, Douglas fir, lodgepole pine and spruce, with lodgepole pine 
probably the commonest. The timber line consists of spruce, alpine 
fir, whitebark pine and alpine larch. The occurrence of spruce through- 
out is noticeable. 

Westward, from about Shuswap lake, an arid belt, with a precipita- 
tion of only 10 inches at Kamloops, is encountered for some 175 miles, 
to the vicinity of North Bend. The tree species are much reduced in 
number, the characteristic tree being the western yellow pine or bull 
pine. It occupies the lower elevations, and in many localities forms 
ver}' open non-commercial stands. x\ltitudinally it is succeeded by 
Douglas fir, a species adapted to a variety of soils and climate, but 
here of proportionately poorer development. A belt of lodgepole pine 
is usually to be found above the fir, or occasionally spruce. 

The forest of the remaining portion- of the railway belt is of the 
well-known lower coast type, Douglas fir, hemlock and cedar bemg 
the main species. With abundant moisture, both soil and atmos- 
pheric, all three reach their maximum size, resulting in very heavy 
stands of timber. In addition, some new species enter the flori, 
notably tideland spruce, lowland fir and lovely fir, likewise important 
timber trees. 

Timber Berths. — Outside the arid section, the railway belt shows 
a large number of timber berths under license, these comprising about 
1,800 square miles. They are located largely on the Columbia river 
and its tributaries, in the Shuswap Lake region, and from the vicinity 
of Harrison lake westward to the coast. A map showing the timber 
berths practically depicts the accessible stands of mature timber. De- 
spite the large area, less than 75,000,000 feet of lumber was manu- 
factured in 1911-12 from these licensed berths. This was increased 
probably by about one-third last season, owing to the necessity of 
utilizing burned timber. The licensees operate mainly in provincial 
timber. The reason would appear to be the low ground rent charged 
by the Federal government, as contrasted with that of the province, 
this favouring the holding of timber for speculative purposes. 

Forest Reserves. — Reservation of forest land began in 1888, with 
the setting aside of Glacier park, followed by Yoho park in 1901, and 
the Long Lake reserve in 1902. In 1906, six more reserves were 
created, and during the present year (1913) four others, with additions 
to some of those already formed. At present the thirteen forest re- 
serves comprise a total of 3,782 square miles. 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 249 

With the exception of the two parks in the eastern portion of the 
railway belt, the forest reserves are located in the interior dry region. 
This has received first attention from the forestry officials, owing to 
the relatively great importance of water suppHes. The reserves form 
two east and west belts, north and south of the railway line respect- 
ively, exclusive of the valley bottom lands. Agriculture in the district 
requires irrigation for success, the supply coming from the small moun- 
tain streams. In the conservation of this supply by the forest cover 
on the watersheds of these streams lies the main value of the reserves 
at present. The timber, in comparison with that outside the " dry 
belt," is now unimportant, and practically no logging operations are 
being carried on within the reserves. Improvement, with a view to in- 
creasing the efficiency of protection from fire, must constitute the 
main managerial care for some time. 

Squatting. — Owing to the scarcity of agricultural land, and the 
general reservation, for some years, from homestead entry of Domin- 
ion lands except within the sub-arid region (pending contemplated 
changes of land policy), the squatting evil exists throughout the rail- 
way belt in a somewhat marked degree. This has an important 
bearing in connection with forest conservation. It is the old-time 
story of the clash between the interests of the lumberman and those 
of the settler. The lumberman is charged with holding, for specula- 
tive purposes, timber on agricultural soil, or holding under license 
logged-over lands which should be opened for settlement. On the 
other hand, the settler is charged with squatting on land chiefly valu- 
able for its timber, and endangering timber limits by his careless use 
of fire in clearing land. Apart from the aspect of the defiance of law, 
the most undesirable feature of squatting in a forested region like the 
railway belt, lies in the increased difficulty of protecting timber from 
fire. Settlers as a whole do not give a forest protection policy their 
strongest support while they feel that the presence of timber on agri- 
cultural lands prevents its opening for settlement. 

The condition of affairs may be remedied by increasing the land 
available for entry. This could be done by requiring operation on such 
licensed areas as are agricultural soil and adjacent to settlement. This 
would require to be done after due notice, in order not to disarrange 
business interests. Logged-over limit areas should be examined system- 
atically, as operations are finished, for classification as to agricultural 
or forest lands, and in the former case opened for homesteading as the 
demand necessitates. With sufficient agricultural land made available 
for settlement, the government could enforce the regulations forbid- 
ding squatting on timber berths, and reduce the fire risk accordingly. 



250 CO iM MI SSI ON OF CONSERVATION 

FOREST PROTECTION ON DOMINION LANDS 

The extremely important duty of protecting the forests on all 
Dominion lands from fire, with the exception of Dominion parks, lies 
with the Forestry Branch of the Department of the Interior. Two 
separate organizations, enforcing different regulations, are in charge 
of the work, one guarding the forest reserves and the other all Domin- 
ion forest land outside the reserves. In both organizations the method 
in use is that of a patrol system. 

^. , . The protection of the reserves depends upon the forest 

Forest rangers, who perform this work in conjunction with 

Reserves. their other duties. To each forest is allotted a certain 

number of rangers, each of whom is in charge of a specified territory, 
and responsible for the same to the superior officer administering the 
business of the forest. The size of the district varies according to the 
fire risk and accessibility to movements of the general public. The 
duties of the rangers consist in a patrol of the district, to enforce the 
regulations made under the Dominion Forest Reserves and Parks Act, 
and to put out fires. In wet weather they are engaged on permanent 
improvement work, such as building roads, trails, telephone lines, and 
ranger cabins. The wages are $75 to $100 per month. Licensed and 
unlicensed portions of a reserve receive the same attention. 

The forest reserve regulations relating to fire protection are very 
complete. On the reserves, a closed season for fires exists from April 
15 to October 31, and this period may be extended, if deemed advis- 
able, in the case of a summer of special danger. During this season 
no fires, except camp fires, may be set, unless a permit be obtained 
from a forest officer. Also, the regulations and penalties of the pro- 
vince in which the reserve is located are applicable to the reserve. 
Full precautions are taken with reference to railway lines being oper- 
ated within reserves. Most of the railway companies whose lines pass 
through reserves are already under the authority of the Board of Rail- 
way Commissioners for Canada, which requires special patrol by the 
companies where material fire danger exists. Those not under its 
jurisdiction are subject to a similar reserve regulation requiring patrol 
as specified by the department. 

These provisions are ample, consequently the efficiency of protec- 
tion is a matter of personnel. This will be discussed later. 

Outside Reserves An enormous area of Dominion lands exists in 
Saskatchewan ^^^ northern portion of these three provinces 
and Alberta which is not included within any reserve. It is 

not all timbered, to be sure, much muskeg occurring, but the forested 
areas are numerous and valuable, including many licensed timber 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 251 

berths. It is a frontier country, bordered by the advance line of settle- 
ment, busy clearing land by fire, with railway and highway construc- 
tion in progress, and constantly travelled by prospectors, freighters, 
trappers, surveyors and campers. The task of protecting it from fire 
is correspondingly difficult. 

The whole territory, under the administration of a Dominion in- 
spector of fire ranging, is divided into nine districts. These are organ- 
ized, as regards location and intensity of patrol, according to the 
nature of the country and the fire risk, as indicated by man's activities. 
Each district has a staff of fire rangers, in charge of a chief ranger, 
who has no other duties. The rangers are engaged in patrol work 
exclusively from May till November, temporary men being taken on 
during the more dangerous periods. About 115 men, exclusive of 
chiefs, were employed in 1913. 

During the past season, in Manitoba, the south-eastern portion of 
the province with the north half of the peninsula between lakes Mani- 
toba and Winnipeg, formed one district, the water routes, from the 
foot of lake Winnipeg to Hudson bay, another district, and the 
country around The Pas, including Hudson Bay railway right-of-way 
patrol, a third. Approximately 35 rangers were employed in these 
three districts. In Saskatchewan, the region protected was in a gen- 
eral way that along the Canadian Northern railway, extending on the 
north side to Saskatchewan river, Montreal lake and Beaver river. 
This was subdivided into three districts, with Hudson Bay Junction, 
Prince Albert, and Battleford as centres. The ranger staff about 
equalled that in Manitoba. In Alberta, attention was centred on the 
large territory from Red Deer and Rocky Mountain House north into 
the Peace River country, and the northward route of travel down the 
Athabaska river from Athabaska Landing. A patrol boat was used 
for the portion between Athabaska Landing and Grand Rapids. A 
total of some 45 rangers was required in Alberta. 

In these sparsely settled districts httle can be done in the way of 
fighting fire, as aid is not available. The prevention of fires is all the 
more important, and the rangers are thus called upon to do much 
patient work in educating the people as to fire damage and the law. 
The fire act at their disposal is that of the province in which their 
district lies. Manitoba has one act, Saskatchewan and Alberta an- 
other, and the Dominion government simply enforces the provincial 
fire laws. 

Unfortunately, these fire laws are inadequate, as legislation, to 
prevent forest fires. Both are old legislative measures, that of Sas- 
katchewan and Alberta dating back 15 years, and that of Manitoba 
18 years. At those dates settlement was restricted to the south, away 
from the forested parts, and the fire legislation was designed primarily 



252 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

for the prevention of prairie fires, which frequently swept over the 
country, destroying the homesteaders' buildings and crops. Since that 
time the occupation of land has been pushed forward to the border 
of the northern forest, through which travel has increased greatly and 
the fire danger likewise. It is but natural that the old provisions, made 
for open prairie conditions, should not be the most effective for pre- 
venting forest fires. This prevention, with a mere handful of men, 
is difificult enough, even when backed by favourable laws. All modern 
legislation recognizes the principle of the closed season, during which 
a permit to set fires is necessary; further, since securing a conviction 
is so difficult, the present tendency is to put the onus of proof on the 
defendant that he has complied with the law. As to these points, the 
fire laws of the prairie provinces are deficient. Forest fire legislation 
in Canada has made rapid strides in the last decade, and the Prairie 
provinces cannot afford to lag behind. New forest fire acts, framed 
to meet the sources of danger, and having relevance to the northern 
portion, are urgently needed. 

Another important branch of the forest protection system, and 
separate from the patrol organization just discussed, lies in the inspec- 
tion of the protective work done by the railway companies under 
regulations issued by the Board of Railway Commissioners by virtue 
of the authority of the Railway Act of Canada. 

In brief, these regulations relate to the use of fire protective appli- 
ances on locomotives, the regulation of fuel, the construction of fire 
guards, the clearing of rights-of-way, and the establishment of a 
special patrol of the railway line from April 1 to November 1, as 
specified by the chief fire inspector of the Board. The burden of 
proof is placed upon railway companies to extinguish fires starting 
within 300 feet of the track, unless the company can show that the 
fire was not caused by the railway, and all regular employees are re- 
quired to report the discovery of all fires on or near the right-of-way, 
and to take steps to extinguish them. The principle throughout is 
that the railway companies themselves must undertake the work of 
protecting the public against damage by railway fires. The legislation 
is easily the most efficient in America, and affects all railways in 
operation or under construction which are under the jurisdiction of 
the Board of Railway Commissioners. 

The inspection looking to the enforcement of the regulations is in 
charge of the fire inspection department of the Board. This depart- 
ment is assisted by the appointment of certain outside forestry offi- 
cials as officers of the Board, without additional pay, to supervise 
the detailed field inspection. This work in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, 
and Alberta, outside the forest reserves and parks, is in charge of 
the Dominion inspector of fire ranging, assisted by district inspectors^ 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 253 

The railway companies as a whole are co-operating in good spirit, 
with the result that fire losses from this source have materially de- 
creased during the past two seasons. 

Some few lines, however, in these three provinces, are not under 
the jurisdiction of the Board, and on that account the enactment of 
provincial legislation along similar lines is highly desirable, such as 
has been done in British Columbia and Quebec. 

The Dominion lands (outside the reserves) in the 
Railway Belt of railway belt are organized, for fire protection pur- 
poses, into the Revelstoke, Salmon Arm, and 
Coast districts. These are in charge of three chief lire rangers, 
one responsible to the Crown timber agent at New Westmin- 
ster, the others to the district inspector of forest reserves at 
Kamloops. Working under the chiefs are some 50 fire rangers, en- 
gaged for the summer months, at $5 per day. The work consists in 
the enforcement of the provisions of the British Columbia Forest Act 
relating to fire prevention. Since these provisions are most modern, 
the fire ranging service is carried on under very favourable condi- 
tions. In addition, the province had a staff of ten rangers on duty 
in the railway belt. 

The inspection in connection with the order of the Railway Board, 
already mentioned, is, in the railway belt, outside of Dominion parks, 
in charge of the district inspector of forest reserves, assisted by divi- 
sional inspectors. For the lines within the Dominion parks the inspec- 
tion is in charge of the chief superintendent of Dominion parks, 
assisted by the superintendents of the different parks, as divisional 
inspectors. 

To protect city property from fire there is not 
Slash Disposal ^"^^ provision to extinguish promptly such fires 
as may be started, but the material conditions obtain- 
ing are required to be such as will reduce the chances of 
a fire assuming uncontrollable proportions. The same two meas- 
ures are necessary to protect forest property. The presence of 
a fire-fighting force, and the construction of trails, lookout sta- 
tions and telephone lines, are merely measures to facilitate the 
rapid control of fires which start. The supplemental feature lies in 
the condition of the forest floor as regards inflammability. The smaller 
the quantity of dry material on the ground, the better is the chance 
of control; in addition, the fire is not so hot, and less damage is done 
to the trees and soil. 

In all forests there is normally a certain amount of debris originat- 
ing by the natural death of the trees and parts of trees. This is 
augmented by local windfalls. But the most dangerous component is 



254 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

the slash resulting from logging operations. A forest when lumbered 
over is a forest littered with very combustible material ; it remains in 
this condition, year after year, a veritable fire-trap, until the debris 
decays; this is a matter of at least a decade, and frequently two de- 
cades or more, except in warm, moist climates. In the past, so uni- 
versally has fire followed a lumbering operation within a few years 
that it is generally looked upon as inevitable. In studying the repro- 
duction on logged-over areas this summer (1913), the writer experi- 
enced difficulty in finding old cuttings which had not been burned. 
Since the next tree crop on the lumbered tract is dependent on the 
seedlings already started, and the trees left uncut, the outlook for this 
crop is a very uncertain one under present conditions. 

There are various methods in use for disposing of lumbering slash, 
varying in cost and effectiveness. The one aim is, at the least expense, 
to get rid of the brush as often as needful, not allowing it to accumu- 
late, and, of course, the sooner it is done after logging the better. No 
uniform system can be followed. The method used must take into 
consideration particularly the injury to the remaining trees, and 
whether the conditions following the manner of disposal are favour- 
able to the seedling crop desired. Methods involving more complete 
disposal should be adopted in the more dangerous situations, and these 
are the more costly. In each case, the method decided on should be 
the one which will eliminate the fire danger, or at least shorten its 
duration, with the smallest expense, and, at the same time not be 
detrimental to the next crop, since it is largely in the interests of this 
that the operation is being conducted. 

The best results have been obtained by either burning the slash or 
lopping the tops. The burning may be done in piles or broadcast. 
When piled it may be burned as the logging proceeds, if in the winter; 
in the case of summer operations, the burning must be postponed till 
weather conditions allow. Burning broadcast is cheaper where the 
slash is heavy, but is harder to control, and is applicable only in clear 
cutting operations and where the growth conditions left behind are 
favourable to the tree species wanted. 

Lopping the tops has in view the bringing of the material in con- 
tact with the soil to hasten decay, and thus shorten the danger period. 
In this respect, scattering the branches afterwards is an advantage. The 
pieces must be cut smaller than if burning is practised, and the whole 
operation is of little use unless done carefully, to get the material 
actually on the ground. The lopping method is cheaper, of course, 
than piling and burning, and in a given case the choice resolves itself 
into a question whether the fire risk is worth the increased outlay. 
Under certain conditions lopping and scattering is even the better 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 



255 



method, owing to the shelter given to the young seedlings. As far as 
Dominion forests are concerned, with the exception of certain portions 
of the railway belt, lopping would be of very doubtful value, since 
decay takes places very slowly, owing to the dry climate. A financial 
compromise is often made by broadcast burning of fire lines around 
the sides most likely to be reached by fire, and lopping in the interior. 
The cost of brush disposal varies widely with difference in forest 
type and locality, as does every other part of a lumbering operation. 
It can be seen that the outlay depends upon the species lumbered, the 
method of disposal, the climatic and topographic conditions, the style 
of lumbering, the quality of labour, and the skill and experience in the 
work. It is therefore impossible to give average figures of cost, but 
the following actual figures (mostly secured through the courtesy of 
the United States forest service) will give some indication of the 
expense to be expected. They include the range, as also the highest 
cost data to hand. 

ACTUAL COSTS OF BRUSH DISPOSAL* 



Locality 


Forest type 


Operation 


Cost 

per M 

feet. 

Cents 


Remarks 


Bitterroot Forest, Montana 

Bitterroot Forest, Montana 

Blackfeet Forest, Montana 

Cceur d'Alene Forest, Idaho . . 

Minnesota 


Western yellow pine 

Western yellow pine 

Larch-Douglas fir.. 
Western white pine. 

White and red pine. 

Lodgepole pine, 
Douglas fir, yellow- 
pine, Engelmann 
spruce 

do. do. 

do. do. 

do. do. 

Lodgepole pine .... 

Yellow pine and 
Douglas fir-larch 
types 

Western white pine. 

Western white pine. 

Engehnann spruce- 
lodgepole pine (25 
per cent). 


Piling 

Burning later 

Piling 

Burning later 

Piling 

Piling and 

burning. . . . 

Piling 

Burning 

Lopping and 

scattering . . 

Piling 

Burning later 
Burning later 

Piling 

Burning later 

Piling 

Burning later 

PiUng 

Burning later 
Burning 

broadcast . . 
Burning 

broadcast .. 


42 

7 
40 

6 
42 

40 

25 

6 

5-10 

15-25 
20-50 

8 
50-60 

2-7 
25-50 

2-6 

40-60 
3-6 

10 

2i 


37 million feet 

52 million feet 
off 3,300 acres 

Windrows 
Contract price 

Range in dif- 
ferent cases 

7 milhon feet 


Idaho, Utah andNevada district 

Idaho, Utah andNevada district 
Idaho, Utah andNevada district 
Idaho, Utah andNevada district 
Idaho and Montana 


Idaho and Montana 




Idaho and Montana 




Idaho and Montana 




Crowsnest, B.C 






Experiment 
with300acres; 
stand 15 to 20 
M per acre 



♦The slash disposal problem has not yet (1913) been taken up system- 
atically in connection -with Dominion forests. The subject is returned to 
in the last chapter. 



256 COAIMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

ADMINISTRATION OF DOMINION FORESTS 

In 1869 Ruperts Land and the Northwest Territories became the 
property of the Dominion of Canada, on arrangements being made 
for the extinguishment of the rights of the Hudson's Bay Company. 
In the same year an act was passed making provision for the temporary 
government of this area, and in the following session the province of 
Manitoba was formed, with its own constitutional government, and 
withdrawn from the operation of the foregoing act. Later, the prov- 
inces of Saskatchewan and Alberta were organized, each with its local 
legislature. 

The control and management of this vast territory in the north- 
west was confided, March 1, 1871, to the Secretary of State for Canada, 
a Dominion Lands Branch, in charge of a Surveyor General, being 
established for that work. On the erection of a Department of the 
Interior in 1873, the Dominion Lands Branch passed to that depart- 
ment, which has from that date administered these western lands. 
During the 40 years since, several secondary branches have been 
created to cope with the increasing volume of the business of admin- 
istration. This, of course, relates only to unalienated lands. 

To understand the present methods of administration, 
Bran(fh '^^ ^° ^^^ ^^ ^^ relates to Dominion forests, it will be 

convenient to briefly sketch its development. The 
western lumber industry began early to develop, and in 1880, a Timber, 
Mines and Grazing Branch was formed at the head office, to have 
charge of this field of administration. The business on the ground 
was in charge of a Crown timber agent, the work having to do with 
the collection of ground rent and dues, scaling of timber, inspection 
of sawmills as to capacity, control of trespass, etc. New timber 
agencies were established in quick succession, and by 1884 there were 
Crown timber agents at Winnipeg, Edmonton, Calgary and Prince 
Albert. Working under the direction of these agents were some seven 
forest rangers, whose duties consisted in seizing ijlegally cut timber, 
reporting on sawmills, and carrying out other departmental business 
in the field. During 1884 and 1885 an exploration of the resources of 
the railway belt was made, and in the following year a Crown timber 
office was opened in New Westminster. 

At present there are six timber agencies, with offices at Winnipeg, 
Prince Albert, Edmonton, Calgary, Kamloops and New Westminster, 
in most of these the one official acting in the dual capacity of land 
agent and timber agent. In the smaller places the land agent performs 
minor timber agent duties in his district. The field inspection as to 
the carrying out of the timber regulations is done by Crown timber 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 257 

inspectors, one or more being attached to each agency. Here again, 
this work is in some cases combined with the duties of land inspection. 
Over all there is an inspector of agencies, who supervises the admin- 
istration of each office. 

From a comparatively early date the officials of the 
Branch^ Department of the Interior were aware of the import- 

ance to the west of an adequate timber supply. As 
has been the case in other countries, tree planting engaged the minds 
of men before the question of protection from fire. Thus, as early as 
1875, we find the Surveyor General urging " the expediency of encour- 
aging tree planting in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories." 
Indeed, in 1884, a special commission was appointed " to examine 
into and make a report upon the subject of the protection of the forests 
of the Dominion and the planting of trees on an extensive scale." 
Annual reports were made for several years, but no action resulted. 
Fires were severe and widespread, and already in many localities fuel 
and building logs could not be procured. Finally, the fear of a timber 
famine in the west led the department in 1893 to embark on a policy 
of setting aside certain non-agricultural Crown lands adjacent to settle- 
ment as sources of future timber supply, and for the equalization of 
water flow as well. Before this, in 1885 and 1886, certain mountain 
park lands had been reserved to the Crown under the provisions of the 
Dominion Lands Act, the impetus having been given by the discovery 
of hot mineral springs near Banff, Alberta. The formal constitution 
as reserves, however, took place later. The parks, of course, were set 
aside on account of their scenic qualities. The timber reservation 
policy began with the creation of Moose Mountain reserve, by depart- 
mental order, in 1894, followed the next year by Riding Mountain, 
Turtle Mountain, and Spruce Woods reserves. 

So far, in the administration of the Dominion forest land, attention 
had been given almost wholly to facilitating the cutting of timber and 
perfecting the system of revenue collection. There were some local 
fire guardians, appointed under territorial ordinance, to look after 
prairie fires, but disastrous fires swept the country every dry season. 
The reserved areas were virtually without any system of protection, 
beyond the cutting of a few fire guards through timber on two of *:he 
reserves. The seriousness of the fire damage was realized, however, by 
some of the officials. Thus, the chief clerk of the Timber Branch, in his 
report for 1887, speaks of "the necessity of providing some better 
means than at present exist to prevent the destruction annually by 
fires of milhons of feet of timber throughout Manitoba and the North- 
west Territories." Periodically, for years, we find the field officials, 
in their reports, pointing out the necessity of greater fire protection, 
17— c. c. 



258 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

the need of rangers on the timber reservations, of more control of 
trespass, of conserving timber along streams from the Rockies, and of 
prairie planting. 

At last, on August 15, 1899, a " chief inspector of timber and 
forestry " was appointed, and this marks the beginning of a branch to 
organize a system of fire protection. The plan adopted was that of a 
local selection of fire rangers, working under the direction of the 
Crown timber agent for the district, or his sub-officers. The agent 
prescribed the patrol area, and notified the ranger when to commence 
and when to quit, according to the nature of the season. Each year 
saw this organization extended into new regions, so that the force 
with 22 rangers in 1903, numbered in 1912 some 165 men (outside of 
reserves). The work of supervision has grown beyond the capacity 
of the Crown agents, with their other affairs, and chief rangers, with 
no other duties, and with an inspector over all, are in charge. 

The forest reserves likewise began to receive some attention as the 
result of this new step. A system of fire-guard construction along 
boundaries adjoining open prairie was begun, and forest rangers 
brought about a more desirable state of affairs as regards fire and 
timber theft within the reserves. The work of examining non-agricul- 
tural areas and creating new reservations went steadily ahead. The 
Forestry Branch is still the only agency for the classification of 
Dominion lands. 

The long-discussed matter of prairie planting was settled in 1901 
by the creation of a tree-planting division, and the establishment of a 
nursery at Indian Head, Saskatchewan. The object has been to supply 
settlers with trees for farm planting as shelter belts and small wood- 
lots. Up to 1913, some 25,000,000 trees have been supplied to appli- 
cants, with highly successful results. Stock has also been grown for 
experimental planting on some of the reserves. It must be borne in 
mind that the project is not intended to have any relation to the problem 
of general timber supply. 

An important stage was reached in 1906, by the passing of the 
Dominion Forest Reserves Act, which placed the control and manage- 
ment of the reserves under the Forestry Branch, with provision for 
the making of regulations for their handling. At the same time a large 
number of new reserves were created. The licensed berths within 
reserve boundaries, however, were exempted from reserve regulations, 
an anomalous action, which removed practically all the mature timber 
and all the logging operations from the application of forestry practice. 
In the present organization, for administration of the reserves in 
the field, the whole area is divided into four inspection districts, corre- 
sponding with provincial boundaries. These are in charge of district 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 259 

inspectors, with offices at Winnipeg, Prince Albert, Calgary and Kam- 
loops. The inspectors, with one exception, have had a technical train- 
ing in forestry, and are responsible to the head office at Ottawa for the 
initiation and supervision of all the work in their respective districts. 
In short, the inspector is the business manager of the reserves in his 
care. Each district is subdivided into administrative units, each in 
charge of a forest supervisor. These units correspond with individual 
reserves, where size permits ; large reserves, such as the Rocky Moun- 
tains reserve, are, however, divided up, and small ones are grouped 
together under one supervisor. As far as possible, supervisors are 
chosen who are technically trained men. Assisting the supervisor are 
one or more forest assistants, graduates of forestry schools. Each 
reserve is in turn laid off into ranger districts, to which are assigned 
the necessary number of forest rangers. At the close of the season in 
1913 the permanent field force comprised some 4 inspectors, 10 super- 
visors, 6 forest assistants and 50 rangers. 

The Forest Reserves and Parks Act of 1911 made pro- 
Branch vision for the designation of suitable reserved areas 

as Dominion parks. Notable among these are Rocky 
Mountains, Jasper, Buffalo and Waterton Lakes parks in Alberta, 
and Yoho and Glacier parks in British Columbia. These are admin- 
istered by a Parks Branch at Ottawa, in charge of a com- 
missioner of Dominion parks. The outside service consists of a chief 
superintendent, located at Edmonton, and a separate organization of 
rangers in each park under a superintendent. The work consists of 
protection of the forests and game, and the carrying out of improve- 
ments in keeping with the purposes for which the parks were created. 

DISPOSAL OF DOMINION TIMBER 

Early The forest resources of the Dominion lands early 

License_ attracted the attention of lumbermen. For instance, 

egu a ions ^ ^^j^ ^^ timber berths on lake Winnipegosis was held 

on November 1, 1879, at which fifteen limits, totaling 605>^ square 
miles, were disposed of for a total bonus of $22,665. The sales were 
subject to the cost of survey, a ground rent of two dollars per square 
mile per annum, and five per cent royalty on the sales of products of 
the berths. Slightly later sales carried a rental of five dollars per 
mile, and the trees under 10 inches were reserved. These earher dis- 
posals of timber berths took the form of leases, made under various 
conditions. However, the Dominion Lands Act of 1879 provided for 
the yearly license system, and the regulations of March 8, 1883, would 
appear to be the first governing the granting of licenses to cut timber 
on Dominion lands. 



260 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

The essential features of these regulations were: The limitation of 
the area of the berth to 50 square miles; a yearly ground rent of five 
dollars per square mile, and a royalty of five per cent on the sale of all 
products; the requiring of the construction of a mill of 10,000 feet 
daily capacity, to run at least six months in the year ; provision for 
renewal of license for another year if the area was not needed for 
settlement; and provision for inviting bonus tenders in the case of 
conflicting applications. Thus the public auction system was early 
foreshadowed, and two years later the. Department discontinued 
granting timber berths except by pubhc competition. 

The above regulations governed the disposal of timber on Domin- 
ion lands, not only in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, but 
also in the railway belt of British Columbia, as far west as the 120th 
meridian (about 25 miles east of Kamloops). This point was chosen 
as being the district west of which all timber cut was likely to find its 
way to the Pacific for export, rather than eastward. West of the 
120th meridian, the regulations were framed to harmonize very largely 
with the British Columbia provincial timber laws, which were drawn 
up with a view to meeting the exigencies of the export trade to South 
America. There were two sets of these.* 

On Dominion lands west of 120° and north of latitude 49° 34' 
(Yale), the license carried no restrictions as regards area or time 
limit; $50 yearly rental; royalty 30 cents per tree felled and 75 cents 
per thousand board feet (neglecting small timber for skids, rafting 
timber, etc.) ; no logs to be sawn until scaled by Crown timber agent 
by Scribner log rule and dues paid ; and trespass was punishable by a 
fine of $3 per tree. 

For lands west of 121° and south of 49° 34' (Yale to Vancouver) 
the regulations differed in that the area was limited to 1,000 acres ;t 
rental $10; royalty 15 cents per tree and 20 cents per thousand board 
feet ; and trespass dues $1 per tree. The license form, in the case of 
both regions, " reserved for Her Majesty for all time any and all 
exceptionally large trees on the tract," and stated specifically that the 
regulations "'' shall not apply to the cutting of trees known as hemlock." 
Thus, at this period there were three sets of regulations governing 
the granting of yearly licenses; one set applying to Manitoba, the 
Northwest Territories, and the railway belt as far west almost as 
Kamloops, another to the railway belt from this point to Yale, and a 
third set from Yale to the coast. 



*See regulations dated April 20 and July 16, 1885. 

tOwing to the owners increasing the capacity of their mills this was amended 
on November 2, 1886, to increase the area up to 2,000 acres for each 25,000 feet 
B M. of daily mill capacity, and a time limit of four years set. 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 261 

On September 17, 1887, the boundary of the application of the 
regulations obtaining in the Northwest Territories was shifted east- 
ward from the 120 meridian to Eagle pass at the summit of the Gold 
range, a few miles west of Revelstoke. 

This multiplicity of regulations was simplified on September 17, 
1889, by an order in council, by which the regulations governing the 
disposal of timber in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories were 
made to apply to the entire railway belt, except that west of Eagle 
pass the yearly rental was to be $32 instead of $5 per square mile (the 
rent charged in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories), and further, 
that a rebate of one-half the royalty, amounting to about 25 cents per 
thousand feet, would be allowed upon lumber exported to foreign 
countries. These two exceptions were in conformity with the pro- 
vincial regulations. The rebate provision was cancelled in the follow- 
ing year, on the ground that towage to Vancouver on timber cut from 
Dominion lands was much lower than on timber from provincial lands. 
At the same time, licensees were given the option of paying the five 
per cent royalty either on the value of the lumber in the log, or at the 
period at which the manufactured lumber was sold. This amendment 
was found necessary owing to the impossibility of those holding 
licenses for both Dominion and provincial lands to separate the lumber 
manufactured from timber cut on the different berths. 

Throughout these years the policy had been to promote the estab- 
lishment of sawmills for the convenience of settlers remote from rail- 
ways and lumber centres. To this end the licenses had carried a 
provision for the erection of a mill within a specified period. On 
January 20, 1892, this was changed so that the lumberman was no 
longer required to construct a mill until notified by the department to 
do so, on the ground that facilities for settlers to purchase lumber 
were, for the present, ample in almost all settlements. This, of course, 
was conducive to the taking up of berths for speculative purposes, and 
the regulation is still in force. 

Present Finally, on July 1, 1898, the regulations were once 

License more overhauled, and these, with some later amend- 

Regulations ments,* constitute those at present in force. These, 
on their fiscal side, are virtually the same as those of 1883. The yearly 

*January 23, 1900. The rental of berths between Eagle pass and Yale was 
reduced from $32 per square mile to $5 per square mile per annum. 

April 9, 1901. One-half cost of guarding the timber berth from fire to be 
defrayed by licensee. 

July 30, 1901. All tim'ber cut under license in railway belt to be manufac- 
tured in the Dominion. 

September 24, 1901. Rebate of 40c per thousand on export lumber cancelled. 

March 31, 1908. Upset price fixed before sale of berth and berth cannot be 
sold below this. 



262 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

ground rent is still five dollars per square mile (640 acres), except for 
lands situated to the west of Yale, in which case the rent is $32. The 
dues are practically the same as then, being 50 cents per thousand feet 
of sawn timber, 1^/2 and 1^ cents for railway ties eight and nine feet 
long respectively, 25 cents per cord of shingle bolts, and five per cent 
on the sale of all other products. On burnt timber the dues are 
reduced one-half. 

Other important features are : 

1. The disposal of licenses by public auction, with an upset price. 

2. A diameter limit of 10 inches at the stump. 

3. Provision for the leaving of seed trees to provide for repro- 
duction. 

4. Provision for the elimination of waste. 

5. Provision for the disposal of logging debris. 

6. Provision for dealing with trespass. 

7. A clause to the efifect that one-half the cost incurred by the 
Crown for guarding the timber berth from fire shall be defrayed by 
the licensee. 

8. Explicit understanding that the license is a yearly one, renew- 
able "subject to the payment of such rental and dues, and to such 
terms and conditions as are fixed by the regulations in force at the 
time renewal is made." 

Efficiency of Fiscal Regulations. — It may be pointed out that the 
License ground rent and lumber dues on Dominion licensed 

Regulations berths have remained practically stationary for thirty 
years, despite the rise in lumber values, which has led the provincial 
governments to materially increase their rates in the case of pro- 
vincially owned timber. Yet, excepting Manitoba, the average mill 
sale price of spruce (the species most widely cut on Dominion lands) 
is on the whole lower in these eastern provinces.* 

Besides the yearly ground rent, the licensee pays dues of 50 cents 
per thousand feet board measure, when the timber is sawn. On refer- 
ring to the rate on spruce in other parts of Canada, we note that in 
Ontario the dues are $1, in New Brunswick $1, and in Quebec $1.05; 
in British Columbia it is 50 cents, but this is influenced by the high 
ground rent charged. 

The licensee also pays one-half the cost of fire-guarding the timber 
berth, the government paying the other half. From the last annual 
report of the department we find that the total revenue from this 
source was $22,856.17. Since there were some 8,065 square miles 
under license, this averages a charge of about $2.85 per square mile to 



*See table 12 in Bulletin 40, Forestry Branch. 




Mature Stand of Lodgepole Pine and Engelmann Spruce 
This type characterizes the Rocky Mountain Reserve of 13,000,000 acres. 




Interior of the Same 
At maturity the lodgepole pine averages about 12 inches in diameter. 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 263 

be met by the lumberman. In British Columbia the fire tax is $9.60 
per mile, and in Ontario and Quebec the licensee bears the whole cost. 

The annual ground rent is five dollars per square mile — less than 
one cent an acre — except for lands situated to the west of Yale in 
British Columbia, in which case it is $32. In contrast with these rates 
provincial timber land in British Columbia carries a yearly rental of 
$115 east of, and $140 west of the Coast range. On the other side, 
ground rent in Ontario and Quebec is five dollars, and in New Bruns- 
wick eight dollars per mile. It must be clearly understood that ground 
rent has, theoretically, no relation to the timber, — it is a charge for 
land rights. 

The result of the low rentals charged by the Federal government, 
coupled with the fact that operation is unnecessary until notification 
by the Department, has been the entrance into the lumber business, 
more or less, of speculation in berths. This is evident by a compari- 
son, through the years, of the area under license with the total lumber 
cut. For some years the practice was followed of increasing the 
rental, usually doubling it, in the case of berths held five years with- 
out operation. No serious dropping of licenses appears to have 
occurred, but the policy was given up. While the non-operation of 
timber berths is satisfactory from the standpoint of conservation of 
forest wealth, yet the nation is entitled to its share of the increasing 
value of the country's timber resource. Especially is this the case 
when it is taken into consideration that the great bulk of the accessible 
merchantable timber on Dominion lands is already under license. On 
the other hand, a too high rental forces operation, regardless of market 
conditions, in this era of overproduction of lumber. 

A just mean may be found, in a sliding scale of timber royalties, 
which does not injure the interests of either party, giving the public 
its share and rewarding foresight in the lumber industry. This prin- 
ciple of participation in increment has been virtually recognized of 
late years, and the timbered provinces have periodically revised their 
license charges, these to remain fixed for a certain period of years to 
ensure stability to investment. 

Cutting Regulations. — Of much more importance than the ques- 
tion of equitable rental and dues is that of the control of 
logging operations, for on the condition of the forest after lum- 
bering depends the amount and quality of the future forest. 
Dependence for the next crop is to be placed upon natural regenera- 
tion, since planting is at present considered to involve too high an 
immediate outlay. Provision must, therefore, be made, through the 
regulation of logging, for the natural reseeding of the area by the 
desired tree species. 



264 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

In reference to this question of reproducing the forest, the most 
apparent point is the incongruity of uniform cutting regulations to 
apply to vastly different forest types and market conditions. The 
same regulations govern the lumbering of the white spruce-aspen type 
of northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the lodgepole pine-Engel- 
mann spruce type of western Alberta, and the wet, dry and coast 
regional types of the railway belt. Logging in these different types 
necessarily results in a wide variation of conditions for seed ger- 
mination and seedling growth, and as each tree species has its own 
inherent biological requirements, it is evident that uniform logging 
treatment cannot result beneficially. 

The idea of the imposition of a diameter limit, below which trees 
are not to be felled, is to leave seed trees to prevent the extinction of 
the merchantable species. The lumberman naturally has no interest 
in the future forest on land that does not belong to him, and his ten- 
dency in logging is to cut all that is marketable with profit. This is 
ordinary business. The initial improvements, in the shape of buildings 
and roads necessary to log a certain tract, form a fixed overhead 
charge, and the more timber taken off the area, the lower is the expense 
per thousand feet, as far as this item is concerned. 

The diameter limit on Dominion berths is 10 inches. In operations 
a decade ago the market offered no inducement to cut below the limit. 
But, year by year, with disappearing supplies, the lumbering standards 
are becoming less fastidious, and in the smaller timber there is a 
temptation to cut below the legal limit, and conduct what amounts to 
a clean-cutting operation. Moreover, a stump diameter limit means 
nothing, since stumps vary in height. The size of tree taken with a 
10-inch stump is a matter of how far down in the root swelling, present 
on all trees, the cut is made. The limit should at least be stated in 
terms of the diameter at a certain height. 

An arbitrary diameter limit very seldom brings about the perpetua- 
tion of the desired forest. Unless the stand contains a wide range of 
sizes, too few trees are left to seed up the area, and. in the case of 
spruce, the isolated trees are very apt to be wind-thrown. In addition, 
the trees remaining are not spaced to the best advantage to distribute 
the seed. Even if the above requirements are accidentally met, as 
sometimes happens, the openings made by cutting to a rigid limit may 
or may not be favourable to the growth of the seedlings desired. 

As a general statement, the above factors characterize the con- 
ditions to be observed on logging operations on Dominion lands. The 
present lumbering methods result usually in leaving an insufficient 
number of seed trees, and in consequence the forest is yearly deterio- 
rating. In this connection it is of interest to note that in the leading 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 265 

centres of spruce production the limit is much higher. In Quebec it 
is " 12 inches measured two feet above the ground," and in New- 
Brunswick "no spruce tree shall be cut which will not make a log at 
least 16 feet in length and nine inches at the small end." 

The remedy for the defects of an arbitrary diameter Hmit con- 
sists in designating the trees to be felled, even if a diameter Hmit be 
kept as the general basis of selection. This permits control of cutting 
so as to provide proper seed trees. Marking in this manner adds to 
the cost a maximum of five cents per thousand feet marked. 

Besides the restriction as regards size of trees that may be cut, the 
licenses contain a clause " that the licensee shall not have the right to 
cut any trees that may be designated as required to provide a supply 
of seed for the reproduction of the forest." This is an extremely im- 
portant condition to be inserted in a license, as it provides for full 
control of the operation through the marking system. Obviously the 
trees must be designated before the sale, otherwise the purchaser is 
unable to estimate his logging cost and so decide on the bonus he can 
afford to bid. So far as is known advantage has not been taken of 
this seed tree provision. 

Likewise, there is engagement on the part of the licensee to dispose 
of the lumbering debris as directed by the department, but it cannot be 
said that as yet any systematic effort has been made to cope with the 
slash evil.* 

Another clause deals with undue waste. At present, wasteful 
methods are to be seen only in the case of some small operators and 
some contract logging. All the large operators realize the loss to 
themselves and usually have special men attached to the camps to 
keep waste down to a minimum. Jobbers are usually paid by the 
thousand feet and are therefore interested in getting out only the large 
logs of a tree. 

Trespass is usually punished by double dues. Where the timber 
has been removed beyond seizure a maximum fine of three dollars per 
tree is provided for. The activity of the timber inspectors in this 
connection is seen in the seizures and fines for 1912, amounting to 
$31,245. Owing to the numerous sides to some berths the difficulty of 
controlling trespass is accentuated. 

On the whole, the present regulations would provide fairly well 
for the next crop, if provision were made for taking advantage of 
them. But this is impossible with the few men engaged in inspection 
work. 



*The Forestry Branch has since made a beginning at brush disposal on 
permit areas in forest reserves. This, however, does not affect licensed timber 
berths or lands outside forest reserves. 



266 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Permits Early Regulations. — From the beginning, in the admin- 

(Outside istration of interior Canada, the policy was followed 

eserves; ^^ allowing the homesteader to cut from Dominion 

lands, free of charge, such building and fencing material as he 
required for his own use ; and in addition, provision was made for the 
cutting of sawlogs, building logs, cordwood, ties, fence posts and poles, 
locally, from Dominion lands, on the payment of certain dues. These 
privileges are known as permits, as distinct from licenses. 

In the early 'seventies various regulations were already in force 
governing permits to cut timber in the different districts.* On account 
of the lack of uniformity a consolidation of these took place by order 
in council dated October 10, 1881. 

By these new regulations homesteaders were allowed for their own 
use. free of dues, 1,800 feet of building logs, 400 roof poles, 2,000 
fence rails, and 30 cords of dry wood. In addition, provision was 
made for the issuance of permits, under payment of dues, as follows: 
Square timber and sawlogs of oak, elm, ash and maple, $3.00 per thou- 
hand board feet, of poplar $2.00, and of all other species $2.50; cord- 
wood, 25 cents per cord ; fence posts, 8 feet 6 inches long, 1 cent each ; 
poles, 22 feet long, 5 cents each ; ties, 8 feet long, 3 cents each ; rails, 12 
feet long, and stakes, 8 feet long, $2.00 per thousand pieces ; shingles, 60 
cents per thousand; and all other products 10 per cent ad valorem. 
All permits carried an ofifice fee of 50 cents. 

These regulations were superseded five years later by another set, 
which aimed at securing utilization for farm use of the smaller sized 
timber, and as much of it poplar as possible, instead of spruce and 
pine. The maximum size of fence rails and posts was stipulated, and 
the dues on all rails other than poplar were raised to $5 per thousand. 
New provisions allowed for the sale of building logs of poplar at 
one-half cent per lineal foot, and logs of other species at one to one 
and one-half cents. Dues on dry or fallen cordwood were reduced 
from 25 cents to 10 cents per cord, for own use, and on shingles from 
60 cents to 40 cents. A notable feature of these regulations was a new 
clause to the effect that " the permittee shall cut up the whole of the 
tree felled, in such a way that there shall be no waste, and, to prevent 
the spread of prairie or bush fires, the refuse shall be piled together 
in a heap and not left scattered through the bush." 

Since 1886 there have been various amendments of the regulations, 
but mostly minor ones relating to quantity of timber and rate of dues. 

Present Regulations. — Under the present regulations there is pro- 



*See those referring to Manitoba, dated January 13, 1873, and January 17, 
1876; to Keewatin, dated June 25, 1875; to Northwest Territories, dated March 
20, 1878. 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 267 

vision for various classes of permits. A homesteader is allowed one 
free permit covering allowance of timber for building, fencing and 
fuel purposes, to the extent of 3,000 lineal feet of logs (roughly 9,000 
feet of sawn lumber), 400 roof poles, 500 fence posts, and 2,000 
fence rails. In case of loss of buildings by fire he is allowed a second 
permit. Also if he have no timber supply of his own he is allowed to 
cut dry, i.e., dead, timber for his own use for fuel and fencing, free of 
dues. All other permits to cut timber on Dominion lands are subject 
to payment of dues. 

Owners of mills may be granted permits covering up to 640 acres, 
at $100 per mile, and subject to the same dues as licensees of timber 
berths. Permits are also given to cut timber as cordwood, fence posts, 
telegraph poles, ties and mining timbers, covering areas up to 160 
acres, upon payment of $25 and specified dues. These dues are : Cord- 
wood, 25 cents; fence rails and roof poles, 2 cents; fence posts, 1 cent; 
building logs, ^ cent to 1^ cents per lineal foot; according to species, 
telegraph poles 5 cents up, ties 3 cents, and sawlogs $1.50 per thousand 
feet board measure. These mile and quarter-mile permits are intended 
to cover special circumstances, where timber is specially and locally 
required, is fire-killed, or exists in isolated blocks. The rental charge 
is on the basis of being granted without competition (owing to the 
expense attached), in this differing from a license. 

Settlers may also be granted permits to cut the above products for 
their own use, at the same prices. Operators of coal lands may cut 
their mining timbers on payment of one-eighth to one-half cent per 
hneal foot, according to diameter. Provision is also made for permits 
covering cordwood for sale, up to 100 cords, at 25 cents, or 12^^ cents 
if dry; shingle bolts in the railway belt, up to 100 cords, at 50 cents; 
fire-killed timber in the railway belt ; and timber needed for construc- 
tion of pubhc works. In the Peace River district portable sawmill 
owners may be granted permits covering up to one square mile and 
up to 200,000 board feet, subject to dues at 75 cents per thousand feet. 

All permits carry an office fee of 25 cents, and are issued at the 
Crown timber offices. Each permittee is subject to cutting regulations 
after the same manner as the licensee of a timber berth. There are 
clauses forbidding waste, and requiring the piling of all debris. Like- 
wise, one-half the cost of fire-guarding the timber must be paid by the 
permit holder of the berth. 

The permit system is very widely made use of in the middle west. 
In 1911-12 some 12,000 permits were issued, the bulk of which were 
probably free of dues. The majority were issued by Edmonton, 
Dauphin, Moose Jaw, Winnipeg and Prince Albert offices, the railway 
belt doing a comparatively small permit business. An idea of the large 



268 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

amount of timber involved may be gained from the tables already given 
on pages 234-235. 

A distinction must be noted between the larger operations and 
those of the settler. The former, on the mile and quarter-mile berths, 
are concerned with the manufacture of lumber, cord wood, ties and 
other wood products, for the trade, and are in reality small licenses. 
The policy behind is the utilization of timber locally. In the case of 
the settler the permit system has in mind assistance on the prairie, 
where wood is scarce, a substitution for the woodlot conditions usual 
on eastern farms. 

Wherever possible portable mills should accompany all tie and 
piling operations, to saw up the tops, which are usually left in the 
woods. In one case which came under observation, involving 5,000 
ties, the lumber so manufactured from the tops amounted to nearly 30 
per cent of the total, counting 30 board feet to a tie. This would mean 
a considerable saving in wood product, and also increase the revenue 
to the Crown from the operation. The fixed rate of permit dues at 
$1.50 per thousand feet of lumber, however, is too high to allow manu- 
facture of tree tops, while the ordinary sawlog industry pays 50 cents. 

From the standpoint of administration, the troublesome feature 
about the permit system is the difficulty of control of the cutting, 
owing to the large number of small operations. The supervision is 
divided, those on forest reserves being under the Forestry Branch, and 
those outside the reserves under the Timber Branch. The main con- 
siderations requiring attention in connection with cutting under permit 
are wasteful cutting, piling of slash, and theft. The Forestry Branch, 
with a large field force of rangers, has a better chance of control of 
these in its territory than has the Timber Branch, with its small staff 
of inspectors, and as a matter of fact the latter's attempts to do so are 
confined to the large operations, and the majority of permit cuttings 
are without supervision. In the case of the reserves, the system of 
allowing portable millmen to locate inside, and log sufficient to cover 
the lumber permits of the settlers of the district, makes control easier 
by the centralization of the operations. Various abuses of the principle 
of the permit system, of course, are in existence. 

^. , It must be clearly understood that not all the reserved 

Disposal . , , . , . , , . 1 ,• . 

•Within forest land is subject to the regulations relating to 

Reserves forest reserves. Within the reserves there are park 

areas, which are administered by a separate branch, since the manage- 
ment of forest land for park purposes is naturally different than if for 
timber. Also, as already noted, there are licensed berths, which include 
the bulk of the accessible mature timber. These latter operations are 
subject to the regulations which have been given in the section dealing 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION Lx\NDS 269 

with licenses (see p. 261) ; the enforcement of these regulations is 
in the hands of the Timber Branch. The Forestry Branch, which has 
control of the forest reserves, has no administrative connection with 
the licensed land within reserve boundaries, beyond protecting it from 
fire. The forest reserve regulations, framed along modern forestry 
lines, are applicable only to the unlicensed portions of each reserve. 
It is with these only that we are here dealing. 

Free Permits. — These cover 25 cords of dry wood, to any applicant, 
for his own use ; also, to homesteaders, free building material, as in the 
case of Dominion lands in general use (see p. 267), except that the 
application for such a permit must be made within five years of the 
date of homestead entry. This reduces the chance of fraud. 

Paid Permits.- — These are issued to a variety of users, as follows : 
To settlers resident within 50 miles of a reserve, for their own im- 
provement uses ; to miners and prospectors for development work ; for 
municipal or public works, and for rural schools and churches ; for the 
use of occupants, permittees and lessees of lands within the reserves; 
for non-commercial irrigation works; for right-of-way construction, 
and for railway construction. The principle underlying this policy is 
that the reserves exist for the use of the public in building up the 
country. The reserve regulations state the maximum quantities obtain- 
able under permit for each particular class of user; and the minimum 
rate of dues for each form of wood product practically corresponds 
with that charged in the case of Dominion lands outside of reserves 
(see p. 267). All permit operations on reserves are under the con- 
trol of the forest officers, and among other conditions stumps are 
limited to 18 inches in height and all debris must be piled for burning. 
The system of issuance of the permits by another office, however, does 
not facilitate supervision. 

Sales. — The reserve regulations provide for sales of timber by 
tender up to 5,000,000 feet, under contract approved of by the direc- 
tor of forestry. The removal is limited to five years, thus preventing 
speculation. The other conditions of the agreement are fixed to suit 
each case after thorough examination of the tract. These will include 
specific designation of what trees may be cut, the price to be paid per 
unit of product, as determined by the ease of logging and market, the 
scale to be used, the method of brush disposal, and the penalty for 
cutting unmarked trees. This method of selling timber is a distinct 
advance on the old license system, with its uniform regulations for all 
conditions, since its elasticity permits of provisions being inserted in 
the contract in the interests of the next crop. By this method each 
sale is a separate contract, the conditions of which may be made to 
suit the case in hand ; in addition, the Government gets full value for 



270 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

its timber, at the same time preventing depreciation of the property, 
while the lumberman knows exactly what he is buying and tenders 
accordingly. It may be added that the timber sale policy, as it is 
known, has been but recently adopted in reserve management. 

There is also provision for the sale, without competition, of small 
quantities of building material to residents of towns and villages for 
private use, and of cordwood at 25 cents a cord, up to 400 cords. 

A few old licenses to cut timber within the Dominion 
Disposal , . . ,,.,,... 

Within parks are m existence, but little logging is gomg 

Parks on, and of late the policy has been to do away with 

lumbering within park boundaries. 

At present, permits are granted allowing removal of dead or 
fallen timber only. Three classes of permits are issued. Residents 
are allowed, free of dues, for their own use, 15 cords of wood, from 
an area limited to three acres, to be cut within three months. Also, 
yearly permits are granted without competition, covering one-quarter 
square mile, on payment of $6.25, plus dues of 12^ cents a cord on 
all cordwood over 50 cords; if timber other than cordwood is cut all 
dues above $6.25 are charged at the rates in the third class of permit. 
This latter is a yearly permit, granted by public competition, covering 
up to two square miles, with a rental of $30 per mile, and renewable 
for five years. The dues are, for mining props, posts and rails, from 
one-sixteenth to one-quarter cent per lineal foot, and for cordwood 
twelve and one-half cents per cord; if such dues equal or exceed the 
rental the excess is applied on account of the dues. 

All permit operations are under the control of the superintendent 
of the park concerned. Precautions must be taken to avoid the destruc- 
tion of growing timber, and the starting of forest fires. Debris must 
be disposed of as directed. 

SUMMARY 

From the foregoing pages we may briefly summarize the essential 
features. The Dominion government owns as yet the major portion of 
Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the railway belt. A large share 
of the property is forest, and on land which will always be of use for 
lumber production only. The management of this should accordingly 
aim at continuity of crop for revenue purposes. With this in view 
some changes are desirable in the handling of this resource. 

The portions of the Dominion forests which have been dealt with 
embrace mainly the timber berths and the forest reserves. The former 
include the bulk of the accessible mature timber (partly within, and 
partly without the reserves), while the reserves are largely covered 




^ > 






fe li 




05 S 



2 2^ 

cj a; 2 



f^ ^'i 



02 '-"O 



.tJu..ca?r^:*SEHW*wH 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 271 

with immature stands or inferior species, from which no material 
revenue can be expected for some time. As we have seen, these are 
administered separately and by two distinct organizations, the one 
concerned with the business incident to licenses, the other mainly a 
field force in charge of reserves — an undesirable division of authority. 
The protection of all Dominion forest lands is in the hands of 
the Forestry Branch,* with one force for the reserves and another for 
the lands outside reserves, the latter enforcing provincial fire regula- 
tions. From the standpoint of legislative authority the reserves force 
is backed by efficient regulations, as is also the other staff so far as 
the railway belt is concerned. It has been pointed out, though, that 
the rangers protecting timber outside reserves in Manitoba, Saskatch- 
ewan and Alberta are working under ancient legislation, designed to 
control prairie, not forest fires. 

The greatest menace to the safety of timber, namely, the slash evil, 
is, however, beyond the reach of the protective force. In the case of 
settlers' slash, this is because of inadequate fire laws in the prairie 
provinces. In the case of lumbering slash, it is owing to the opera- 
tions on licensed berths being without their jurisdiction. 

This matter of slash disposal is one of pressing importance, but 
only comes to notice periodically with the advent of an unusually dry 
season, such as 1910. Then, small fires, by reaching old cuttings, 
attain uncontrollable size. Long as this relationship has been realized, 
it is only of recent years that steps have been taken to meet the situa- 
tion. The lead was taken by the United States Government, and now 
all their timber sale contracts contain an agreement on the part of the 
purchaser to dispose of the debris after the method designated. This 
is also the case in the province of British Columbia, in all recent sales. 
Many coast lumbermen in British Columbia, operating under old 
licenses, burn their slash of their own volition. It is becoming more 
and more recognized that slash disposal is an integral part of the 
logging business. 

The different methods of disposal, with their advantages and objec- 
tions, have been already outHned (pp. 254-256). The strongest 
objection is the cost, and Canadian lumbermen must compete with 
outside manufacturers. At present the disposal of all lumbering slash 
on Dominion berths can not be advocated. It is in many cases un- 
necessary, and in others too expensive. But there is no necessity 
to continue in our old-time ways and keep the fire risk as high as 
possible. A start must be made in the locations of greater hazard; 
these will be among the operations closest to civilization (i.e., transpor- 
tation), and such have a financial advantage over more remote ones 



*The only exception is the New Westminster timber agency. 



272 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Even with the most perfect patrol force fires will start, and this con- 
tingency must be provided against by reducing inflammable conditions. 
At first the work will need to be done by co-operation between the 
lumbermen and officers of the department. Experiment with different 
methods to suit different conditions will be necessary. Brush disposal 
is an art in itself, and success can only be reached through experience. 
Beforehand "knowledge" of what can not be done is the commonest 
hindrance to progress. 

The question of the relationship between lumbering methods and 
the next revenue-producing crop on Dominion lands has been discussed 
in the section on licenses (see pp. 263-265). This next crop will be 
inferior in quality as it is, owing to the preponderance, among the 
trees left behind, of other seeding tree species which cannot be cut 
because of lack of market. This unfavourable feature cannot be 
helped. But the present logging operations in general leave fewer 
trees of the commercial species than are desirable to provide seed for 
the succeeding stand. This can be remedied wuth least interference 
to the lumbering industry through the application of the clause in 
licenses providing for " the leaving of such seed trees as may be 
designated by the department." 

The decision as to whether the management of Dominion timber 
lands, in so far as it relates to cutting methods, is to follow along 
time-honoured paths, or is to take advantage of the world's progress- 
ing knowledge in silviculture, at once confronts the lumberman's brief 
of vested rights. Undoubtedly there is some foundation for this claim, 
resulting in large part from the allowing of transfer of licenses, as if 
they were property and not scrip. A license is the right to cut for one 
year, under certain conditions, but this has been tacitly ignored, and the 
power to regulate cutting has thus been correspondingly weakened. 

On the other hand, license conditions agreed to each year pro- 
vide for renewal " subject to the payment of such rental and dues and 
to such terms and conditions as are fixed by the regulations in force 
at the time renewal is made." This is a yearly warning, and changes 
have been made from time to time in the conditions attached to 
Dominion licenses. The enforcement of cutting regulations in the 
interest of the next crop would be no hardship, considering Dominion 
timber charges in comparison with other parts of Canada (see pp. 
262-263) , and the increased value of stumpage since purchase. Besides, 
in the case of berths held for increment in value, the operator, through 
the natural growth, becomes the owner of wood product which was 
not on the berth at the time of purchase, and which was not repre- 
sented in the original bonus he paid. Paying ground rent for a long 



FORESTRY ON DOMINION LANDS 273 

period of years can give no claim to the increased value of the timber, 
any more than in the case of the lessee of any other kind of property. 
• Be the pros and cons what they may, the simple fact remains that 
a continuance of the present methods of handling our mature timber 
means its exhaustion, and the consequent passing of an important in- 
dustry in the west. And this on soil of value for nothing else, and in 
the face of the experience of such regions as the New England and 
Great Lakes states. Only a nation of fatalists can go on in the old tra- 
ditional methods till actual depletion of our forest wealth is at hand. 
The situation must be faced, and knottier problems have been solved 
on the basis of compromise. The Government is financially interested 
from the standpoint of future revenue, while the lumberman must be 
rewarded for his foresight and enterprise by a portion of the incre- 
ment. The form in which the Crown takes its share is by regulating 
logging in the interest of the next crop. 

What may be done is necessarily a financial compromise between 
what is best for the forest and the market conditions of the lumbering 
industry. At the outset no changes are needed in the license conditions. 
All that is necessary is to take advantage of them. The modern view- 
point in timberland administration is a working for continuity of crop, 
and the Dominion timber regulations make ample provision for this, as 
was shown in the discussion of the license clauses. But the carrying out 
of cutting regulations requires an adequate trained force in the woods, 
and not a handful of men with multitudinous office duties as well. 

All true forest land, whether reserved or unreserved, whether 
licensed or unlicensed, must take the same place eventually in Canada's 
economic development, and so federal stewardship entails management 
of all on the same basic principle of continuity. In the nature of 
things such a system of management depends to an unusual degree on 
the efficiency of the field force, as can be seen to-day in different 
timberland administrations in America. The whole success of such 
a policy is bound up in the calibre of the men in the field. They are 
the fingers of a business organization to see that the orders from 
higher up, as expressions of a certain policy, are carried out. Upon 
their capabilities and sincerity of purpose rests success or failure, and 
their inability to respond nullifies the wisest plans of the technical 
staff. On account of this relation, men for such work must be chosen 
solely on the basis of their qualifications for what they are paid to do. 
Political interference with a field force not only results in a weak 
organization, but has a more or less demoralizing effect on the superior 
staff. The system will not disappear in a day, but the United States 
timber administration service affords a stimulating example of what 
is possible. 
18— c. c. 



274 COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

With the adjustment of existing licenses the decks will be cleared 
for conservative management of Dominion forests. For all future 
sales the individual timber sale policy should be adopted (see p. 269). 
The amount of timber already under license, however, is far in excess 
of market requirements. It will be unnecessary for some years to 
dispose of timber other than on fire-killed areas, isolated blocks adjoin- 
ing operations in progress, and stands on agricultural soil needed for 
settlement. It takes but a very simple calculation to see that stump- 
age values have only to rise in most cases a cent or two a year per 
thousand feet of lumber to meet the expense of holding by the Govern- 
ment — that is, to balance the loss of ground rent, fire tax and interest 
on bonus, compounded yearly. 

This field of management of forests for continuity of crop passes 
under the name of forestry. Forestry is merely the business of 
handling timberlands in an improved way for perpetual revenue. It 
is often considered antagonistic to the lumbering business, but this is 
erroneous, because forestry is completely dependent on lumber- 
ing. Its intensity of practice is in direct co-ordination with the status 
of that industry. It is regulated lumbering, lumbering so regulated 
with the aid of technical knowledge that the forest may produce 
revenue forever. 

In Canada this idea is but slowly making progress. Yet the fact 
that practically all the forest land, both federal and provincial, is 
vested in the Crown expresses one of the most important considera- 
tigns, for forestry is a long-time public business, requiring stability of 
policy. In addition, it deals with matters affecting the prosperity of 
every Canadian — continued supply of forest products and conserva- 
tion of water resources. Probably four-fifths of Canada is suited to 
tree growth only, and the Federal government has a national respon- 
sibility in taking the lead in utilization of forest soils. 



APPENDIX 



Regulations 



Governing the Granting of Yearly Licenses and Permits to Cut Timber 
on Dominion Lands in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, the 
Northwest Territories, within 20 miles on either side of the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway in the Province of British Columbia, and the 
Tract of Three and One-half Million Acres to be located by the 
Government of the Dominion in the Peace River District in the 
Province of British Columbia. Approved by Order in Council of 
the 1st July, 1898, and subsequent Orders in Council. 

Extracts From Form of Timber License (Reg. 17) 

(a) That the licensee shall not have the right thereunder to cut 
timber of a less diameter than 10 inches at the stump except such as 
may be actually necessary for the construction of roads and other 
works to facilitate the taking out of merchantable timber, and shall 
not have the right to cut any trees that may be designated by the 
proper officer of the Department of the Interior as required to provide 
a supply of seed for the reproduction of the forest. 

(b) The licensee shall be entitled to a renewal of his license from 
year to year while there is on the berth timber of the kind and 
dimensions described in the license in sufficient quantity to be com- 
mercially valuable if the terms and conditions of the license and the 
provisions of the Dominion Lands Act and of the regulations affecting 
the same have been fulfilled : 

Provided that such renewal shall be subject to the payment of such 
rental and dues and to such terms and conditions as are fixed by the 
regulations in force at the time renewal is made. 

(e) That the licensee shall take from every tree he cuts down all 
timber fit for use and manufacture the same into sawn lumber or 
some such saleable product, and shall dispose of the tops and branches 
and other debris of lumbering operations in such a way as to prevent 
as far as possible the danger of fire in accordance with the directions 
of the proper officers of the Department of the Interior. 

(/) That the licensee shall prevent all unnecessary destruction of 
growing timber on the part of his men and exercise strict and constant 
supervision to prevent the origin or spread of fires. 

(i) That the licensee shall pay, in addition to the said ground rent, 
dues in the manner prescribed in section 20 of the Timber Regulations, 
and also one-half of the cost incurred by the Crown in guarding the 
timber from fire, the government paying the other half. A statement 
will be furnished the licensee showing his share of the cost incurred 

275 



APPENDIX 

and payment thereof shall be made to the Crown within thirty days 
thereafter. 

Timber Permits and Dues 

47. The permittee shall cut up the whole of the trees felled in such 
a way that there shall be no waste, and to prevent the spread of 
prairie or bush fires, the refuse (i.e., the tops and branches unfit either 
for rails or firewood), shall be piled together in a heap and not left 
scattered through the bush. 

Permits issued to holders of berths shall contain a clause to the 
effect that one-half the cost of fire-guarding the timber shall be de- 
frayed by the holders thereof, the Crown defraying the other half. 

Regulations for Dominion Forest Reserves 

Made under the Authority of Orders in Council of August 8, 1913, and 
September 24, 1913, in accordance with the Provisions of the 
Dominion Forest Reserves and Parks Act, 1-2 George V, Chap. 
10, for the Maintenance, Protection, Care, Management and Utili- 
zation of all Forest Reserves Set Aside and Established as Do- 
minion Forest Reserves by the said Act, of the Timber and 
Minerals in any of such Reserves, and for Prevention of Trespass 
thereon. 



Extracts from General Conditions Governing Permits 

26. All timber cutting upon the reserves shall be done under the 
control of the forest ranger or other officer and subject to his instruc- 
tions, and shall be subject to the following conditions : 

(a) Only such timber shall be cut as is designated by the forest 

officer. 

(b) No unnecessary damage shall be done to the young growth 

or to trees left standing. 

(c) All merchantable portions shall be taken from the trees cut 

and there shall be no unnecessary waste of timber. 

(d) Stumps shall not be cut higher than 18 inches without special 

permission from the forest officer. 

(e) All the debris of operations shall be piled for burning unless 

written permission to the contrary is given by the forest 
officer. 



276 



INDEX 



PAGE 

ACTUAL prevention of occurrence of fires 204 

Adams, Frank D., referred to 171 

Adams lake, referred to 247 

Adding cost of brush burning to operating expenses 229 

Adirondack Mountains, logging operations on 100 

top-lopping situation in 162 

Administration of Dominion forests 256 

Agassiz, country near, referred to 247 

Agricultural possibilities of Trent Watershed 205 

Agricultural prairies of Western Canada 233 

Aiken, J. D., referred to 169 

Alberta, action re provincially chartered railways recommended 83 

Cooking Lake forest reserve in 246 

Cypress Hills forest reserve in 246 

enforcement of legislation required in 74 

erected into province 256 

establishment of game preserves suggested 84 

estimate of spruce saw -timber in 86 

field inspection work in 252 

fire-guard construction in 66 

fire ranging districts in 251 

fire season of 1914 referred to 38 

forest fire laws of, referred to 232 

forest reserves in 241 

game preserve in 96 

information supplied by District Inspector for 243 

Lesser Slake Lake forest reserve in 245 

major portion yet owned by Dominion 270 

new and additions to forest reserves recommended in 78 

no slash disposal on licensed berths in 133 

operations from which slash results in 133 

poplar lumber sawed in 239 

railways subject to Board of Railway Commissioners in 12 

rangers working under ancient legislation 271 

regulations governing lumbering in 264 

report on slash disposal in 132 

Rocky Mountains, forest reserve in -. 242 

settlers' permits, conditions attached to 133 

study of forest conditions on public domain in 80 

width of agricultural plain in 233 

277 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGE 

Alberta and Great Waterways railway 14 

Alder, a deterrent to reproduction of fir. 226 

Alexandria, B.C., reference to 110 

Algoma Central and Hudson Bay railway 10, 13 

information re fire situation on 39 

Algoma Eastern railway 10, 12 

information re fire situation on 39 

Algonquin Park, addition of 811 square miles to 93 

clearing up debris in 50 

reduction of fire hazard in 89 

Amount of lumber supplied by British Columbia to Prairie Provinces 234 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co 148 

brush disposal on lands of 148 

Andrews, L. R., District Forester, B.C., report by 123 

Appendix — Regulations governing granting of yearly licenses to cut timber 

on Dominion lands 275 

Appointments to forest service, qualifications for 83 

Arctic ocean, referred to 233 

Areas burned once referred to on map 178 

Areas burned twice, high average of young pine per acre 182 

Area burned three times, average pine trees to acre 186 

Areas burned many times, trees fire-scarred seven times 186 

Area covered by investigations in British Columbia 213 

Areas severely burned once 174 

Areas severely burned twice, referred to on map 179 

Areas severely burned three times, area covered 183 

Areas severeh' burned many times, extent of 186 

Areas of forest reser\-es in Manitoba 237 

Area under investigation 168 

Arrow lakes, pine on slopes surrounding 106 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railway, special campaign for fire protection by 3 

results secured by 3 

Athabaska forest, experienced large fires 244 

Athabaska Landing, referred to 251 

Athabaska river, referred to 241, 242, 251 

Atlantic, Quebec and Western railway 10, 13 

no fires on in 1913 39 

Authority to enter upon lands, railways request 65 

Average growth of poplar trees 194 

B.ABTNE LAKE, reference to conditions on 110 

Banff, discovery of hot mineral springs near 257 

Barlow, Alfred E., referred to 171 

Barrette lake, area burned twice around 179 

Basis of forest classification 103 

Basis used in classification of timber 169 

Bass lake, referred to 1' 2 

Battleford, referred to . . ? 251 

278 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Bay of Quinte railway 10> 13 

Bear river, reference to HO 

Beaver Hills forest reserve 240 

Beaver river, referred to 251 

Bella Coola river, watershed of 104 

Benedict, R. E., Assistant Forester, B.C. Forest Branch 101 

Berry-pickers responsible for fires 187 

Best quality of commercial timber, conditions for 217 

Better protection of reproduction of fir 229 

Bitterroot forest, Montana, referred to 255 

brush disposal in 148 

Blackf eet forest, Montana 255 

Black hills, yellow pine brush piled and burned 152 

Blue mountains, referred to 171 

foothills of the 192 

lookout station suggested for 203 

region, pine of the 174 

Blumer, J. C, cost of study of forest resources by 76 

investigation by 75 

work in Saskatchewan discontinued by 84 

Board of Railway Commissioners, referred to 1, 10, 75, 140 

Chief Fire Inspector of 4 

Chief Operating Officer of 4 

co-operative arrangements with 1 

co-operation in experiments with coal 95 

co-operation with local associations 96 

Fire Inspection Department of, referred to 2, 252 

Fire Protective Department of 1 

Government railways should be subject to regulations of 83 

jurisdiction over railways 1, 10 

order issued by 72 

railways not under jurisdiction of 14 

railways under jurisdiction of 10, 250 

regulations of, referred to 252 

should be congratulated on results 97 

Boissevain, Man 239 

Boston and Maine railroad 3, 10, 13 

appointment of commissioner of fire claims by 3 

statement of fire claims by 3 

Bottle lake, areas burned twice around 179 

Bow river, forest fire conditions on 243 

north of, mature timber largely pine 244 

Bracken fern, undergrowth of 228 

Brandon, referred to 238 

Brazeau forest, experienced large forest fires 244 

Brazeau river, referred to 242 

Bridge river, referred to 109 

British Columbia, amount of timber supplied to Prairie provinces 234 

279 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

British Columbia (Continued) page 

approval of power speeders by Forest Branch of 36 

area covered by investigation 213 

burning slash from road construction in 89 

cedars are short-Uved, reasons for 221 

climatic and soil conditions referred to 112 

climatic conditions of 102 

coastal regions of, travel in the 212 

co-operation in fire inspection in 16 

depressed lumber market conditions of 229 

disposal of logging slash in 101 

disposal of timber in Railway Belt of, referred to 260 

Douglas fir predominant 218 

dues on spruce in 262 

establishment of game preserve in, suggested 84 

estimate of available agricultural land in 112 

fire season of 1914 in 38 

fire tax rate in 263 

Forest Act of 46, 253 

Forest Branch of (See British Columbia Forest Branch) 

forest conditions on Dominion lands in 246 

forests of northern co'asts of, referred to 104 

forest problem of, considered broadly 112 

forest regions of, referred to 102 

forest reproduction not sufficiently abundant 212 

game preserve in, interference with development 96 

Government forest policy 114 

Government of province of, referred to 4 

ground rent of Dominion lands in 263 

ground rent of Provincial lands in 263 

hemlock predominant, areas in which 219 

inventory of forest resources commenced 75 

inventory of forest resources in 84 

inventory of timber supplies, referred to 83 

inventory should be completed 97 

legislation of, reference to 253 

letter to operators on coast re brush disposal 115 

low cost of collecting data in 85 

lumber industry of, referred to 234 

mature forests of 214 

most important forest problem of 112 

new and additions to forest reserves recommended in 78 

objection to game preserve in 96 

over-production of lumber in 229 

Railway Belt in 129, 232 

railways subject to Railway Commission in 12 

recommendations re forest conditions in ^ 228 

report on forest resources, referred to 85 

representations to, re game preserve 99 

280 



INDEX 

British Columbia (Continued) page 

reproduction study in o" 

slash disposal on timber leases and licenses in 115 

southern coastal forests of 214 

steam railways not subject to Railway Commission in 14 

timber sale contracts contain agreements re slash disposal 271 

timber sales and railway permits in 114 

varieties of trees on areas investigated in 216 

vigorous production of Douglas fir in 219 

young forests of ^^' 

British Columbia Forest Branch, referred to 1, 212 

approval of power speeders by ^^ 

beginning at brush disposal on Crown lands by 101 

Benedict, R. E., assistant forester of, report by 101 

co-operation in investigation by "' 

co-operation in reproduction study by 86 

co-operation with 1 

co-operative arrangements with • 229 

demonstration of slash burning in valleys 121 

detailed information collected by, referred to 85 

has done excellent work 97 

information furnished by '5 

inventory of timber supplies, co-operation in, referred to 83 

officials of, appointed fire inspectors 73 

should educate public opinion 230 

to be highly commended 230 

British Yukon (White Pass and Yukon) railway 10, 12 

no fires on in 1913 ^^ 

Brockville, Westport and Northwestern railway 10, 13 

Brush burning, cost of 1^ 

adding cost of to operating expenses 229 

Brush disposal, actual cost of 255 

as fire preventive 81 

comparison of cost in methods • 150 

compensating advantages to operator , 155 

cost of ^^^ 

eiifect on reproduction 156 

in Bitterroot forest, Montana 148 

in Eastern provinces 1^8 

in the Railway Belt of British Columbia 129 

on Crown lands, by British Columbia Forest Board, beginning at 101 

on right-of-way of roads 1^2 

operators complain of added responsibility by 155 

summary of cost of 149 

Brush piling, cost of 148 

Buffalo park, referred to 259 

Bulkley river, reference to valley of HI 

Bulletin No. 6, Forestry Branch, referred to 237 

Bulletin No. 29, Forestry Branch, referred to 245 

281 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGE 

Bulletin No. 40, Forestry Branch, referred to 262 

Burford, Miles, referred to 169 

Burleigh township, Ont, area burned three times in 183 

area burned twice in • 182 

area burned mostly on granite 182 

best reproduction of pine in 174 

growth studies in 192 

portion of, examined 171 

province receives no rent for one-half area 209 

swamp areas of 173 

two severe fires in, referred to 179 

Burleigh-Methuen area, Ont, detailed statement of 166 

financial losses, due to repeated fires on area 197 

plans for control of area 208 

Burned-over lands, practical plan suggested 167 

Burning of logging slash reduces fire hazard 87 

Burning of logging slash favours reproduction of Douglas fir 87 

Burning of slash required 89 

Burning slash from road construction in British Columbia 89 

Burrard inlet, ages of trees found at 216 

CALGARY and Fernie railway 10 

Calgary, Crown timber agency at 81, 234, 256 

District Inspector at 259 

California, investigations in, referred to 164 

slash burning in coniferous forests of 229 

Cameron, D. Roy, District Inspector of Forest Reserves, report by 129 

Campaign of education and publicity, need of 204 

Camp Fire Club of America, Game preserve supported by 96 

Canada and Gulf Terminal railway 14 

Canada, forest resources much over-estimated 84 

Canadian Coal and Coke Co., expert employed by 95 

Canadian Forestry Association urges merit system of appointments 91 

Canadian industries, use of local coal supplies by 95 

Canadian Northern Ontario railway 11, 13, 20 

Canadian Northern railway, referred to 2, 3, 10, 12. 13, 20, 240, 251 

areas under permit along, examined in 1914 129 

Guarantee Act 14, 20 

letter of instruction from Railway Commission re patrols 21 

lines come under Railway Commission's jurisdiction 88 

objections to provisions of order No. 16,570 3 

special organizations for fire protection 2 

Canadian Northern Pacific railway 14 

comes under Board's jurisdiction 88 

construction of 127 

Canadian Northern Quebec railway 11, 13, 20 

Canadian Northern Saskatchewan railway 14 

Canadian Northern Western railway 14 

282 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Canadian Pacific Forestry Branch, detailed information collected by, 

referred to 85 

Canadian Pacific railway, referred to 2, 3, 11, 12, 13, 14, 20, 242 

building of, referred to 232 

circular No. 8 to officers and employees 70 

co-operation in British Columbia investigation by 97 

co-operation in disposal of inflammable debris 50 

Crowsnest branch of, referred to 242 

experience with power speeders by 38 

fire inspectors appointed by 2 

Fire Protection Along Eastern Lines of 67 

Forestry Branch of 2 

letter issued to superintendents of 69 

objections to provisions of order No. 16,570 of Board 3 

special organization for fire protection 2 

Cape Breton railway 15 

Caraquet and Gulf Shore railway 15 

Cariboo Mountain range, referred to 102 

Cartwright, A. D., Secretary, Board of Railway Commissioners 9 

Cattle ranching and specialized farming, lands suitable for 205 

Cattle rangers responsible for fires 187 

Caverhill, P. Z., District Forester, B.C., report by 125 

Cedar, best reproduction of under protection of alder 227 

Cedar lake, referred to 236 

Central Canada railway 14 

no fires on in 1913 39 

Central Ontario railway 11, 13 

information re fire situation in 39 

Central Railway Company of Canada 11, 13 

no fires on in 1913 39 

Central Vermont railway 11, 13 

Challies, J. B., suggestion of, referred to 93 

Changes made by Railway Commission's General Order No. 107 9 

Chemainus, large trees found at ; 216 

Chief Fire Guardian of Alberta, referred to IZ 

Chief Fire Inspector of Board of Railway Commissioners 4 

Chief Inspector of timber and forestry appointed 258 

Chief Operating Officer of Board of Railway Commissioners 4 

Churchill river, main watershed of n 

spruce saw-timber area of, referred to 85 

Circular No. 8 of Canadian Pacific Railway re extinguishing fires 70 

Circular No. 141 of Board re spark-arresting device 44 

Civil Service Act, referred to 91 

Civil Service Commission, Forest staff under 80 

Civil Service reform 91 

Claims of unfair competition as result of slash disposal 133 

Classes of persons responsible for fires 187 

Clearing of rights-of-way of debris 118 

283 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGE 

Clearing outside rights-of-wa}-, for raihvaj' fire protection 46 

most favourable in British Columbia 46 

no adequate handling of, in Canada 46 

no legislation applicable to in Eastern Canada 47 

unsatisfactory in Eastern Canada 47 

Clearing up debris in Algonquin park 50 

Clear lake, referred to 172 

Clearwater forest, suffered less than others 244 

Clearwater river, classes of timber along 106 

district burned over 243 

Climatic conditions of British Columbia 102 

Climatic and soil conditions of British Columbia 112 

Climatic conditions in Railway Belt 247 

Coal, analyses of samples of 45 

Coal deposits, estimates of 243 

Coal, experiments with 95 

Coal lands, area of, in Crowsnest region 246 

Coast Fire Protection district 253 

Coast range, referred to 102, 246 

yearly rental of provincial timber land west of 263 

Coastal regions of British Columbia. Douglas fir predominant 214 

Coeur d' Alene forest, Idaho 23 j 

Colorado, climate of, referred to 108 

forest conditions in 152 

Columbia national forest, referred to 225 

Columbia River watershed, referred to 106 

Columbia vallej', forest growth restriction 102 

plans for burning slash areas of 131 

Commercial species in B.C., according to number of times burned (^ diagram) 191 
Commissioners, Board of Railway. (See Board of Railway Commissioners.) 

Commissioner, Dominion Parks Branch, appointment of 259 

Commission of Conservation, referred to 4 

estimates for continuation of work ii 

financial situation of, as to forestry work 76 

game preserve recommended by • 96 

influence to secure forest reserves 78 

investigation carried on by, referred to 212 

reports of Committee on Forests of 72. 84 

Committee on Forests, practical solution of Trent Watershed question. 

recommended by "4 

recommendations at 1913 annual meeting 82 

report of. at annual meeting 1913 72 

report of, at annual meeting 1914 84 

resolutions of, 1914 97 

Comparison of cost in methods of brush disposal 150 

Compensating advantages of brush disposal to operator 155 

Competition with United States mills US 

Composition of the soil 1^ 

284 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Concentrate protection upon young growth 230 

Conditions of permits to owners of mills 267 

Conditions under which new forest establishes itself 217 

Conservative management of Dominion forests 274 

Control of logging operations, importance of 263 

Control of Burleigh-Methuen area, plans for 208 

Cooking Lake Forest reserve 246 

Co-operation in fire inspection in British Columbia 16 

Co-operation in investigation by British Columbia Forest Branch 97 

Co-operation in fire protection 88 

Co-operation in reproduction study by British Columbia Forest Branch... 86 

Co-operation secures good results 89 

Co-operation to conduct experiments with coals 95 

Co-operation with British Columbia Forest Branch 

Co-operative arrangements 

British Columbia Forest Branch 

Dominion Forestry Branch 

Dominion Parks Branch 

New Brunswick 

Ontario 

Quebec 

Co-operative arrangements with Board of Railway Commissioners 

Co-operative fire-protection, area covered by two associations 95 

association for Upper Ottawa proposed 96 

in United States, referred to 96 

organization of Lower Ottawa association 95 

St. Maurice Forest Protective Association 95 

Co-operative motor-truck service for reaching markets 207 

Cords per acre of merchantable poplar pulpwood now present, according to 

the number of times burned (diagram) 191 

Cormorant lake, referred to 236 

Cost of brush burning 148 

Cost of top-loppfng, analysis of factors entering into 141 

comparison with cost of fire protection 146 

result of investigation 140 

statistical tables re 143, 146 

Coulonge river. Que., referred to 95 

Counties Reforestation Act, referred to 167, 208 

County management of forest areas, advisability of 209 

County ownership, arguments re 208 

Cover of moss usually follows surface fires beneath old stands 223 

Cowichan lake, referred to 216 

Cox timber sale, epidemic from cull logs and slash 165 

Cox, W. T., Minnesota State Forester, report by 157 

Craig, Roland D., work in British Columbia, referred to 84 

Cranbrook district, data re cost of slash burning. 122 

results secured in 121 

Crowding trees improves lumber 217 

285 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGE 

Crown lands, inflammable debris thereon 89 

Crown timber agents, referred to 81, 216, 234, 253, 256 

duties of 256 

Crowsnest, B.C., cost of brush disposal in 255 

Crowsnest River valley, forest study in 243 

best spruce forests originally occurred in 244 

Crow river, Ont., referred to 171 

Cultivated lands, fire-guarding of 54 

Cumberland Railway and Coal Co 11, 14 

information re fire situation on 40 

Cut-over lands, transfer to Dominion Government suggested 168 

Cutting, regulations, referred to 263 

DAMAGE claims, no jurisdiction by Board 65 

Dangerous condition of settlers' lands in Ontario 68 

Data obtained by actual measurement 198 

Dauphin, permits issued by timber office at, referred to 267 

Debris, requirements of regulations re disposal of 231 

Deer river, watershed of 104, 105 

Deer river, referred to 171 

Decrease in number of trees per acre as stands grow older 217 

Dense stands of Douglas fir, causes of 225 

Denver, Colorado, district forester at, statement by 152 

Department of Indian Affairs, clearing of debris by 50 

disposal of slashings in Shawanaga reserve, Ont., by 90 

Department of Interior, referred to 231 

action re future timber supply in west 236 

annual reports of, referred to 234 

erection of, in 1873, referred to 256 

Department of Lands, Forests and Mines, Ontario, clearing up in Algonquin 

park 50 

co-operative work in Algonquin park 89 

Depressed lumber market conditions of British Columbia : 229 

Designating trees to be felled 265 

Destructive bark borers in unburned refuse 163 

Destructive forest insects 165 

Detailed information collected by British Columbia Branch, referred to 85 

Detailed statement of Burleigh-Methuen area, Ont 166 

Diameter classes and the average proportion, burned once (table Ib)...176, 177 
Diameter classes and the average proportion, burned twice {table IIa) . . 180, 181 

Diameter classes and the average proportion, burned three times (table IIIb) 185 

Diameter classes and the average proportion, burned many times (table IVb) 189 

Diameter limit of 10 inches at stump, provision for 262 

Difficulty of control of cutting 268 

Disastrous effect of repeated fires 224 

Discontinued disposing of timber under license system 232 

Diseased trees, removal of under settlers' permits 241 

Disposal of Dominion timber 259 

286 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Disposal of inflammable debris outside rights-of-way SO 

co-operation between railways and governments for 50 

Disposal of licenses by public auction 262 

Disposal of logging debris, provision for 262 

Disposal of logging slash in British Columbia 101 

Disposal of lumbering slash on Dominion berths cannot be advocated 271 

Disposal of slash, responsibility for cost 48 

Disposal of timber in Railway Belt of British Columbia, referred to 260 

District inspectors, technically trained in forestry 259 

Dominion Atlantic railway 11, 14 

information re fire situation on 39 

Dominion Forest Reserve extension 11 

Dominion forest reserves 90 

areas of, additions to, recommended 78 

Dominion Forest Reserves Act, provisions of 258 

Dominion Forest Reserves and Parks Act, referred to 250 

Dominion Forests 232 

Dominion Forestry Branch 1, 16 

administration of cut-over lands by 168 

authority of re reserves 269 

beginning at brush disposal on Crown lands by 101 

beginning at brush disposal by 265 

Bulletin No. 6 of, referred to 231 

Bulletin No. 29 of, referred to 245 

Bulletin No. 40 of, referred to 262 

control of reserves placed under 258 

co-operation in investigation by 97 

co-operation most helpful 75 

creation of, referred to 257 

detailed information collected by, referred to 85 

equipped with men technically trained 91 

establishment of section of forest investigation by 99 

extension of Civil Service regulations to 98 

field organizations sufficient to handle work 81 

forest reserves under jurisdiction of 231 

has extensive organization 96 

inventory of timber supplies, co-operation in by 83 

jurisdiction in enforcing regulations 81 

merit system of appointments in field service of 91 

officials of, appointed fire inspectors 13 

only agency for classification of Dominion lands 258 

organization equipped for forestry work 94 

parties in field examining lands 11 

protection of all Dominion lands in hands of 271 

re Civil Service regulations 232 

technical bureau in connection with 209 

to include and undertake forest investigations 211 

transfer of Trent Valley area to. suggested 210 

287 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGE 

Dominion Government, referred to 167, 168 

action re forest reserves commended 98 

attention of, re cutting regulations on licensed timber berths 98 

co-operation urged re Trent watershed 98 

educational work of re forestry justified 94 

regulations of re reduction of fire hazard 98 

representations to, re Government railway lines 97 

urged to make provision for forest investigation 99 

Dominion interests in Trent watershed paramount 209 

Dominion Lands Act, referred to 257 

provisions of 259 

Dominion Lands Branch, established 256 

Dominion lands, alienated portion of 232 

areas and extent of 232 

areas in forest reserves 233 

area of, in British Columbia 246 

areas under license 233 

areas under permit to ciit timber 233 

cutting operations on 231 

enormous areas of in northern portion of Prairie provinces 250 

fire ranging districts on 251 

forest protection on 250 

Dominion Parks Branch, co-operation with 1 

officials appointed fire inspectors IZ 

Dominion parks, clearing of old slashings in 232 

scenic beauty endangered by logging slash 232 

Dominion Water Power Branch, referred to 93 

Donald, B.C., precipitation at, referred to 247 

Douglas fir, ages and sizes of trees found 216 

dense stands of, from accumulated seed crops 226 

destructive methods of logging 103 

effect of fire upon reproduction of 86 

most rapidly growing and commercially valuable 103 

predominant in, area in which 218 

production of lumber 103 

reproduction on burned areas 223 

Douglas fir coast region, forests of, referred to 104 

climatic conditions of 103 

Drayton, Sir Henry L-, K.C., Chief Commissioner, Board of Railway Com- 
missioners 4 

Duck mountain, referred to 233 

Duck Mountain forest reserve No. 2 240 

Duck Mountain reserve, referred to 236, 238 

Dues on spruce in British Columbia 262 

Dues received by Government help to meet public expense 202 

EAGLE pass, referred to 261 

Early license regulations 259 

288 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Earnest desire to prevent fires 201 

Eastern British Columbia railway 14 

"Economic Aspect of Slash Disposal," article on, referred to 163 

Edmonton, Dunvegan and British Columbia railway 11, 12, 20 

Edmonton, referred to 246 

Chief Superintendent of parks at 259 

Crown timber agency at 81, 234, 256 

permits issued by, referred to 267 

Edmundston, N.B., referred to 74 

Educational work justified 94 

Eels brook, Ont., referred to 168 

area burned twice along east side of 182 

groups of pine in area east of 175 

narrow strip east of, burned but once 174 

territory lying east of 171 

Effect of brush disposal on reproduction 156 

Effect of repeated forest fires upon the reproduction of commercial species 

in Peterborough county, Ont., by C. D. Howe, Ph.D 167 

introduction to 168 

Effect of various agencies upon forest reproduction 221 

Effective fire protection leads to permanent timber industry 204 

Efficienc}' of license regulations 262 

Efficiency of patrols, reports on 69 

Efficiency of the field force 273 

Efficient business-like administration 202 

Efficient results at minimum cost required 82 

Elbow river, referred to 243 

Elgin and Havelock railway 11-14 

information re fire situation on 39 

Elimination of waste, provision for 262 

Elk park, portion of Cooking L,ake reserve, referred to 246 

Enforcement of legislation required in Alberta 74 

Engelmann spruce, burned experimentally, cost of 229 

^'Entomological Aspect of Slash Disposal," by Ralph Hopping 163 

Equipment for fire fighting required 68 

Erosion of soil on ridges 172 

Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway 11, 12, 20 

no fires in 1913 39 

Essex Terminal railway 11, 13 

Establishment of fire line 118 

Establishment of game preserve in Alberta suggested 84 

Establishment of game preserve in British Columbia suggested 84 

Estimate of available land in British Columbia 112 

Estimate of spruce saw-timber in Alberta 86 

FACULTY OF FORESTRY, University of Toronto, referred to 86, 91, 168 

Federal government has a national responsibility 274 

low ground rents charged by 248 

provincial grants to 246 

289 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGE. 

Fernow, Dr., reference to report made by 73 

report on Trent watershed, under direction of 79 

Ferris, E. W., State Forester of Washington, quoted 160 

Field inspection work in Alberta 252 

Field officials point out requirements 257 

Financial loss on small area burned 167 

Financial losses by forest fires 197 

Financial losses due to repeated fires on Burleigh-Methuen area 197 

Finlay river, B.C., reference to '. Ill 

Fir trees, areas where they occur, as to size 215 

Fire Commissioner of Manitoba, referred to 11 

Fire Commissioner of Saskatchewan, referred to 11 

Fire dangers, reports on 117 

Fire-guard construction 50 

by railways 1913-1914 (table) 66 

draft of requirements re, issued to railways 51 

in Alberta 66 

instructions of Board re 51 

requirements in Prairie provinces , 50 

system along boundaries adjoining open prairie 258 

Fire-guarding, referred to 1 

complaints of railways re 64 

in stubble, difficulties of 55 

letter ' of Board to railways re 58 

points in which requirements for vary 63 

regulations, synopsis of variations 54 

reports, summary of 38 

requirements under Railway Act 58 

results have been satisfactory 64 

results during season of 1914 58 

summary of construction (table) 66 

Fire-guard inspection. Alberta 17 

Saskatchewan 17 

Fire-guards, damage to property by railway employees 7 

instructions for construction of 6 

ploughing of 6 

procedure on owner refusing consent 7 

upon cultivated land 7 

Fire hazard, reduction of railway 89 

Fires, estimated loss on 85,000 acres in 1913 167 

Fires in forest sections originating within 300 feet of track, season 1913 

(table) 41 

number of fires reported 41 

causes of fires 41 

acres burned over by fires outside right-of-way 41 

value of property destroyed 41 

290 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Pires in forest sections, originating within 300 feet of track, season 1914 

(table) 42 

number of fires 42 

number of railway fires by causes 42 

number of other than railway fires by causes 42 

number of fires of unknown cause 42 

acres burned over 42 

value of property destroyed, by causes 43 

value of property destroyed, classified 43 

Fire in industrial operations 118 

Fire inspection, adequate inspection staff essential ■ 74 

co-operation with local associations 96 

Fire Inspection Department of Board of Railway Commissioners 2, 252 

Fire inspection districts, British Columbia 16 

B.C. Railway Belt 16 

Forest Reserves 17 

Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta 17 

Dominion Parks 17 

Ontario 18 

Quebec 18 

New Brunswick 19 

Nova Scotia 19 

Fire laws are inadequate in Prairie provinces 251 

Fire legislation for prevention of prairie fires 252 

Fire lines, value of, to reduce fire risk 147 

Fire patrols, instructions to Canadian Northern Ontario railway 35 

Fire prevention and education 204 

men require special training and experience 82 

through brush disposal, study of 80 

Fire protection, by United States railway lines 3 

by Canadian Pacific railway 68 

general question of 134 

most efficient has been chiefly preventive 202 

necessarily preliminary to any forest management 201 

not an expense, but an investment 84 

special organizations by railways 2 

systems developed 68 

what may be saved by 207 

Fire protective appliances, on locomotives, regulations re 202 

inspection of 44 

Fire protective department of Board of Railway Commissioners 1 

Fire protective organizations, Dominion 1 

larger appropriations needed to protect young growth 84 

provincial 1 

severely taxed 84 

Fire-protective services, provincial, referred to 91 

Fire rangers, force to be maintained 7 

Fire ranging districts of Alberta 251 

291 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGE 

Fire reports, summary of 38 

Fire season of 1914 in Alberta 38 

Fire season of 1914 in British Columbia 16 

Fire season of 1914 worst since 1910 84 

Fire tax rate in British Columbia 46, 263 

Fires, light ground, stimulate reproduction of hemlock 222 

Fires on right-of-way, instructions re 8 

Fires, repeated, destroy valuable species 87 

Fires, total loss from repeated fires, 1912 166 

Fiscal regulations 262 

Flathead river, headwaters of, referred to 96 

Foothills of Blue mountains, Ont 192 

Forecasted yield of poplar (diagram) 197 

Forest Act, British Columbia 46, 47, 117, 253 

conditions for disposal of slash under 46 

regulations re use of fire in industrial operations 118 

Forest Board, British Columbia Provincial, referred to 47 

Forest Branch, B.C. (See British Columbia Forest Branch). 

Forest conditions in Burleigh-Methuen, Ont 173 

Forest conditions, on Dominion Lands in Alberta 241 

^British Columbia 246 

Manitoba 236 

Saskatchewan 239 

summary of 190 

Forest experiment station, suggested 168, 210 

Forest fire laws of Alberta, referred to 232 

Forest fire laws of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba 232 

Forest Fires and the Brush Disposal Problem, Introduction, by Clyde Leavitt 100 

Forest fire protective organizations under civil service 232 

Forest fires, increased 300 per cent in eight years 167 

Forest Fires Prevention Act, Ontario, amended 48 

Forest Fires, recurrence of in British Columbia 213 

situation in Eastern Canada unsatisfactory 39 

Forest influences upon climate, stream flow, erosion, etc 210 

Forest investigations, need of, under Canadian conditions 168 

Forest policy, expenditure required for forwarding 84 

Forest policy should be devised 207 

S) Forest problem of British Columbia considered broadly 112 

Forest protection, can be secured 201 

conditions necessarv- to accomplish 201 

Forest protection, highly profitable investment for long-lived institution... 207 

Forest Protection in Canada, 1912, referred to 9, 50, 51, 100 

correction of 160 

Forest protection, on Dominion lands 250 

within forest reserves 250 

outside reserves 250 

Forest protection, publicity w-ork re, by B.C. Forest Branch 230 

292 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Forest protection (Co»<Jnwed) 84 

situation not materially changed ■■■■■,■■■; 230 

stolid indifference of people of eastern Canada re ^^^ 

Forest rangers, protection of reserves depends upon \ . . . . \^2 

Forest regions of British Columbia referred to 233 

Forest reservation, extension of, m pubhc '^^^l^^^:^^^^^^^^ 249 

Forest reserves, main value of to conserve forest cover ot wa ^^^ 

ForestReservesandParks Act, provisions of _ ^ 

Forest reserves and parks, total area of Dominion ^^^ 

Forest reserves, closed season for fires exists on ^ ^^ 

Forest reserves, Dominion, areas temporarily reserved • • • ^^^ 

Forest reserves in Manitoba, area of • • • ' • 237 

suggested management of " ' ' 93 

Forest reserves in Ontario, area of ■ '.'"''" ^ 240 

Forest reserves in Saskatchewan-Duck Mountam, No. 2. . . . • • • • • • • • ■ • • • • • ^^ 

Porcupine No. 2 240 

Moose Mountain 240 

Beaver Hills 240 

Nisbet "" 240 

Pines 240 

Fort a la Corne 9O 

Forest reserves, net area of Dominion • • -5 

Forest resources, investigation °^: ••' \- -■ [V :' '^ ','','. 228 

^Forests, recommendations re conditions m British Columbia ^^ 

Forest staff under Civil Service Commission •■•• ^^^ 

Forestation, subdivisions of, studied • • • • ^33 

Forested regions, west of prairies 233 

varieties of timber on ' ' , 

Foresw B anch, Dominion (see Dominion Forestry Branch). 

Forestry Branclr of Canadian Pacific Ry.,informafon furn.shed by /^ 

inventory of timber supplies -oP"at,on ,n re e^red to^_^^. ^-^^ -^-^ ^^ 
Forestry Branches, organization urgea m IN ew CI 

l:Z^ is business of handling timber l-<i--77|t T' '. '. '. '. ". : '. '. '• '. '. 231 

Forestry on Dominion Lands, by J. H. White, MA., B.bc. 1<. ... 

Forest^ on Dominion lands, anomalous situation m admimstration of . . . . • • ^91 

summary of gO 

Forestry on Dominion timber berths p2 

Forestry practice, technical features of U7 

Forestry Quarterly, quoted from • • • • _ 97 

Forestry, a well-developed science and profession ■••••••••• ^4 

Forest7;f northern coast of British Columbia, referred to ■■■■■■■■■/'^^ 

Forests, report of Committee on 240 

Fort a la Corne forest reserve 110 

Fort Fraser, reference to •••••■ . . 274 

Four-fifths of Canada is suited to tree growth only. • -^ 

FoZtk Annual Report of State Forester of M^nnesota, quoted .157 

France, forest experiment stations m, referred to 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGE 

Fraser River basin, classes of timber on area 110 

plans for burning slash area of 131 

precipitation records not dependable 110 

seventy-five per cent of area burned Ill 

Fraser river, classes of timber along 106 

Douglas fir in pine stands along 109 

Free permits, conditions of 269 

Fredericton and Grand Lake Coal and Railway Co 15 

Future production of pine 198 

GAME PRESERVES, establishment of, urged 84 

Game preserves in Alberta 96 

Game preserve in British Columbia, interference with development 96 

Game preserve, results limited without co-operation of British Columbia.... 96 

Game Preservation, report of Committee on 96 

Game preserve, representations to British Columbia re 99 

Gatineau river, referred to 95 

General description of Burleigh-Methuen territory, Peterborough Co., Ont. 171 
General order No. 107 4 

penalty for neglect to obey 71 

standard screens prescribed by 45 

General Superintendents of Canadian Pacific Ry.. letter to 69 

Geological Survey, estimates of coal deposits by 243 

Geological Survey Report, referred to 171 

Geology of the Haliburton and Bancroft Areas, referred to 171 

Germany, forest experiment stations in, referred to 210 

Gibson landing, referred to 216 

Gilmour, J. D., District Forester, B.C., report by 121 

Glacier National Park, Montana, referred to 84. 96, 248, 259 

Glacier, precipitation at 247 

Gladwin, W. C, assistant provincial fire inspector, B.C 36 

Glengarry and Stormont railway 11-13 

Gold mountain range, referred to 102, 261 

climatic conditions of 247 

Goodeve, A. S., Commissioner 4 

Good reproduction is not uniform - 228 

Goose lake, referred to 236 

Government is financially interested 273 

Government forest policy of British Columbia 114 

Government of province of British Columbia 4 

Government paid one-half cost of fire protection 202 

Government railways — recommendations of Committee on Forests, re 82 

Government railways, further action necessary on 74 

Government railways, resolution re being made subject to Railway Com- 
mission 83, 88. 98 

Grain-Growers' Associations, submission of draft order to 51 

conference with 55 

Grand rapids, referred to 251 

294 



INDEX 

PAGE 

11, 13. 20 

Grand Trunk railway ,"',"/'• 50 

co-operation in clearing up inflammable debris ^^ 

co-operative work in Algonquin park 3" U 12 13 20, 242 

Grand Trunk Pacific railway • ' ' ' ' '^29 

areas under permit along, examined m 1914 • • • • ^^^ 

construction of, referred to ^ ^ 

co-operation in experiments with coal ^ 

objections to provisions of Order No. 16,570 ^^^ 

fire-guarding of •_ ^^ 

orders issued by Board, granting authority. . . • 

railways requesting authority to enter upon lands ■-■ — ^ 

Great Northern railway ' ' ^7 

use of power speeders on 247 

Griffin lake, precipitation at, referred to ^^^ 

Ground fires occur in April and May • • 

Ground rent of Dominion lands in British Columbia 

Ground rent of Provincial lands in British Columbia ^o^ 

Growth of poplar, rate of (table VII) ^^^ 

Growth, rate of, dependent upon soil conditions ^^^ 

Growth studies in Burleigh township • ' .^^^ 

Growth studies, reasons for '230 

Growth studies upon young fir ^^ 20 

Guarantee Act, Canadian Northern railway • ' 

lines come under jurisdiction of Board under terms of «» 

Guarding timber berths from fire, provision re cost of • 

Gutches, G. A., District Inspector of Forest Reserves, report by 

. 14 
HA HA BAY RAILWAY ^^ ^^ 

Halifax and Southwestern railway.^ ' gg 

comes under Board's jurisdiction \" ' " 1- " 077 

Handling mature timber, continuance of present methods means exhaustion 273 

Hastings county, policy initiated by • ; 

Hemlock in British Columbia becomes predominant species ^^^ 

number of seedlings per acre ^19 

predominant, area in which • _ 

Herchmer, F. K, District Inspector of Forests, report by ^«^ 

Highwood River valley, area burned m -^^ 

best spruce originally occurred in 

Hof man. Dr., referred to ^^^ 

Hopping, Ralph, article by, quoted ^32 

Hudson's Bay Company, referred to 256 

rights of, referred to 233' 251 

Hudson bay, referred to ^ ' 242 

drainage to 251 

Hudson Bay junction, referred to • 

Hydraulic Summit, reference to Kettle Valley railway across 

295 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGI 

Howe, Dr. C. D., Ph.D., cost of detailed study by 76 

report on Trent Watershed by 79 

reproduction study in British Columbia 86 

The Effect of Repeated Forest Fires upon the Reproduction of Com- 
mercial Species in Peterborough county, Ontario, by 166 

Huckleberry barrens, referred to 187 

originally well stocked with pine 187 

IDAHO, climate referred to 108 

cost of brush disposal in 255 

Imports of lumber into Alberta and Saskatchewan 115 

Imposition of diameter limit, reason for 264 

Incongruity of uniform cutting regulations 264 

Increase in fire hazard through combustible material 102 

India, conditions in, referred to 164 

forest experiment stations in, referred to 210 

Indian Affairs, department of, clearing up by 50 

Indian Forest Memoirs, quoted from 164 

Indian Head, Sask., establishment of nursery at 258 

Indirect benefits of the forest 168 

Individual timber sale policy should be adopted 274 

Inflammable debris, legislation required to guard against 49 

Influence of density upon growth 230 

Influence of forest cover upon stream-flow 167 

Information furnished by British Columbia Forest Branch 75 

Information supplied by district inspector for Alberta 243 

Inspections by district foresters, procedure to be covered in reports 120 

Inspection, of fire protective appliances ■. 44 

of protection work b}' railway companies 252 

staff, efficiency and sufficiency of 2 

work, British Columbia 16 

Instructions to railway employees, satisfactory compliance bj' companies.. 44 

Insufficient protection provided in eastern Canada 39 

Intercolonial railway 14, 15 

much inflammable material on right-of-way 74 

special instructions to employees, referred to 88 

International railway of New Brunswick 15 

absorbed into Government Railway System 88 

fire patrols and thorough cleaning up required 88 

right-of-way clearing, attention needed 98 

Interior wet belt region 106 

classes of timber found on 106 

comparison with Coast fir region 107 

suffered severely from fire 107 

Interprovincial and James Bay railway 4 

Inventory, of forest resources of British Columbia 84 

of British Columbia commenced 75 

of British Columbia should be compiled 97 

of Saskatchewan 84 

296 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Inventory of timber supplies of British Columbia, referred to 83 

Inverness Railway and Coal Co.'s railway 1^ 

Investigation by J. C. Blumer ^^ 

into cost of top-lopping by EUwood Wilson and D. W. Lusk 140 

of Forest Resources ^'^ 

Irondale, Bancroft and Ottawa railway 11, 13 

comes under Board's jurisdiction °° 

JACK CREEK, referred to l/^l. 182 

James Bay and Eastern railway 11 

James river, district burned over 243 

Jasper park, referred to 1> 242, 259 

Jocko limits, statement re brush disposal on 139 

Jurisdiction, division of, in control of forests 80 

of Board of Railway Commissioners over railways 1, 3, 10 

KAMLOOPS, B.C., country near, referred to 247 

crown timber agent at, referred to 81, 216, 234, 253 

disposal of timber at, referred to 260 

district inspector at 259 

regulations governing yearly licenses 260 

Kamloops district, report on 12o 

broadcast burning on 125 

brush piled but not burned on 127 

details of cost of broadcast burning 126 

Kananaskis River valley, area largely burned 243 

Kasshabog lake, referred to 171, 172 

groups of pine in area west of 175 

Keewatin, early regulations governing permits in 266 

Kelowna district, B.C., irrigated lands under fruit in 123 

Kent Northern railway 15 

Kettle valley, forest growth restriction • 102 

considerable merchantable timber in 108 

Kettle Valley railway 11> 12, 20 

construction of, referred to 123 

excellent results secured on 38 

Klondike Mines railway 11> 12 

Koch, Elers, United States Forest Service, report by 147 

article by, referred to 163^ 

Kootenay and Alberta railway 11> 12 

Kootenay lakes, pine on slopes surrounding 106 

Kootenay valley, forest growth restriction 102 

considerable merchantable timber occurs 108 

LACK of technical supervision 82 

Lake Erie and Northern railway 11, 13 

Lake Huron and Northern Ontario railway 14 

Lake States, experience of, referred to 2/3 

297 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGE 

Large and medium trees not seriously injured by one fire 222 

■Lath, number manufactured 234 

Laurentian mountains, serious fires on 67 

Laurentian region, referred to 233 

Laurentian Co., experimental work by, referred to 139 

investigation on lands of 140 

Leaving of seed trees, provision for 262 

Leavitt, Clyde, Chapter on "The Railway Fire Situation" by 1 

introduction to Chapter on " Brush Disposal " by 100 

letters re fire guarding 51, 63 

letters of instruction to Canadian Northern railway re fire patrols 20 

referred to re broadcast burning 229 

repoi-ts of Committee on Forests by 72 

Legislation of British Columbia, reference to 253 

Lesser Slave lake, referred to 242, 245 

Lesser Slave Lake forest reserve, Alberta 237, 245 

timber conditions on 246 

varieties of timber on 245 

Letters prescribing patrols 20 

l^etter to operators on coast re brush disposal 115 

Licensed timber berths, regulations re cutting 92 

enforcement of cutting regulations on 98 

License is a yearly one, understanding re 262 

License to dispose of lumbering slash 265 

License regulations, present 261 

some amendments to 261 

Licenses, provisions re establishing mill to cut timber 261 

Lievre river, Que., referred to 95 

Limit-holders, assisted in furnishing information 75 

Lines brought under Railway Commission 88 

Little Red Deer, headwaters of, track overrun by fire 243 

Livingstone range, referred to 243 

Local organizations needed 68 

Locomotive fuel 44 

use of oil as such 44 

use of certain classes of western coal 44 

complaints re danger from use of 44 

?klines Branch, co-operation in investigation of by 44 

Commission of Conservation, co-operation in investigation of by 44 

Locomotives, fire protection, equipment for 45 

independent examination of 5 

instructions for operating 5 

use of lignite by 5 

use of oil fuel by 7 

Lodgepole pine, conditions of reproduction 245 

Logging without burning 221/ 

Logging with burning 222 

298 



INDEX 

PAGF. 

Xolo forest, Montana, conditions in 149 

contract with Mann Lumber Co. in, conditions of 150 

Xong Lake Forest reserve, referred to 248 

^Lookout, Man., cost of cottage for 203 

Lookout station suggested for Blue mountain ; 203 

•Lopping of tops, object of 254 

of doubtful value on Dominion lands 255 

Loss of stumpage values 199 

Xotbiniere and Megantic railv^^ay 14 

Low cost of collecting data in British Columbia 85 

Low rentals charged by Federal government, results of 263 

Lower Ottawa Forest Protective Association 95 

area protected by 95 

Lumber, amount consumed by Prairie provinces 234 

amount manufactured from licensed berths 234, 235 

amount manufactured from permit berths 234, 235 

amount manufactured under permit by homestead settlers 235 

number of mills operating 234 

number of portable mills operating 234 

Lumber cut on Dominion lands ; distribution of (table) 234 

Lumber dues on Dominion licensed berths practically stationary 262 

Lumber manufactured from tops 268 

Lumber industry of Prairie provinces 234 

of British Columbia 234 

Lumbering in Alberta, regulations governing 264 

Lumbering methods leave insufficient seed trees 264 

Lumbering, results of present system of 204 

Lumberman must be rewarded for his foresight 273 

Lusk, D, W., investigation on lands of Laurentide Co., by 140 

MABEE, J. P., Chief Commissioner, referred to 12 

MacFayden, C, District Forester, B.C., report by 127 

opinion re brush piling and top-lopping 129 

Mackenzie river, main watershed of 11 

Mackenzie River system, referred to 242 

MacMillan, H. R., Chief Forester, British Columbia 16 

letter of re brush disposal 115 

MacTier, A. D., General Manager, Canadian Pacific railway, letter of 69 

circular No. 8 issued by 71 

Maganetawan River railway 14 

Maine Central railroad 11-13 

Maine, laws re slash disposal in, referred to 49 

Management of Dominion timber lands, decision re 272 

Management, subdivision of 210 

-Manitoba, annual destruction of timber throughout 257 

areas of forest reserves in 237 

attitude of operators re fire protection 138 

boundary of, referred to 240 

299 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Manitoba {Continued) page. 

disposal of timber in, referred to 260 

early regulations governing permits in 266 

escarpment running through 232i 

estimate of spruce saw-timber in 86 

field inspection work in 252 

fire-guard construction in 66- 

fire ranging districts of 251 

forest conditions in 137 

forest fire laws of, referred to 232 

forest reserves of, referred to 240 

lake, referred to 236, 251 

lumber mills of and amount sawed 234 

major portion yet owned by Dominion 270 

mill sale price of spruce, referred to 262 

new forest reserves recommended in 79~ 

poplar lumber sawed in 239 

province of, formed 256 

railways subject to Board in 12 

rangers working under ancient legislation 271 

regulations for disposal of slash 138 

regulation governing yearly licenses 260 

regulations re disposal of timber referred to 261 

regulations re white spruce-aspen type of 264 

spruce forest of, referred to 241 

study of forest conditions on public domain of 80 

subdivision of land area 236- 

timber berths in 236 

tree planting urged in 257 

width of agricultural plain in 233 

Mann Lumber Co., contract with, referred to 150 

Many smaller fires occur 1 70 

Map, classification of species, referred to 103 

Maritime Railway, Coal and Power Company railway 15 

Market gardens from swamps 206 

Markets, plans for reaching the 207 

Marmora Railway and Mining Co 11-13 

Marshall, G. E., supervisor of Minnesota forests, quoted 152' 

Marsh hay makers responsible for fires 187 

Massachusetts, laws re slash disposal in, referred to 49 

Mature forests of British Columbia 214 

Mature timber largely pine north of Bow river 244 

Mclnnes Lumber Co., slash burning on limits of 121 

Medicine Bow forest, cost of burning on 154 

Mensuration, study of re forestry 211 

Methuen township, area burned but once in 174 

area burned three times in 183 

area examined in 168 

best pine reproduction on lowland 174- 

300 



INDEX 

jVIethuen township (Continued) page 

central and eastern portions of 171 

good farm lands in southern portion of 173 

growth studies in 192 

swamp areas of use for market gardens 207 

two severe fires on, referred to 179 

Michigan, brush disposal conditions in 152 

northern peninsula of, report on 162 

Michigan Central railroad 11, 13 

Millar, W. N., District Inspector of Forest Reserves, report by 132 

Mills, James, Commissioner, Railway Commission 4 

Minister of Lands, British Columbia, referred to 47 

Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, Ontario, referred to 48 

may order removal of fire danger 48 

Minister of Public Works, British Columbia, order issued by 132 

Minnesota, brush disposal conditions in 152 

cost of brush disposal in 255 

instructions for disposing of slash 158 

laws re slash disposal in, referred to 49 

State Forest Service, work of 157 

statement of Supervisor Marshall re 152 

state work in brush disposal in 157 

Mire creek, area burned near 244 

Mission creek, reference to watershed of 123 

Mississagi forest reserve, addition to 93 

Mistletoe, older trees attacked by 241 

Mitchell, J. Alfred, quoted 164 

Modern administration, working for continuity of crop 273 

Moncton and Buctouche railway 11. 14 

information re fire situation on 39 

Moncton, N.B., referred to 74 

Montana, climate of, referred to 108 

forests in 255 

Montreal lake, referred to 251 

Moose Jaw, permits issued by timber office at 267 

Moose lake, referred to 236 

Moose Mountain forest reserve 240 

creation of 257 

Morrissey, Fernie and Michel railway 14 

Motor boats, use of, for fire protection 68 

Mountain goats, preservation of 96 

Mountain sheep, preservation of 96 

Municipal Council may file statement re fire danger 48 

Murray, H. B., District Forester, supplemental statement by 129 

Murray, Sir George, reference to report of 80, 91 

Muskoka district, Ontario, referred to 39 

information relative to fires in 90 

301 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATIOK 

PAGE. 

NASS RIVER, watershed of 104, 105, 111 

Nation river, referred to 95, 110 

National Forests in Washington and Oregon 159 

National Transcontinental railway 14, 15 

special fire patrol established on 74 

Nature of investigation in British Columbia 213 

Natural reproduction of forest through control of cutting 80 

Necessity of burning slash and under-vegetation 229 

Nechako river, reference to drainage system of 110 

Nevada, cost of brush disposal in 255 

New and additions to forest reserves in Alberta recommended 78 

New and additions to forest reserves in British Columbia recommended 78 

New Brunswick and Prhice Edward Island railway 15 

New Brunswick Coal and Railway Co. railway 11, 14 

New Brunswick, action re provincially chartered railways recommended... 83 

diameter limit for cutting in 264 

dues on spruce in 262 

enforcement of legislation required in 74 

fire protection along C.P.R. lines in 67 

fire season of 1914 in 38 

fire situation in 67 

forest fire protective organization of 1 

has no forestry organization 97 

inventory of timber supplies, co-operation should be encouraged 83 

railways subject to Board in 14 

should be urged to appoint provincial forester 97 

standing timber on Crown timber lands of 76 

steam railways not subject to Board in 15 

New Brunswick Department of Crown Lands, oflficials appointed fire 

inspectors 7i 

New England, experience of, referred to 273 

New Hampshire, laws re slash disposal in, referred to 49 

New Jersey, laws re slash disposal in, referred to 49 

New Westminster, Crown timber agent at 81, 234, 253, 256 

New York, state law of, re top-lopping, referred to 100 

Nipissing Indian reserve, clearing up in 50 

Nisbet forest reserve 240 

Nisbet reserve, Saskatchewan, operations on 135 

Non-agricultural lands, setting aside of, for timber production 83 

withholding from settlement of 83 

North river, referred to 171 

North Saskatchewan river, referred to 240, 241, 242, 243 

North Shore railway 15 

North Thompson River watershed, referred to 106 

Douglas fir in pure stands along 109 

Northern Coast region, climatic conditions of 104 

Northern Forest Protective Association, work of 162 

302 



INDEX 

PAGE. 

Northern Interior region .' Ill 

climatic conditions of Ill 

condition of forest in Ill 

Northern New Brunswick and Seaboard railway 15 

Northern peninsula of Michigan, report on 162 

Northwest Territories, referred to Zod- 

annual destruction of timber throughout 257 

boundary of application of regulations shifted eastward 261 

disposal of timber in, referred to 260 

early regulations governing permits in 266- 

regulations governing yearly licenses 260 

regulations re disposal of timber, referred to 261 

tree-planting urged in 257 

Notes on situation in United States: Some suggestions on brush disposal.. 147 

Nova Scotia, action re provincially chartered railways recommended 83 

active co-operation in fire protection still pending 88 

co-operation delayed 1. 

enforcement of legislation required in 74 

fire season of 1914 in 38 

has no forestry organization 9T 

provincial forester, proposed appointment referred to 88 

railways subject to Board in T4- 

should be urged to appoint provincial forester 97 

steam railways not subject to Board in 15 

Number of poplar trees per acre and volume to be expected on the average 

acre after the next 30 years on the areas burned once (Table VII).. 194 

on areas burned twice (Table VIII) 195 

on areas burned three times (Table IX) 195 

on areas burned many times (Table X) 196 

Number of times area burned, how determined 169' 

Number of trees on sample strips burned after logging 224 

Number of trees per acre, referred to 178 

Numerical proportion of reproduction of various species on the average acre 

in order of the number of times burned (Table V) . .*. 190 

OAK barrens, area of 192 

Oak Lake settlement, referred to 172 

Objection to game preserve in British Columbia 96 

Officials of British Columbia Forest Branch appointed fire inspectors 73- 

Oil-burning engines, no fires caused by 44 

Oil-burning engines, installed by Grand Trunk Pacific railway 44 

Oil-burning engines, used on Canadian Pacific railway 44 

Oldman (Livingstone) river, referred to 243 

One burning after lumbering does not interfere with reproduction of pine.. 178 

Ontario, action re provincially chartered railways recommended 83 

area of forest reserves in 92 

brush disposal, nothing being done on Crown lands 158 

brush disposal, statement by Provincial department 139' 

303 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Ontario {Continued) page 

classification of land in " clay belt " of 83 

condition of forest reserve to be maintained 92 

conditions very unsatisfactory 68 

dues on spruce in 262 

enforcement of legislation required in 74 

fire inspection organization incomplete 39 

fire protection along lines of Canadian Pacific railway in 67 

fire season of 1914 in 38 

forest fire protective organization of 1 

ground rent per mile 263 

inventory of timber supplies, co-operation invited 83 

licensee bears the whole cost of fire protection in 263 

north-western, lumber supplied to Prairie provinces by 234 

planting operations on limited scale by 211 

present revenue from woods and forests in 92 

provision for disposal of road slash, referred to 89 

railways subject to Railway Commission in 13 

settlement of section of, serious consequences of 79 

steam railways not subject to Railway Commission in 14 

undesirable conditions, people living under 79 

Ontario Department of Cands, Forests and Mines, officials appointed fire 

inspectors 73 

Ontario Government, has only nucleus of forestry organization 97 

urged to further extend forest reserve area 98 

Operating Department of Railway Commission, referred to 73 

Operations in Alberta from which slash results 133 

Operations on licensed timber berths, provisions of license 231 

Operators complain of added responsibility by brush disposal 155 

Operators convinced of value of burning slash 115 

Order No. 16,570, Board Railway Commissioners 31, 72 

Orders 3,245 and 15,995, Board Railway Commissioners 51 

Oregon, coast regions of, referred to 103 

laws re slash disposal in, referred to 49 

national forest timber sales, disposal of slash on 159 

Organization, fire-protective 1,5 

Original pine forests will never be duplicated 178 

Ottawa and New York railway 11-13 

Otter creek, referred to 171 

Outside reserves, forest protection of lands 250 

Over-production of lumber in British Columbia 229 

Owners of mills may be granted permits 267 

Owners to permit fire-guarding, refusal of 65 

PACIFIC coast, forests of, referred to 102 

Pacific Great Eastern railway 14 

Paid permits, conditions of 269 

Palmer Bros. & Hemming, brush piling by, referred to • • • 128 

Park areas within reserves under separate administration 268. 

304 l^ 



INDEX 

PAGE 

T'arks Branch, Dominion, referred to 1 

creation of, referred to 259 

disposal of slash within, on old licenses 270 

field organization sufficient to handle work 81 

jurisdiction in enforcing regulations 81 

Parliament of Canada, legislative authority of 4 

Parsnip river, reference to drainage basin of 110 

reference to valley of Ill 

Pasquia hills, a forested watershed 11 

Peace river, reference to Ill, 242 

Peace River block, reference to Ill 

area of 232, 246 

Peace river countrj', referred to 251 

Peace River tributaries, referred to 241 

Pembina mountains, referred to 233 

Pere Marquette railway 11-13 

Permanent benefits to be derived 204 

Permanent field force composed of 259 

Permit for burning, non-existence of in Ontario 68 

Permit system very widely made use of 267 

Permits allowing removal of dead or fallen timber in parks 270 

Permits outside reserves, early regulations re 266 

Perpetuation of the forest, provisions to ensure 232 

Peterborough county, referred to 167, 168 

proj ect under consideration 208 

Pettis, C. R., Supt. of State Forests, New York, quoted 162 

Philipsburg Railway and Quarry Co. railway 15 

Physiographic conditions 171 

Piche, G. C, Chief, Quebec Forest Service, quoted 139 

Pine, in the Blue Mountain region 1 74 

possible future value of 167 

potential stumpage value of 167 

reproduction on burned areas (Table XI) 199 

Pines forest reserve 240 

Plan of survey carried out 169 

Plans for control of Burleigh-Methuen area 208 

Planting cost, details 151 

Plumas National forest, epidemic in 165 

Political interference results in weak administration 273 

Poplar lumber, amount sawed in Prairie provinces 239 

characteristics of 239 

potential value of existing stand 167 

Porcupine hills, a forested watershed 11 

area devastated 243 

Porcupine No. 2 forest reserve 240 

Porcupine Hills reserve, referred to 236, 238 

Porcupine mountain, referred to 233 

Portable sav.-mills should accompany tie and piling operations 268 

305 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGET 

Powell river, referred to 213, 216 

Power speeders, uses and limitations of 37 

Power to declare inflammable material public nuisance 47 

Prairie provinces, land in, referred to 232 

total estimate of spruce saw-timber in 86 

Present composition and average number of trees per acre on area severely 

burned once (table Ia) 175 

burned twice (table IIb) 182 

burned three times (table IIIa) 184 

burned many times (table IVa) 188 

Present regulations governing permits 267 

Preservation of natural resources 69 

Prevention and extinguishing of fires, instructions re 70 

Prince Albert, Sask., referred to 240, 251 

crown timber agency at 81, 234, 256 

district inspector at 259 

inventory of forest resources in district west of 75 

permits issued by timber office at 267 

Prince Albert Lumber Co., manager of, quoted 137 

Prince Edward Island railway 15 

Prince George, B.C., reference to 110 

Problem of burned pineries 168 

Problems resulting from slash and debris 102 

Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters, referred to 163 

Protection, cost of adequate 167 

good degree of, cost of 205 

Protection of forested watersheds 77 

Protection of forests, studies in 211 

Protection of watersheds 93 

Protective associations, efficient work by 68 

permits to burn issued by 68 

Provincial Forest Board of British Columbia, referred to 117, 118 

power to declare inflammable material public nuisance 117 

Provincial Forester, appointment of, Nova Scotia 1 

Provincial Government of Quebec, co-operation of local associations with.. 96 

Provincial Government's regulations re reduction of fire hazard ... 98 

Provincially-chartered railways (See also Railways not subject to Board).. 74 

Provision for clearing up old slashings 232 

Provisions affecting lumbering, should be enforced 84 

Public nuisance, power to declare inflammable material a 47 

Public Utilities Commission, Quebec 20 

Public Works Department of British Columbia, referred to 132 

Publicity as to the value of young growth 230 

Pulpwood, amount of material suitable for, small 167 

amount of, on area burned twice 183 

amount of, on area burned three times 186 

amount of, on unburned areas 187 

estimated yield per acre, on area burned once 194 

306 



INDEX 

Pulpwood {Contimied) PAGE 

on area burned twice 195 

on area burned three times 196 

on area burned many times 196 

forecasted yield thirty years hence 196 

loss of by repeated fires 167 

probable yield summarized 197 

yield of, on area 179 

yield of, per acre 167 

QUEBEC, classification of land in " clay, belt " 83 

co-operative fire protective associations of 201 

diameter limit for cutting in 265 

difficult conditions in 67 

dues on spruce in 262 

fire season of 1914 in 38 

fire protection along lines of Canadian Pacific railway in 67 

forest fire protective organization of 1 

forest reserves and parks in 92 

inventory of timber supplies, co-operation invited 83 

legislation, reference to 253 

licensee bears the whole cost of fire protection in 263 

planting operations on limited scale by 21 1 

province of, referred to 13, 14 

brush disposal, little consideration given to 139 

railways subject to Railway Commission in 13 

statement re forest conditions in 139 

steam railways not subject to Board in 14 

use of timber previously wasted 139 

Quebec and Lake St. John railway 11, 13, 20 

comes under jurisdiction of Railway Commission 88 

Quebec and Saguenay railwa}- 15 

Quebec Central railway 15 

Quebec Forest Protection Branch, officials appointed fire inspectors 73 

Quebec Forest Service has extensive organization 97 

Quebec, Montreal and Southern railway 11, 13 

Quebec Oriental railway 11, 13 

information re fire situation in 40 

Quebec Public Utilities Commission 20 

Queen Charlotte islands, forests of 104 

soil conditions of 105 

merchantable forests of 105 

Quesnel lake, classes of timber surrounding 106 

RABBITS, destruction by 241 

Railway Act of Canada, referred to 31, 252 

administration reorganized in 1912 130 

appointment of slash burner for 130 

Railway Belt district, area of 246 

broadcast burning only possible method 131 

307 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Railway Belt district {Continued ) page 

burning by forest officer 130 

climatic conditions of regions 247 

coast district of 253 

comparatively little alienated 247 

condition of forests on 129 

danger from clearing operations outside of 130 

government assumes responsibility of burning 131 

little agricultural land 247 

major portion yet owned by Dominion 270 

provisions for slash disposal 253 

Revelstoke district 253 

Salmon Arm district 253 

short seasons for slash bvirning with safety 131 

squatting exists throughout 249 

subdivisions of outside reserves 253 

tracts of country available for forest lands 78 

Railway Belt Forest reserves 248 

Glacier park reserve 248 

Yoho park reserve 248 

Long Lake reserve 248 

four additional reserves formed in 1913 248 

Railway Belt in British Columbia 129, 232 

Railway Commission. (See Board of Railway Commissioners.) 

Railway Commissioners, Board of 1-10 

Railway companies co-operating 253 

Canadian Northern Quebec railway 35 

Canadian Northern railway ' 21, 35 

Canadian Pacific railway (Eastern lines) 34 

Canadian Pacific railway (Western lines) 25 

Edmonton, Dunvegan & British Columbia railway 33 

Esquimau and Nanaimo railway 32 

Grand Trunk railway 35 

Grand Trunk Pacific railway 29 

Great Northern railway (British Columbia) 31 

Kettle Valley railway 32 

Temiscouata railway 35 

Victoria and Sidney railway ^^ 

Railway fire patrols, referred to 19 

relieving railway company from maintaining patrols 21 

Railway fire protection work 72, 87 

handicaps from outside rights-of-way 89 

Railway fire regulations by Board, referred to 87 

Railway Fire Situation, by Clyde Leavitt 1 

Railway Lands Branch, referred to 233 

Railways, Application of, to amend Order No. 16,570 4 

Railways in British Columbia subject to Railway Commission 12 

Railways in Canada not subject to Railway Commission 74 

308 



INDEX 

Hallways (Continued) page 

fire protection situation partly cleared up 88 

further action necessary on 74 

penalty for contravening regulations 8, 9 

precautions taken by within reserves 25 

steam, not subject to Railway Commission 14 

subject to Railway Commission, by provinces 12 

subject to Railway Commission in Alberta 12 

under jurisdiction of Railway Commission ■. 10 

Rapid erosion of the soil on ridges 172 

Rate of growth of poplar (table VII ,) 193 

Reaching the markets, plans for 207 

Rebate on stumpage dues for small logs 139 

Recommendations re forest conditions in British Columbia 228 

Recurrence of forest fires in British Columbia 213 

Red Deer town, referred to 251 

Red Deer river, forest fire conditions near 243 

Red river, main watershed of 77 

Red River valley, elevation of 233 

Reduction of fire hazard in Algonquin park - 89 

Reduction of railway fire hazard 89 

Re-establishment of pine trees retarded by fires 168 

Reforestation Act, referred to 167 

Refusal of land owners to permit fire-guarding 65 

Regional studies of types and forest conditions 211 

Regional types in Railway Belt 247 

Regulated burning of slash 228 

Regulations governing lumbering in Alberta 264 

Regulations, no policy calling for enforcement of 231 

Regulations of Board of Railway Commissioners, referred to 252 

Removal of slash to reduce fire hazard 117 

Repeated fires destroy seed trees 197 

Repeated fires destroy valuable species 87 

Re-planting of pine necessary 209 

Report on forest resources of British Columbia, referred to 85 

Report on slash disposal in Alberta 132 

Reports on fire dangers 117 

Representations to British Columbia re game preserve 99 

Reproduction of Commercial Species in the Southern Coastal Forests of 

British Columbia, by C. D. Hov/e, Ph.D 212 

Reproduction Study in British Columbia 86 

Requirements of regulations re disposal of debris 231 

Resolutions of Committee on Forests, 1914 97 

Results of 1912 substantiated 166 

Results of protection 203 

Results of present system of lum.bering 204 

Results secured by Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railway 3 

Revelstoke, referred to 261 

fire protection district 253 

309 



C O M .M I S S I O X OF CONSERVATION 

Revelstoke {Continued) page 

plans for burning slash in vicinity of 131 

Riding Mountain reserve, referred to 233 

creation of, referred to 257 

description of 237 

material cut in, under settlers' permits 238 

set aside as reserve 236 

varieties of timber on 237 

Right-of-way clearing 1, 45 

important factor in railway fire hazard 45 

constant attention required 45 

neglect of, and causes 45 

Right-of-way, clearing outside of 46 

conditions for burning on 7 

fires on, due to careless sectionmen 45 

fires on, resulting from cigars and cigarettes 45 

importance of rendering nearly fireproof 45 

to be kept free of combustible matter 7 

Rocky Mountain and Plateau region 108 

poor soil fertility and low supply of moisture 109 

situation and climatic conditions 108 

Rocky Mountain Forest Reserve, referred to 237, 241, 259 

description of 242 

forests, subdivision of 242 

immature timber stands on 245 

in Alberta, referred to 242 

mature stands of timber in 244 

park subdivisions of 242 

subdivision of area included in 242 

subdivision of, referred to 259 

Rocky Mountain House, referred to 241, 251 

Rocky Mountains, referred to 233, 246 

establishment of game preserve suggested 84 

forests of, referred to 102 

Root collar injured by fire 186 

Rouge river, referred to 95 

Ruperts Land, referred to 256 

Rutland and Noyan railway 11-13 

no fires on, in 1913 39 

Ryder, E. A., commissioner, department of fire claims, Boston and Maine 

railroad, quoted 49 

SALAL, undergrowth of 227 

Sales of timber by tender 269 

Salisbury and Albert railway 11, 14 

no fires on in 1914 40 

Salmon Arm fire protection district 253 

Salmon River and Northern railway 15 

Sandv lake, referred to 172 

310 



INDEX 

PAGE 

Saskatchewan, brush disposal instructions issued 135 

cost of top-lopping on tie-cutting operation 136 

detailed cost of brush disposal 135 

drainage system, area of 242 

estimate of saw -timber 85 

field inspection work in 252 

fire ranging districts of 251 

fire-guard construction in 66 

forest fire laws of, referred to 232 

forest reserves in 240 

improvements in forest reserves of 241 

inventory should be resumed 97 

inventory of forest resources in 75, 84 

lumber cut of 239, 242 

lumber mills of and amount sawed 234 

major portion 3'et owned by Dominion 270 

new forest reserves and additions to, recommended in 78, 79 

northern, forests of 242 

poplar lumber sawed in 239 

progress of inventory and area covered 85 

province of, formed 256 

railways subject to Board in 12 

rangers working under ancient legislation 271 

regulations re white spruce-aspen type 264 

results of cordwood operations in -. . . 135 

spruce forest of, referred to 241 

spruce resources much overestimated 85 

steam railway not subject to Railway Commission in 14 

study of forest conditions on public domain of 80 

varieties of timber on forest reserves of 240 

width of agricultural plain in, referred to 233 

■Saskatchewan river, referred to 240, 251 

main watershed of '' 

Saskatchewan valley, area burned in 243 

Schomberg and Aurora railway 11, 13 

Scientific Investigations 96 

Scott, D'Arcy, Assistant Chief Commissioner 4 

Scribner rule, referred to 198 

Second burning kills young forest 224 

Secretary of State for Canada, Northwest Territories placed under 256 

Seed carried by the wind, example of 226 

Seeds of Douglas fir and hemlock retain vitality for years 225 

Seed trees, repeated fires destroy 197 

Selkirk mountains, climatic conditions of 247 

Seriousness of fire damage realized 257 

Settlers granted permits to cut for own use 267 

Settlers' land, dangerous condition of 68 

Settlers' permits in Alberta, conditions attached to 133 

311 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

PAGR 

Severe fires reduce number of seed trees 198 

Shawanaga Indian reserve, clearing up in 50 

disposal of old slashings along Canadian Pacific railway line in 90 

Shawnigan lake, ages of trees found at 216 

Shingles, number manufactured 234 

Shuswap lake, referred to 247 

Sicamous, country near, referred to 247 

Sierra Nevada Mountains, bark borer in forests of 164 

Sif ton. Sir Clifford, referred to 72. 

Silvical studies, subdivided 211 

Silvicultural handling of forests, information on 168- 

Silvicultural investigations, headings classed under 211 

Situation in National forests in Minnesota, Michigan, South Dakota, 

Colorado and Wyoming 152 

Skeena river, watershed of, referred to 104, 105, 111 

Slash burning, best conditions for 122 

comparison of cost with loss caused by destruction by insects 16S 

in coniferous forests of California 229- 

Slash, cost of piling and burning 147 

Slashings along railway lines, voluntary clean up 47 

Slash disposal, as a fire-preventive questioned 134 

British Columbia contracts contain agreement re 271 

consideration of question necessary 231 

co-operative action for 49. 

matter of pressing importance 271 

on licensed berths in Alberta, not enforced 133- 

on timber leases and licenses in British Columbia 115 

report on in Alberta ' 132 

United States contracts contain agreement re 271 

Slash evil, greatest menace to safety of timber 271 

Slash, removal of to reduce fire hazard 117 

Small, M. C, of Laurentide Co., referred to 140" 

South America, reference to trade of 260- 

Southampton railway 15 

Southern coastal forests of British Columbia 214 

South Saskatchewan river, referred to 240, 242 

Spark arrester, expert employed to devise 95 

Special instructions to railway emploj^ees, issuing of 20" 

Special patrolmen in forest sections 69 

Spruce Woods reserve set aside 236, 238 

creation of, referred to 257 

Squatting, in connection with forest conservation 249 

St. John Valley railway 15 

St. Lawrence and Adirondack railway 11-13 

St. Martins railway 11-14 

no fires on in 1914 39 

St. Maurice watershed, referred to \39 

Start must be made in location of greater hazard 271 

312 



INDEX 

PAGE 

State work in Brush Disposal, Minnesota I57 

State work in Brush Disposal, Washington 160 

Statement of fire causes, by Boston and Maine railroad 3 

Steam railways not subject to Board 14 

Stebbing, Prof. E. P., English forester, quoted 164 

Stony lake, referred to 171 

Stubble fire guarding 55 

letter from Board re 55 

personal investigation of conditions 55 

conference held at Winnipeg re 55 

difficulties of 55, 

Study of forest conditions on public domain in Alberta 80 

Study of Forest Reproduction 76 

Stump diameter limit has no significance 264 

Suggested means of protection 203 

Summary of cost of brush disposal 149- 

Summary of fire reports 38 

Summary of fire-guard construction (table) 66 

Summary of forest conditions 190- 

Summary of timber areas in B.C Ill 

Supreme Court, final consideration of Order 16,570 by 4 

Superintendent of Dominion Parks, inspection in charge of 253 

Survey carried out, plan of 169 

Surveyor General, referred to 256 

urges the planting of trees 257 

Swamp areas of Burleigh-Methuen area 173 

Swamp lands in Manitoba 232 

Swan hills, a forested watershed ']^ 

valley slopes of, referred to 245 

Sydney and Louisburg railway 15 

TELEPHONE LINE, cost of 203 

Telephone lines badly needed 68 

Temiscouata railway 11, 13, 20 

no fires on in 1913 39 

Tete Jaune district, report on 127 

conditions attached to permits in 127 

free permits for timber for ties and other purposes 127 

leniency shown in enforcing of conditions 128' 

The Pas, country around, referred to 251 

Thousand Islands railway 11, 13 

Ties, number manufactured 234 

Timber and Grazing Branch, administration of timber berths by 92 

areas under jurisdiction of 232 

enforcement of regulations re licensed berths 269 

field staff limited 81 

jurisdiction over licensed timber berths 81 

no criticism of administration 82 

313 



COMMISSION OF CONSERVATION 

Timber and Grazing Branch (Continued) page 

responsibility of 81 

timber limits under jurisdiction of 231 

Timber, Mineral and Grazing Branch formed 256 

Timber berths in Saskatchewan, area of 240 

Timber famine in west, fear of 257 

Timber largely controlled by private capital 102 

Timber sale contracts of British Columbia contain agreement re slash 

disposal 271 

Timber sales and railway permits in British Columbia 114 

Timber should only be disposed of through timber sales 232 

Timber under license far in excess of market requirements 274 

Time required for slash to disappear 147 

Timiskaming and Northern Ontario railway 14 

Timiskaming country, fire protection in 68 

Top-lopping, necessary for good of the forest 141 

opinion of operator quoted re cost of 137 

situation in the Adirondacks 162 

Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo railway 11-13 

Toronto, market of, may be reached with produce 207 

Toronto University, Faculty of Forestry, referred to 86, 91 168 

Travel in the Coastal regions of British Columbia 212 

Tree growth in British Columbia ceases at about 7,000 feet altitude 244 

Tree planting, cost of I5l 

division, creation of 258 

in Manitoba and the Northwest 257 

Tree studies, subdivided 211 

Trees producing viable seed 178 

Trees of inferior value follow fires 168 

Trees per acre according to age by decades, Douglas fir 218 

per acre according to age bj'^ decades, cedar 220 

percentages of, cedar 218, 220 

Trent canal, help protect investment on 211 

protection of watershed of 79, 93, 94, 168, 208 

regulation of water supply of 79 

Trent river, referred to 171 

Trent Valley region, hardwood forests of 173 

Trent watershed, co-operation between governments suggested 83 

co-operation for fire-protection suggested 94 

co-operation urged in protection 98 

Crown lands practically all non-agricultural 93 

discussion respecting, referred to 93 

division of ownership of 93 

Dominion vitally interested 94 

investment in lands of, would be paying one 95 

little hope for provincial protection 94 

ownership of land in 80 

placing under Dominion Forestry Branch suggested 94 

protection and recuperation of 83 

314 



INDEX 

Trent Watershed (Continued) page 

protection of cut-over lands not considered worth while 79 

result of repeated fires 79 

suggested government conference re protection of 80 

suggested basis for taking over by Dominion 95 

survey of forest conditions of 166 

value of watershed protection as demonstration 94 

Trent Watershed Survey 79 

report on, referred to 171 

Trent Watershed Survey, referred to 166, 171, 205, 208 

Trespass, provision for dealing with 262 

usually punished by double dues 265 

Turtle Mountain reserve, segregated 236 

creation of, referred to •.< 257 

description of 239 

Types found within burns of various ages 169 

UNDER- VEGETATION, burning to remove 229 

classified 226 

luxuriant growth of 221 

result of on tree growth 221 

Unfavourable conditions for regeneration of forest 102 

Union Bay, referred to 213 

ages of trees found at 216 

United States, compared with Canada 3 

conditions in, used as basis for report 100 

co-operative fire protection in 96 

costs of brush disposal in 255 

educational work in Eastern States 95 

forest service of, investigations by 210 

forest experiment stations in, referred to 210 

lumber supplied to Prairie provinces, referred to 234 

National forests, administration of 210 

railway lines, fire protection by 3 

supply of timber to, referred to 75 

timber administration affords example 273 

timber sale contracts, referred to 271 

United States Forest Service, referred to. 147 

lack of funds to handle planting 151 

piling and burning slash on timber sales of 147 

results secured by, referred to 159 

statement by District Forester District No. 6 159 

Upper Ottawa, association proposed for 96 

timber suffered severely on 67 

Utah, cost of brush disposal in 255 

Utilization studies in forestry 21 1 

VALUE of forest as source of permanent employment 205 

Value of protection not appreciated 202 

315 



C O -M M I S S I O X OF C O X S E R V A T I O X 

PAGE. 

Vancouver, timber regulations for district of 260 

Vancouver Copper Co.'s railway 14 

Vancouver Island, climatic condition of 103 

eastern coast of, referred to 213 

merchantable forests of 105 

soil conditions of 105 

Vandine, Mr., opinion on cost of brush disposal 136 

Van Sickle settlement, referred to 172 

Variation in rate of growth, studies of, required 230 

Varieties of trees on area investigated in British Columbia 216 

Various methods of disposing of slash 254 

Velocipede vs. power speeder patrols 35 

Vernon district, burning of debris to protect equipment 123 

conditions in 123 

details of cost of burning of debris 125 

highly inflammable nature of watershed 123 

methods adopted in burning debris 124 

Victoria and Sidney railway 12, 20 

Victoria, B.C., referred to 86 

Victoria Terminal Railway and Ferry Co 12 

Vigorous production of Douglas fir in British Columbia 219 

WABASH railway 12, 13 

Washington, Board of Forest Commissioners of State, regulations of, 

referred to 161 

coast regions of, referred to 103 

effect of brush disposal on reproduction 161 

forest conditions of 161 

slash burning, co-operation of organizations in 162 

State Forest Fire Service, referred to 160 

state of, referred to 225 

United States Forest Service, work of, in 160 

Washington Forest Fire Association, referred to 160 

Waste land results from destruction of seed trees 225 

Water-power development referred to 93 

on Winnipeg river 84 

Waterton Lakes park, extension of in Alberta 96 

referred to 259 

Waterways, easy access to country by 68 

Weeks Law, educational work in L^nited States under 95 

Wellington Copper Co. railway 14 

Western Canada Power Co. railway 12 

no fires on in 1913 39 

Western cedar, conditions in w hich found 216 

Western Dominion railway 12 

Western hemlock, areas where it occurs 215 

White clover, follows severe burning 206 

316 



I X D E X 

PAGE 

White, J. H., cost of investigation by 76 

study of forest conditions on public domain by 80 

report by, referred to 91 

report on Trent Watershed by, referred to 79 

White Pass and Yukon railway 10, 12 

Whitford, Dr. H. N., investigation by 75 

cost of study of forest resources by Id 

work of, in British Columbia, referred to 84 

'Whole number of trees, one inch and above in diameter now present accord- 
ing to the number of times burned (diagram) 191 

Wider use of western coal 95 

'Width of agricultural plain in Alberta 233 

'Williscroft, Mr., opinion of re brush disposal 136 

Wilson, EUwood, Inspection on lands of Laurentide Co., by 140 

Winegar, B. M., Forest Inspector, C.P.R., report by 67 

Winnipegosis lake, sale of timber berths on 259 

Winnipeg, Man., Crown timber agent at 81, 234, 256 

lake, referred to 236, 251 

permits issued by timber office at 267 

"AVinnipeg river, referred to 236 

forest reserve in upper waters of, advocated 93 

water-power development referred to 84 

"Withholding from settlement of non-agricultural lands 83 

"Wood crop, small amount used or marketed 101 

"Woods, lake of the, watershed as forest reserve recommended 84 

watershed of, referred to 93 

Work in Saskatchewan discontinued 84 

Work of propagandist of fire protection 205 

Work on forest investigation in British Columbia 85 

Wyman, Thomas B., Secretary-Forester, quoted 162 

"Wyoming, brush disposal conditions in 152 

Forest Service takes charge of brush disposal 155 

'YALE, ground rent on lands situated west of 262 

timber regulations for district 260 

"Yellowhead Pass, climatic conditions of 108 

'Yellow pine region, classes of timber in area 107 

Yield of poplar 30 years hence on burned areas with estimates of its value 

and the loss in value by repeated fires (Table XII) 200 

"Yoho Park Forest reserve, referred to 248 

"York and Carleton railway IS 

Young forests of British Columbia 217 

Y'oung pine trees, one inch and above in diameter now present, according to 

the number of times burned (diagram) 191 

Young poplars, one inch and above in diameter, now present, according to 

the number of times burned (diagram) 191 

Tukon Territory, railways subject to Board in 12 

•317 



/ 



Bdg. Sec. 
SEP 9 1971 



SD Canada. Commission of 

4.21 Conservation. Committee on 

C2M6 Forests 

V.2 Forest protection in Canada, 

1913-19U 



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